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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115752, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174807

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Peganum harmala L. is a traditional medicinal plant used for centuries in folk medicine. It has a wide array of therapeutic attributes, which include hypoglycemic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. The fruit decoction of this plant was claimed by Avicenna as traditional therapy for urolithiasis. Also, P. harmala seed showed a clinical reduction in kidney stone number and size in patients with urolithiasis. AIM OF THE STUDY: In light of the above-mentioned data, the anti-urolithiatic activities of the seed extracts and the major ß-carboline alkaloids of P. harmala were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Extraction, isolation, and characterization of the major alkaloids were performed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques. The in vivo anti-urolithiatic action was evaluated using ethylene glycol (EG)-induced urolithiasis in rats by studying their mitigating effects on the antioxidant machinery, serum toxicity markers (i.e. nitrogenous waste, such as blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, urea, and creatinine), minerals (such as Ca, Mg, P, and oxalate), kidney injury marker 1 (KIM-1), and urinary markers (i.e. urine pH and urine output). RESULTS: Two major alkaloids, harmine (P1) and harmalacidine HCl (P2), were isolated and in vivo evaluated alongside the different extracts. The results showed that P. harmala and its constituents/fractions significantly reduced oxidative stress at 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o., as demonstrated by increased levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) in kidney homogenate as compared to the EG-treated group. Likewise, the total extract, pet. ether fraction, n-butanol fraction, and P1, P2 alleviated malondialdehyde (MDA) as compared to the EG-treated group. Serum toxicity markers like blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, uric acid, urea, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1), calcium, magnesium, phosphate, and oxalate levels were decreased by total extract, pet. ether fraction, n-butanol fraction, P1, and P2 as compared to the EG-treated group. Inflammatory markers like NFκ-B and TNF-α were also downregulated in the kidney homogenate of treatment groups as compared to the EG-treated group. Moreover, urine output and urine pH were significantly increased in treatment groups as compared to the EG-treated group deciphering anti-urolithiatic property of P. harmala. Histopathological assessment by different staining patterns also supported the previous findings and indicated that treatment with P. harmala caused a gradual recovery in damaged glomeruli, medulla, interstitial spaces and tubules, and brown calculi materials as compared to the EG-treated group. CONCLUSION: The current research represents scientific evidence on the use of P. harmala and its major alkaloids as an effective therapy in the prevention and management of urolithiasis.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Cálculos Renais , Peganum , Urolitíase , 1-Butanol , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cálcio , Oxalato de Cálcio/urina , Catalase , Creatinina , Éteres , Etilenoglicol/uso terapêutico , Etilenoglicol/toxicidade , Glutationa , Glutationa Peroxidase , Glutationa Redutase , Harmina , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Cálculos Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Magnésio , Malondialdeído , Peganum/química , Fosfatos , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Ureia , Ácido Úrico , Urolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Urolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Urolitíase/patologia
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115690, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075274

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xianglian Pill (XLP) is a classical Chinese medicine prescription applied for controlling ulcerative colitis (UC). Whereas, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present work was aimed to investigate the mechanism of XLP in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC via the Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4)/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The major components of XLP were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The ulcerative colitis model was induced by DSS in mice. 5-Amino Salicylic Acid (5-ASA) group and XLP group were intragastrically treated. Disease activity index (DAI) and colon length were monitored and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was conducted. Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-N and TLR4 expressions in colon tissues were visualized by immunofluorescence. TLR4 mRNA was measured by Real Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The expressions of NOD-like receptor thermal protein domain associated protein 3 (NLRP3), active-caspase-1, GSDMD-N, TLR4, MYD88, NF-κB, p-NF-κB, and the ubiquitination of TLR4 in colon tissues were detected by Western blot. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzyme activity was examined and serum inflammatory factors Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-18 were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). TLR4-/- mice were applied for verifying the mechanism of XLP attenuated DSS symptoms. RESULTS: The XLP treatment extended colon length, reduced DAI, and attenuated histopathological alteration in DSS-induced mice. XLP administration suppressed MPO activity and reduced the content of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-18 in serum. XLP also inhibited the expression levels of GSDMD-N, TLR4, NLRP3, active-caspase-1, MyD88, p-NF-κB/NF-κB in colon tissues of DSS-induced mice. TLR4-/- mice proved that TLR4 was involved in XLP-mediated beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: XLP might treat ulcerative colitis by regulating the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide , Animais , Caspases/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/metabolismo , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/farmacologia , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS)/uso terapêutico , Hematoxilina/metabolismo , Hematoxilina/farmacologia , Hematoxilina/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/farmacologia , Interleucina-18/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Peroxidase/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
3.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115689, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096349

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Xiao Chai Hu Tang (XCHT) derived from the classic medical book Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases) in the Eastern Han Dynasty, which has been widely used in China and other Asian countries for the treatment of inflammation and fibrosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP), but the therapeutic mechanism of XCHT in pancreatic fibrosis remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to evaluate the intervention effects and explore pharmacological mechanism of XCHT on inflammation and fibrosis in cerulein-induced CP model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five main groups, 10 animals in each: Control, CP model (50 µg/kg cerulein), high dose XCHT-treated CP group (60 g/kg XCHT), medium dose XCHT-treated CP group (30 g/kg XCHT) and low dose XCHT-treated CP group (15 g/kg XCHT). Different doses of XCHT were given to mice by gavage twice a day for 2 weeks after the CP model induction. Pancreatic tissues were harvested and the pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated by histological score, Sirius red staining, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) immunohistochemical staining. ELISA, IHC and RT-qPCR were performed to detect the expression of Vitamin D3 (VD3) and Vitamin D receptor (VDR) in serum and pancreatic tissues, respectively. The expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome related genes and molecules were assayed by WB, IHC and RT-qPCR. RESULTS: The pathohistological results demonstrated that XCHT markedly inhibited the fibrosis and chronic inflammation of cerulein-induced CP, indicated by reduction of collagen I, collagen III, α-SMA, and NLRP3 expressions. XCHT significantly increased VD3 and VDR expression while reduced the pancreatic NLRP3 expression. Correspondingly, XCHT decreased the levels of NLRP3 downstream targets IL-1ß, TNF-α and IL-6. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that XCHT suppressed the pancreatic fibrosis and chronic inflammation in cerulein-induced CP model by enhancing the VD3/VDR expression and inhibiting the secretion of NLRP3-assoicated inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Ceruletídeo , Pancreatite Crônica , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Ceruletídeo/efeitos adversos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Pancreatite Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Pancreatite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Pancreatite Crônica/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Vitamina D/efeitos adversos
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115741, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162543

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Pulsatilla decoction (PD), is an herbal formula commonly used for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) in clinical practice, but the mechanism of PD alters the colitis remains elusive. AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate the intervention effect of PD on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced UC based on gut microbiota and intestinal short-chain fatty acid (SCFAs) metabolism, and to investigate the mechanism of action of PD in treating UC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 3% (wt/vol) DSS-induced ulcerative colitis model in C57BL/6 male mice was used to evaluate the effect of oral PD in treating UC. The changes in gut microbiota in mice were analyzed by 16SrDNA gene sequencing, and the content of SCFAs in the intestinal contents of mice was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to analyze the expression of inflammatory cytokines in serum and colonic tissues, and western blotting (WB) was applied to analyze the expression of tight junction proteins in colonic tissues. RESULTS: PD can alleviate the symptoms of UC mice, Pulsatilla Decoction high dose treatment group (PDHT) shows the best effect. Compared with the DSS group, the PDHT had significantly lower body mass, disease activity index (DAI) score, colonic macroscopic damage index (CMDI) score, and pathological damage score, at the phylum level, the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased while that of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria decreased, at the Genus level, the abundance of Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae.NK4A136.group increased while that of Clostridium. sensu.stricto。, Escherichia. shigella and Turicibacter decreased. Compared with the DSS group, acetate, propionate, and total SCFAs in the PDHT with significantly higher levels. The concentrations of interleukin-1ß (L-1ß), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-17 (IL-17) decreased whereby the concentration of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased in the PDHT group. The expression levels of Occludin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), Claudin1, Claudin5, G protein-coupled receptor43 (GPR43) protein, and the relative expression of ZO-1 and Occludin mRNA were significantly increased PDHT group. CONCLUSIONS: PD has a good therapeutic effect on UC mice. The pharmacological mechanism is probably maintaining the homeostasis and diversity of gut microbiota, increasing the content of SCFAs, and repairing the colonic mucosal barrier.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Pulsatilla , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ocludina/metabolismo , Propionatos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 300: 115750, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162547

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Different Physalis plants have been widely employed in traditional medicine for management of diabetes mellitus. Previous studies with respect to the in vivo antidiabetic activity of Physalis plants illustrated that they improved glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats yet the mechanism of action of bioactive constituents of the different organs of Physalis plants on diabetes remains obscure. AIM OF STUDY: Our objective is to study the effects of the different organs of ground cherry (P. pruinosa) on diabetes in rat models and elucidate their mechanism of actions through serum pharmacochemistry combined to network pharmacology analyses and in-vivo testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Characterization of the constituents in the drug-dosed serum samples relative to the blank serum after treatment with different extracts was performed by UPLC -MS/MS technique. The absorbed metabolites where then subjected to network pharmacology analysis to construct an interaction network linking "compound-target-pathway". In vivo verification was implemented to determine a hypothesized mechanism of action on a STZ and high fat diet induced type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model based on functional and enrichment analyses of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome and Gene Ontology. RESULTS: Identification of a total of 73 compounds (22 prototypes and 51 metabolites) derived from P. pruinosa extracts was achieved through comparison of the serum samples collected from diabetic control group and extracts treated groups. The identified compounds were found to belong to different classes according to their structural type including withanolides, physalins and flavonoids. The absorbed compounds in the analyzed serum samples were considered as the potential bioactive components. The component-target network was found to have 23 nodes with 17 target genes including MAPK8, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Quercetin and withaferin A were found to possess the highest combined score in the C-T network. Integrated serum pharmacochemistry and network pharmacology analyses revealed the enrichment of leaves extract with the active constituents, which can be utilized in T2DM treatment. In the top KEGG pathways, lipid and atherosclerosis metabolic pathways in addition to T2DM pathways were found to be highly prioritized. The diabetic rats, which received leaves extract exhibited a substantial increment in GLUT2, INSR, IRS-1, PI3K-p85 and AKT-ser473 proteins by 105%, 142%, 109%, 81% and 73%, respectively relative to the untreated diabetic group. The immunoblotting performed for MAPK and ERK1/2 part of the inflammatory pathway studied in STZ induced diabetic rats revealed that leaves, calyces and stems extracts resulted in a substantial diminish in p38-MAPK, ERK 1/2, NF-κB, and TNF-α. Histopathological examination revealed that the hepatic histoarchitecture was substantially improved in the leaves, stems, and clayces-treated rats in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. Further, pancreatic injuries, which induced by STZ were dramatically altered by the treatment with P. pruinosa leaves, calyces and stems extracts. ß-cells in diabetic rats received leaves extract disclosed moderate insulin immunostaining with a notable increase in the mean insulin area%. CONCLUSIONS: The study in hand offers a comprehensive study to clarify the bioactive metabolites of the different organs of P. pruinosa. The basic pharmacological effects and underlying mechanism of actions in the management of STZ and high fat diet induced T2DM were specifically covered in this paper.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1 , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/análise , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina , NF-kappa B , Farmacologia em Rede , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Quercetina/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Estreptozocina , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115763, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183949

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the fatal complications of respiratory virus infections such as influenza virus and coronavirus, which has high clinical morbidity and mortality. Jinhua Qinggan granules (JHQG) has been approved by China Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of H1N1 influenza and mild or moderate novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an herbal formula developed based on Maxingshigan decoction and Yinqiao powder that have been used to respiratory diseases in China for thousands of years. However, the underlying mechanism of JHQG in treating infectious diseases remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study investigated the effects of JHQG on neutrophil apoptosis and key signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced ALI mice in order to explore its mechanism of anti-inflammation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of JHQG on survival rate was observed in septic mouse model by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg). To better pharmacological evaluation, the mice received an intratracheal injection of 5 mg/kg LPS. Lung histopathological changes, wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs, and MPO activity in the lungs and total protein concentration, total cells number, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MIP-2 levels in BALF were assessed. Neutrophil apoptosis rate was detected by Ly6G-APC/Annexin V-FITC staining. Key proteins associated with apoptosis including caspase 3/7 activity, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 were measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscope, respectively. TLR4 receptor and its downstream signaling were analyzed by Western blot assay and immunofluorescence, respectively. RESULTS: JHQG treatment at either 6 or 12 g/kg/day resulted in 20% increase of survival in 20 mg/kg LPS-induced mice. In the model of 5 mg/kg LPS-induced mice, JHQG obviously decreased the total protein concentration in BALF, wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs, and lung histological damage. It also attenuated the MPO activity and the proportion of Ly6G staining positive neutrophils in the lungs, as well as the MIP-2 levels in BALF were reduced. JHQG inhibited the expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL and enhanced caspase-3/7 activity, indicating that JHQG partially acted in promoting neutrophil apoptosis via intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were significantly declined in LPS-induced mice treated with JHQG. Furthermore, JHQG reduced the protein expression of TLR4, MyD88, p-p65 and the proportion of nuclei p65, suggesting that JHQG treatment inhibited TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSION: JHQG reduced pulmonary inflammation and protected mice from LPS-induced ALI by promoting neutrophil apoptosis and inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway, suggesting that JHQG may be a promising drug for treatment of ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , COVID-19 , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Camundongos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Neutrófilos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Proteína de Sequência 1 de Leucemia de Células Mieloides/uso terapêutico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Apoptose
7.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115799, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216196

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Sophora flavescens is a frequently used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of skin disorders, diarrhea, vaginal itching and inflammatory diseases. In particular, the root of S. flavescens combination with other herbs mainly treat eczema ailment in the clinical applications. However, a holistic network pharmacology approach to understanding the mechanism by which alkaloids in S. flavescens treat eczema has not been pursued. AIM OF THE STUDY: To examine the network pharmacological potential effect of S. flavescens on eczema, we studied the alkaloids, performed protein targets prediction and investigated interacting signal pathways. Furthermore, animal experiment was carried out to evaluate its efficacy and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR) analysis was explored the mechanism of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The detail information on alkaloids from S. flavescens were obtained from a handful of public databases on the basis of oral bioavailability (OB ≥ 30%) and drug-likeness (DL ≥ 0.18). Then, correlations between compounds and protein targets were linked using the STRING database, and targets associated with eczema were gathered by the GeneCards database. Human genes were identified and subjected to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis. Particularly, matrine, the crucial alkaloid from S. flavescens, was estimated using a 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced eczema Kunming (KM) mice model, administered (50 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) to mice for 22 days. On the last day, the activities of serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and histopathologic examinations were determined. For further to elucidate the mechanisms, the mRNA levels of TNF-α, STAT3, TP53, AKT1, IL-6, JUN and EGFR in dorsal skin tissues were also tested. RESULTS: Network analysis collected and identified 35 alkaloids from S. flavescens. Among them, in total 10 dominating alkaloids, including matrine, oxymatrine, sophoridine, sophocarpine, oxysophocarpine, allomatrine, sophoramine, anagyrine, cytisine and N-methylcytisine. And 71 related targets were provided of alkaloids for the treatment of eczema from S. flavescens. Furthermore, matrine dose-dependently (50 or 10 mg/kg, 22 days, apply to dorsal skin) remarkable decreased the serum levels of TNF-α and IL-4, and significantly alleviated the skin lesions. The effects of 50 mg/kg of matrine were almost identical to those of 200 mg/kg of the positive drug dexamethasone (DXM). The further RT-qPCR analyses could reveal that matrine down-regulate TNF-α, STAT3 and TP53 at transcriptional level in dorsal skin tissues. CONCLUSION: Pharmacological network analysis can utilize to illuminate the pharmacodynamic substances and the potential molecular mechanism of S. flavescens for treating eczema. Matrine, as the crucial alkaloid from S. flavescens, could be a promising drug candidate for the treatment of eczema ailment.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Eczema , Sophora , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Interleucina-4 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Farmacologia em Rede , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Alcaloides/análise
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115818, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36220509

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gentiana purpurea was one of the most important medicinal plants in Norway during the 18th and 19th centuries, and the roots were used against different types of gastrointestinal and airway diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the content of bioactive compounds in a water extract from the roots, a preparation commonly used in traditional medicine in Norway, to assess the anti-inflammatory potential, and furthermore to quantify the major bitter compounds in both roots and leaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: G. purpurea roots were boiled in water, the water extract applied on a Diaion HP20 column and further fractionated with Sephadex LH20, reverse phase C18 and normal phase silica gel to obtain the low molecular compounds. 1D NMR, 2D NMR, and ESI-MS were used for structure elucidation. HPLC-DAD analysis was used for quantification. The inhibition of TNF-α secretion in ConA stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. RESULTS: Eleven compounds were isolated and identified from the hot water extract of G. purpurea roots. Gentiopicrin, amarogentin, erythrocentaurin and gentiogenal showed dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-α secretion. Gentiopicrin is the major secondary metabolite in the roots, while sweroside dominates in the leaves. CONCLUSIONS: The present work gives a comprehensive overview of the major low-molecular weight compounds in the water extracts of G. purpurea, including metabolites produced during the decoction process, and show new anti-inflammatory activities for the native bitter compounds as well as the metabolites produced during preparation of the crude drug.


Assuntos
Gentiana , Gentiana/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Água , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Extratos Vegetais , Raízes de Plantas/química , Anti-Inflamatórios , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise
9.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115804, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228892

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The ancient Chinese medicine book "Huangdi Neijing" reports that "the brain is the sea of marrow" and that the kidney "mainly induces bones to produce marrow". Therefore, Chinese medicine has a "kidney-brain axis" theory, but supporting evidence is lacking. In this study, curculigoside, the main component of the kidney-tonifying drug Rhizoma Curculiginis, was used to explore whether a kidney-tonifying drug could regulate the pathological state of the brain. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the efficacy of curculigoside in protecting against ischemic brain injury (IBI) through the regulation of oxidative stress and NF-κB and PI3K/Akt expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to induce IBI in rats, and curculigoside was administered. The degree of IBI, morphological changes and severity of nerve injury (using neurological severity scores; NSSs) in the rats were assessed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate changes in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1ß, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), NF-κB, PI3K and Akt levels. RESULTS: Curculigoside significantly alleviated behavioral deficits and reduced the degree of cerebral ischemia in the rats. After curculigoside treatment, the levels of H2O2, NO, MDA, NOS, iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1ß, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and NF-κB in the ischemic area of the brain were significantly reduced. The activities of CAT, SOD, PI3K and Akt were significantly increased. CONCLUSION: Curculigoside is a potentially effective drug for the treatment of IBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , NF-kappa B , Ratos , Animais , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Estresse Oxidativo , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder that includes positive and negative symptoms but also debilitating cognitive deficits. Current pharmacological interventions do not target these deficits. Recent evidence suggests a connection between some inflammatory markers (including C-reactive protein) and cognitive impairment, but did not address other inflammatory markers. In the current study, we try to fill the gap by focusing on the association of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and CRP with cognitive dysfunction. METHODS: PUBMED and Web of Science databases were searched for all studies published until July 2022. A total of 25 studies were included in an analysis of the association between cognitive performance and variation in IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and CRP. RESULTS: A total of 2398 patients were included in this study. Meta-analyses results showed a significant inverse relationship between performance in five cognitive domains (attention-processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal and visual learning and memory) and systemic IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and CRP plasma levels in patients with schizophrenia. The meta-analyses results showed a significant decline in the cognitive performances with the evaluated inflammatory markers with effect sizes ranging from -0.136 to -0.181 for IL-6, -0.188 to -0.38 for TNF-α -0.372 to -0.476 for IL-1ß and - 0.168 to -0.311 for CRP. CONCLUSION: Findings from the current study shows that cognitive deficits are reflective of elevated proinflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α and CRP) levels. The results obtained indicate relatedness between inflammation and cognitive decline in patients with schizophrenia. Understanding the underlying pathways between them could have a significant impact on the disease progression and quality of life in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Qualidade de Vida , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Inflamação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is scientific evidence of the presence of immunometabolic alterations in major depression, not all patients present them. Recent studies point to the association between an inflammatory phenotype and certain clinical symptoms in patients with depression. The objective of our study was to classify major depression disorder patients using supervised learning algorithms or machine learning, based on immunometabolic and oxidative stress biomarkers and lifestyle habits. METHODS: Taking into account a series of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers (C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and glutathione), metabolic risk markers (blood pressure, waist circumference and glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol levels) and lifestyle habits of the participants (physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption), a study was carried out using machine learning in a sample of 171 participants, 91 patients with depression (71.42% women, mean age = 50.64) and 80 healthy subjects (67.50% women, mean age = 49.12). The algorithm used was the support vector machine, performing cross validation, by which the subdivision of the sample in training (70%) and test (30%) was carried out in order to estimate the precision of the model. The prediction of belonging to the patient group (MDD patients versus control subjects), melancholic type (melancholic versus non-melancholic patients) or resistant depression group (treatment-resistant versus non-treatment-resistant) was based on the importance of each of the immunometabolic and lifestyle variables. RESULTS: With the application of the algorithm, controls versus patients, such as patients with melancholic symptoms versus non-melancholic symptoms, and resistant versus non-resistant symptoms in the test phase were optimally classified. The variables that showed greater importance, according to the results of the area under the ROC curve, for the discrimination between healthy subjects and patients with depression were current alcohol consumption (AUC = 0.62), TNF-α levels (AUC = 0.61), glutathione redox status (AUC = 0.60) and the performance of both moderate (AUC = 0.59) and vigorous physical exercise (AUC = 0.58). On the other hand, the most important variables for classifying melancholic patients in relation to lifestyle habits were past (AUC = 0.65) and current (AUC = 0.60) tobacco habit, as well as walking routinely (AUC = 0.59) and in relation to immunometabolic markers were the levels of CRP (AUC = 0.62) and glucose (AUC = 0.58). In the analysis of the importance of the variables for the classification of treatment-resistant patients versus non-resistant patients, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) variable was shown to be the most relevant (AUC = 0.67). Other immunometabolic variables were also among the most important such as TNF-α (AUC = 0.65) and waist circumference (AUC = 0.64). In this case, sex (AUC = 0.59) was also relevant along with alcohol (AUC = 0.58) and tobacco (AUC = 0.56) consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in our study show that it is possible to predict the diagnosis of depression and its clinical typology from immunometabolic markers and lifestyle habits, using machine learning techniques. The use of this type of methodology could facilitate the identification of patients at risk of presenting depression and could be very useful for managing clinical heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Aprendizado de Máquina , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Tabaco , Glutationa
12.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 241-246, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence of associations between psychological symptoms and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α level is scant, as is evidence on sex differences in associations for children and adolescents with obesity. This study examined sex differences in associations between psychological symptoms (self-concept, anxiety, depression, anger, and disruptive behavior) and TNF-α level in Taiwanese children and adolescents with healthy weight, overweight, or obesity. METHODS: In 2010, 564 first, fourth, and seventh graders-comprising 250 children with overweight or obesity (44.3 %), 330 adolescents (58.5 %), and 303 males (53.7 %)-underwent a health examination and blood sampling and completed a questionnaire. RESULTS: A significantly higher TNF-α level was found in children and adolescents with healthy weight than in those with overweight or obesity (median: 14.5 vs. 4.1 (pg/mL); p < 0.001). In multiple linear regression models, anxiety was significantly positively associated with TNF-α level in female participants with healthy weight (ß = 0.11 per 10 increments in anxiety, 95 % confidence interval = 0.01-0.22). LIMITATIONS: Given the cross-sectional nature of the study, no inferences of causal relationships among TNF-α level, obesity, and psychological symptoms could be made. CONCLUSIONS: The findings enrich the literature on the TNF-α-psychological symptom association. Sex differences were found in children and adolescents without obesity rather than in those without obesity, and a higher TNF-α level was associated with increased anxiety in girls without obesity. The role of sex differences in the complex associations among psychological symptoms, TNF-α level, and overweight or obesity requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Feminino , Masculino , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Caracteres Sexuais , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1869(1): 166564, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181981

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and its consequences are among the biggest challenges facing the healthcare system. Uterine leiomyomas are the most common gynecologic tumors. The risk of leiomyoma increases with obesity, but the underlying mechanisms of this association remain unclear. The aim of the present study to determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which adipocyte contributes to both leiomyoma tumor initiation and promotion. METHODS: Primary myometrium and leiomyoma cells were isolated from patients who underwent a hysterectomy or myomectomy. Pro-inflammatory, fibrotic, and angiogenic factors were measured using a multiplex cytokine array in human primary and immortalized myometrial and leiomyoma cells cocultured with human adipocyte (SW872) cells, or in animal ELT3 leiomyoma cells cocultured with 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. The free fatty acids (FFAs) and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) levels were measured using immunofluorescence assays. Other protein abundances were determined using western blots. The expression levels of TNF-α, MCP-1, phospho-NF-κB, TGFß3 and VEGF-A in lean and obese in different leiomyoma patients were determined by immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: Adipocytes promote inflammation, fibrosis, and angiogenesis in uterine leiomyoma cells by upregulating associated factors, such as IL-1ß, TNF-α, MCP-1, GM-CSF, TGF-ßs, PLGF, VEGF, HB-EGF, G-CSF and FGF2. Coculture led to the transfer of FFAs and FABP4 from adipocytes to leiomyoma cells, suggesting that adipocytes may modulate metabolic activity in these tumor cells. Increased levels of FFA and FABP4 expressions were detected in obese leiomyoma tissue compared to lean. The adipocyte-leiomyoma cell interaction increased the phospho-NF-κB level, which plays a key role in inflammation, restructuring metabolic pathways, and angiogenesis. Obese leiomyoma patients expressed a higher amount of TNF-α, MCP-1, phospho-NF-κB, TGFß3 and VEGF-A than lean leiomyoma patients, consistent with in vitro findings. Furthermore, we found that adipocyte secretory factors enhance leiomyoma cell proliferation by increasing PCNA abundance. Finally, the inhibition of the inflammatory factors TNF-α, MCP-1, and NF-κB abrogated the adipocyte coculture-induced proliferation of leiomyoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adipocytes release inflammatory, fibrotic, and angiogenic factors, along with FFAs, which contribute to a tumor-friendly microenvironment that may promote leiomyoma growth and can represent a new target for leiomyoma prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Leiomioma , NF-kappa B , Humanos , Animais , Feminino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Leiomioma/metabolismo , Leiomioma/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Fibrose , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
J Invest Surg ; 36(1): 1-7, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350036

RESUMO

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis is essential for the progression of multiple diseases, but its role in SAP-induced AKI remains unknown.Aims: This research investigated whether caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis is involved in SAP-induced AKI and whether inhibiting caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis improves SAP-induced AKI.Methods: A rat model of SAP with AKI was established by slowly injecting 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct, then wedelolactone (25 or 50 mg/kg), an inhibitor of caspase-11, was injected through the intra-peritoneum 1 and 6 h after SAP induction. Serum biochemical indexes, including serum amylase, lipase, interleukin (IL)-6, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and creatinine (Cr) in rats, were evaluated using biochemical test kits. Caspase-11 and gasdermin D (GSDMD) expression in the kidney tissues was evaluated by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. IL-1ß and IL-18 levels in kidney tissues were detected by ELISA kits. Furthermore, histopathological alterations of pancreas and kidney were assessed by H&E staining.Results: The serum biochemical indexes and pyroptosis-related proteins in kidney tissues were significantly increased after SAP induction. Furthermore, wedelolactone decreased the expression of pyroptosis-linked proteins in kidney tissues, reduced serum lipase, amylase, IL-6, TNF-α, BUN, and Cr, and ameliorated the renal and pancreatic histological damage in SAP rats.Conclusion: Caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis contributes to SAP-induced AKI, and targeting caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis might be a novel treatment strategy for SAP-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Pancreatite , Ratos , Animais , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/tratamento farmacológico , Piroptose , Caspases/efeitos adversos , Doença Aguda , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Creatinina , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Amilases , Interleucina-6 , Lipase
15.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115758, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36167232

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As a traditional medicine, seeds of Ginkgo biloba L. (Gbs) have been used to treat cough or asthma for a long time. It is commonly used in clinic for lung diseases. However, its mechanism of lung protection is not completely clear. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This research was designed to explore the protective effects of Gbs on antioxidant and inflammation during the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathological process provoked by cigarette smoking (CS) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six random groups including control group, CS model group, Gbs intervention groups (25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg) and aminophylline group were composed of forty-eight rats. Smoking and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used to establish the COPD rat model. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for quantifying the inflammatory factors such as IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 and TNF-α. Western blotting were used for detecting the protein expressions of Nrf2, Keap1 and HO-1 in the lung tissues. RESULTS: Gbs inhibits lung histological changes and decreased the inflammatory factors in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum of CS-exposed rats, including IL-10, IL-17, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Gbs also inhibited the MDA level, increased SOD and GSH-PX activity in serum and changed expressions of Nrf2, Keap1 and HO-1 in the lung tissues. CONCLUSION: Gbs inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation induced by cigarette smoke in COPD rats through the Nrf2 Pathway.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Animais , Ratos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Ginkgo biloba , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/metabolismo , Pulmão , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115765, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195303

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mesua Assamica (King & prain) Kosterm. (MA) is an evergreen endemic medicinal tree available in Assam in India and other parts of south Asia. The bark of the plant is traditionally used for ant-malarial activity and treating fevers. It was reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer and anti-malarial properties, but no research findings have been reported about its protective activity on intestinal inflammatory disorders like ulcerative colitis (UC) yet. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the anti-ulcerative property of ethanolic extract of MA (MAE) in-vitro on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and in-vivo chronic restraint stress aggravated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced UC model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical constituents of MAE were identified by LC-MS/MS. The in-vitro effects of MAE on GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells stimulated with TNF-α 30 ng/ml were investigated for its potential therapeutic effects. Parameters such as body weights, behavioural, colonoscopy, colon lengths and spleen weights were measured and recorded in chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced UC model in C57BL/6 mice. Histological, cytokines and immunoblotting analysis in the colon tissues were determined to prove its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. RESULTS: MAE poses significant anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in-vitro in GloResponse™ NF-кB-RE-luc2P HEK 293 cells evidenced by DCFDA and immunoflourescence assay. MAE treatment at 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days has reduced Disease activity Index (DAI), splenomegaly and improved the shortened colon length and sucrose preference in mice. MAE treatment has increased the levels of anti-oxidants like GSH and reduced the levels of MDA, MPO and nitrite levels in colon tissues. Moreover, MAE has ameliorated neutrophil accumulation, mucosal and submucosal inflammation and crypt density evidenced by histopathology. Furthermore, MAE treatment significantly reduced the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-6, IL-1ß and TNF-α. we found from immunoblotting that there is a concomitant decrease in protein expression of NF-κB, STAT3 signalling cascades and phosphorylation of IKBα with an increase in Nrf2, SOD2, HO-1 and SIRT1 in colon tissues. In addition, we have performed molecular docking studies confirming that phytochemicals present in the MAE have a stronger binding ability and druggability to the NF-κB, Nrf2 and SIRT1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: MAE exhibited significant anti-colitis activity on chronic restraint stress aggravated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis via regulating NF-κB/STAT3 and HO-1/Nrf2/SIRT1 signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , NF-kappa B , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana , Células HEK293 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Casca de Planta/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115781, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195302

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In traditional Chinese folk medicine, Artemisia argyi H.Lév. & Vaniot (A. argyi) has been used for thousands of years, and it is clinically used to treat bronchitis and asthma. However, the mechanism of action of A. argyi on respiratory tract inflammation is not clear. Accumulating evidence that phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3) is actively expressed in inflammation. Here, we found that iso-seco-tanapartholide (IST), a sesquiterpene isolated from A. argyi, exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity and significant inhibition of PFKFB3 expression. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of IST on airway inflammation and revealed its possible mechanisms. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanism of IST in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro, RAW264.7 cells and BMDMs were stimulated with LPS, and the level of NO and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were detected by Griess reagent and ELISA, respectively. The effect of IST on the levels of PFKFB3 and its downstream proteins (p-STAT3, p-p65) in cells was assayed by western blotting. Lactate and glycolytic phenotypes were detected by lactate kit and Seahorse assay. In vivo, a mouse model of acute lung injury was induced by LPS, and the levels of inflammatory factors were measured by ELISA. Expression of PFKFB3 and its downstream proteins (p-STAT3, p-p65) in mouse alveolar macrophages by western blotting analysis. Lung permeability assessment by Evans Blue dye assay. H&E staining and Immunocytochemistry were used to observe the protection of IST against lung injury. RESULTS: IST significantly reduced LPS-induced expression of PFKFB3 and its downstream proteins (p-STAT3, p-p65). The inhibition of PFKFB3 has an impact on the glycolytic phenotype, such as a reduction in the rate of extracellular acidification (ECAR) and elevated lactate levels, and an increase in the rate of cellular oxygen consumption (OCR). Furthermore, IST inhibited LPS-induced NO release and increased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6. In vivo, IST reduced pulmonary edema in LPS-induced acute lung injury, improved lung function, and reduced levels of inflammatory factors and lactate secretion. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IST improves the characteristics of ALI by inhibiting the expression of the PFKFB3-mediated glycolytic pathway and may be a potential anti-inflammatory agent for inflammation-related lung diseases.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda , Artemisia , Animais , Camundongos , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lactatos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Pulmão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115790, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208821

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Coriolus versicolor (CV) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 2000 years as a premium medicine for enhancing good health and longevity. The immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects of polysaccharopeptides (PSP) from cultured CV have been extensively studied; however, the effect and the mechanism of action of other small molecules from CV remain unknown. AIM OF THE STUDY: we aim to examine the immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects of the small molecules from CV (SMCV) and identify the active compounds that are responsible for the biological effects against glioblastoma multiforme cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of SMCV/active compound on cytokine and MMP mRNA expressions and productions were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. An active compound from SMCV was identified with a bioassay-guided fractionation scheme. The potential mode of action of the active compound was further investigated by identifying the cell signaling pathway. The protein expressions of phospho-ERK, phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 MAPKs were measured by Western Blotting. The anti-invasive effect of SMCV/bioactive compound against T98G, lung carcinoma (A549), and breast adenocarcinoma (MDA-MB-231) cells were determined using invasion assay. RESULTS: Our results showed that SMCV had strong immunomodulatory effect by suppressing LPS-induced TNF-α production, whereas increasing poly I:C-induced IFN-ß level in PBMac. SMCV not only possessed indirect anti-cancer effect by suppressing TNF-α-induced MMP-3 production in glioblastoma T98G cells, but also directly reduced the invasion ability of malignant cells including T98G, A549 and MDA-MB-231. Using bioassay-guided fractionation scheme, we isolated 9-KODE methyl ester (compound AM) that was responsible for the bioactivity of SMCV. This compound suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-3 production in T98G cells and the suppression may be correlated with the inactivation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Moreover, compound AM also directly reduced T98G cell invasion. CONCLUSION: Results of our present study provides scientific evidence that SMCV possesses immunomodulatory and anti-cancer effects. Its bioactive compound, compound AM, is a potential new drug candidate against the invasion and metastasis of glioblastoma cells.


Assuntos
Glioblastoma , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Humanos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Metástase Neoplásica
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115802, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209953

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Thousands of years of clinical practice in the treatment of joint-related diseases support the efficacy and safety of Wutou decoction (WTD). Nevertheless, the lack of pharmacological evidence and unclear mechanisms make it difficult for WTD to become a recognized complementary therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effect of WTD against synovial inflammation in RA and whether this effect depends on the regulation of macrophage polarization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. WTD with low and high doses was administered for 45 days. RAW264.7 cells were stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interleukin (IL)-4 to polarize M1 and M2 macrophages, which were pre-treated with WTD extract for 4 h. The anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory effects of WTD were studied using arthritis score, histopathological staining, immunostaining, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The polarization state of RAW264.7 cells and related pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines was detected by ELISA, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to investigate the effect of WTD on nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) activation both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: WTD significantly reduced the arthritis score and the pathological damage of the knee joint and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-6 in serum, TNF-α, IL-1ß, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) in the knee synovium. WTD inhibited M1 type polarization and promoted M2 type polarization, both in vitro and in vivo, and reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Experiments showed that WTD inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB and downstream p38 in the synovium of CIA rats and LPS-induced M1 type polarized RAW264.7 cells. In addition, PPARγ expression in the synovium of CIA rats was mainly located in the cytoplasm, and WTD treatment increased the nuclear translocation of PPARγ, which was further verified in RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: NF-κB and PPARγ regulating M1 and M2 macrophage polarization and subsequent secretion of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are the underlying mechanisms of WTD that ameliorate RA synovial inflammation.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental , Artrite Reumatoide , Animais , Ratos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Artrite Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Experimental/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Macrófagos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 301: 115785, 2023 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223847

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Viridiflorol was identified and isolated from the essential oil of Allophylus edulis leaves (EOAE). A. edulis was used as "tereré", which is a drink made by the infusion of herbs in cold water, to treat pain (toothache and headache). All anti-nociceptive (analgesic) and anti-arthritic properties of EOAE and viridiflorol have not been completely scientifically clarified. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the present study was to investigate the analgesic (anti-hyperalgesic and anti-nociceptive) and anti-arthritic properties of EOAE and viridiflorol using in vivo models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oral administration (p.o.) of EOAE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg), viridiflorol (30, 100 and 200 mg/kg), morphine (1 mg/kg, subcutaneous route (s.c.)) and the intraplantar (local) administration (i.pl.) of viridiflorol (100 µg/paw) were tested using formalin model in Swiss mice. EOAE (100 mg/kg, p.o.), viridiflorol (200 mg/kg, p.o.), and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, s.c.) were tested by zymosan-articular inflammation and in open-field models. Viridiflorol (0.3, 20 and 200 µg/paw) was also tested in carrageenan model, and viridiflorol (200 µg/paw) was also tested in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and dopamine (DOPA) models. RESULTS: The oral administration of EOAE (100 and 300 mg/kg, p.o.), viridiflorol (200 mg/kg, p.o.), morphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) (MOR) and local administration of viridiflorol (100 µg/paw) significantly inhibited edema and nociception in formalin model. Oral treatments with EOAE and viridiflorol (200 mg/kg) did not cause motor impairment in the open field test since they did not reduce locomotor activity. EOAE, viridiflorol and dexamethasone significantly reduced mechanical hyperalgesia, edema, total leukocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, nitric oxide and protein exudation in the zymosan-induced articular inflammation model. The local administration of viridiflorol (200 µg/paw, i.pl.) significantly inhibited mechanical hyperalgesia and edema induced by carrageenan, TNF-α and DOPA. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the potential anti-arthritic, anti-nocicepttive and anti-hyperalgesic properties of EOAE and viridiflorol. These properties could explain, at least in part, the folk use of A. edulis against including pain (toothache and headache). Viridiflorol could be partially responsible for the EOAE anti-hyperalgesic, anti-nociceptive and anti-arthritic properties and its mechanism of action could involve the inhibition of TNF-α and DOPA pathways.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Camundongos , Analgésicos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Carragenina , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Di-Hidroxifenilalanina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Formaldeído , Cefaleia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperalgesia/induzido quimicamente , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Derivados da Morfina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Odontalgia/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Zimosan
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