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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 134, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193949

RESUMO

Hydroxychloroquine is an agent used as a treatment but also considered as a prophylaxis for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We report the case of a patient who developed COVID-19 while on hydroxychloroquine for mixed connectivitis associated with spondyloarthritis. Although more work is needed before any conclusions can be drawn, this raises questions about the protective role of this drug against infection. Are they really protected against COVID-19 or will they develop pauci-symptomatic forms?


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Virais/etiologia , Espondiloartropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Urticária/etiologia , Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Etanercepte/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Doença Mista do Tecido Conjuntivo/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Espondiloartropatias/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22076, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120729

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with tuberculosis (TB) who are being treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) for coexisting conditions may experience unexpected exacerbations of TB after the initiation of antituberculous therapy, so-called anti-TNFα-induced TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (anti-TNFα-induced TB-IRIS). Anti-TNFα-induced TB-IRIS is often treated empirically with corticosteroids; however, the evidence of the effectiveness of corticosteroids is lacking and the management can be a challenge. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 32-year-old man on long-term infliximab therapy for Crohn disease visited a clinic complaining of persistent fever and cough that had started 1 week previously. His most recent infliximab injection had been administered 14 days before the visit. A chest X-ray revealed a left pleural effusion, and he was admitted to a local hospital. DIAGNOSIS: A chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed miliary pulmonary nodules; acid-fast bacilli were found in a sputum smear and a urine sediment sample; and polymerase chain reaction confirmed the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in both his sputum and the pleural effusion. He was diagnosed with miliary TB. INTERVENTIONS: Antituberculous therapy was started and he was transferred to our hospital for further management. His symptoms initially improved after the initiation of antituberculous therapy, but 2 weeks later, his symptoms recurred and shadows on chest X-ray worsened. A repeat chest CT scan revealed enlarged miliary pulmonary nodules, extensive ground-glass opacities, and an increased volume of his pleural effusion. This paradoxical exacerbation was diagnosed as TB-IRIS associated with infliximab. A moderate-dose of systemic corticosteroid was initiated [prednisolone 25 mg/day (0.5 mg/kg/day)]. OUTCOMES: After starting corticosteroid treatment, his radiological findings improved immediately, and his fever and cough disappeared within a few days. After discharge, prednisolone was tapered off over the course of 10 weeks, and he completed a 9-month course of antituberculous therapy uneventfully. He had not restarted infliximab at his most recent follow-up 14 months later. CONCLUSION: We successfully managed a patient with anti-TNFα-induced TB-IRIS using moderate-dose corticosteroids. Due to the limited evidence currently available, physicians should consider the necessity, dosage, and duration of corticosteroids for each case of anti-TNFα-induced TB-IRIS on an individual patient-by-patient basis.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Inflamatória da Reconstituição Imune/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/efeitos adversos , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Miliar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Tuberculose Miliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Miliar/etiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013256, 2020 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have significantly improved patient outcomes and delayed time to surgery. However, some of these therapies are recognized to increase the general risk of infection and have an unclear impact on postoperative infection risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of perioperative IBD medications on the risk of postoperative infections within 30 days of surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane IBD Group's Specialized Register (29 October 2019), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2019), Embase (January 1985 to October 2019), the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception up to October 2019, and reference lists of articles. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies comparing participants treated with an IBD medication preoperatively or within 30 days postoperatively to those who were not taking that medication (either another active medication, placebo, or no treatment). We included published study reports and abstracts. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data. The primary outcome was postoperative infection within 30 days of surgery. Secondary outcomes included incisional infections and wound dehiscence, intra-abdominal infectious complications and extra-abdominal infections. Three review authors assessed risks of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We contacted authors for additional information when data were missing. For the primary and secondary outcomes, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using the generic inverse variance method. When applicable, we analyzed adjusted and unadjusted data separately. We evaluated the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We included 68 observational cohort studies (total number of participants unknown because some studies did not report the number of participants). Of these, 48 studies reported including participants with Crohn's disease, 36 reported including participants with ulcerative colitis and five reported including participants with indeterminate colitis. All 42 studies that reported urgency of surgery included elective surgeries, with 31 (74%) of those also including emergency surgeries. Twenty-four studies had low risk of bias while the rest had very high risk. Based on pooling of adjusted data, we calculated ORs for postoperative total infection rates in participants who received corticosteroids (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38 to 2.09; low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.76; low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.13; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.36; low-certainty evidence). We pooled unadjusted data to assess postoperative total infection rates for the use of aminosalicylates (5-ASA) (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.14; very low-certainty evidence). One secondary outcome examined was wound-related complications in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.72 to 2.74; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.89; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.18, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.68; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.64, 95% CI 0.77 to 3.50; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Another secondary outcome examined the odds of postoperative intra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84; very low-certainty evidence), 5-ASA (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.33; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.12; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.82; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.20; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. Lastly we checked the odds for extra-abdominal infections in participants using: corticosteroids (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.55; very low-certainty evidence), immunomodulators (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.71; very low-certainty evidence), anti-TNF agents (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.87; very low-certainty evidence) and anti-integrin agents (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.43 to 3.08; very low-certainty evidence) compared to controls. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for corticosteroids, 5-ASA, immunomodulators, anti-TNF medications and anti-integrin medications was of low or very low certainty. The impact of these medications on postoperative infectious complications is uncertain and we can draw no firm conclusions about their safety in the perioperative period. Decisions on preoperative IBD medications should be tailored to each person's unique circumstances. Future studies should focus on controlling for potential confounding factors to generate higher-quality evidence.


Assuntos
Infecções/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Ácidos Aminossalicílicos/efeitos adversos , Viés , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Integrinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/induzido quimicamente , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/induzido quimicamente , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(10): 893-899, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026332

RESUMO

Non-infectious uveitis is a heterogenous group of potentially blinding ocular autoimmune diseases that may represent a manifestation of a systemic condition or may affect the eyes only. A systemically administered anti-TNF has recently been approved for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis, broadening the therapeutic arsenal available to control intraocular inflammation and reduce uveitis complications that can lead to vision loss. When uveitis affects only the eyes, a local anti-TNF-α administration strategy could optimize the ocular therapeutic effect and reduce undesirable systemic side-effects. A new ocular method of non-viral gene therapy, currently in development, may broaden the indications for ocular anti-TNF-α agents, not only for uveitis but also for other diseases in which TNF-α-mediated neuro-inflammation has been demonstrated.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Uveíte/terapia , Transtornos da Visão/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/genética , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Terapia Genética/tendências , Humanos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903555

RESUMO

With the onset of the global pandemic in 2020 of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increasing research activity around certain disease-modifying drugs that are used for the management of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthrosis, psoriatic arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammatory bowel disease for managing coronavirus symptoms. In the conditions mentioned, many people are on long-term treatment with agents including hydroxychloroquine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor drugs, other biologic agents such as monoclonal antibodies to IL-6 and Janus kinase inhibitors including baricitinib and tofacitinib, which are used to control inflammatory responses in their respective auto-immune condition. There is emerging data that immunomodulatory drugs could be protective at reducing certain features of SARS-CoV-2 and improving recovery. In addition, it is important to understand if subjects being treated with the immunomodulatory agents described have a less severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, as they are deemed some protection from their immunomodulatory treatment, or if they develop infections similar to non-immunocompromised patients. There is a huge unmet clinical need to advise patients responsibly about whether they should remain on their immunomodulatory treatment or not in light of Covid-19 infection. In this article we will discuss potential treatment options for SARS-CoV-2 using immunomodulatory drugs and at what stage of the condition they may be beneficial. Viable treatment options during the global coronavirus pandemic are a much-needed and an intensely active area of research.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
6.
Life Sci ; 260: 118274, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827545

RESUMO

AIMS: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is not sensitive to current endocrine treatments, so new treatment strategies need to be explored. Based on previous antitumour studies on anti-TNFα nanobody, we designed a novel fusion nanobody to enhance antitumour activity of the anti-TNFα nanobody in TNBC. MAIN METHODS: The RGD4C contains RGD sequence, which is the smallest recognition unit binding to the αvß3 receptor on tumour cell membranes and involved in tumour cell adhesion, proliferation, and metastasis. RGD4C was fused to anti-TNFα nanobody to investigate the antitumour activity in vitro and in vivo. KEY FINDINGS: The antitumour effects of fusion nanobody V-L-R-H could effectively bind to αvß3 and inhibit cell migration and proliferation of MDA-MB-231, which had satisfying purification efficiency and approving antigen or receptor binding activity. V-L-R-H could inhibit the TNFα-mediated PI3K/AKT/NF-κB signal pathway and integrin αvß3 correlative FAK focal adhesion signal pathway. Mouse xenograft tumour experiments showed that the V-L-R-H could inhibit tumour proliferation and metastasis; reduce the TNFα, HIFα, Ki67, and CD31 concentrations in tumour; and inhibit the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. SIGNIFICANCE: The fusion nanobody enhanced antitumour activity of the anti-TNFα nanobody on TNBC. It provided a reference for the design of dual functional fusion proteins and development of tumour treatment strategies of antagonistic TNFα and αvß3, and a new therapeutic strategy and research direction for the treatment of TNBC.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Integrina alfaVbeta3/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Metástase Neoplásica/prevenção & controle , Oligopeptídeos/química , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Pichia/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Anticorpos de Domínio Único/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Life Sci ; 259: 118191, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777302

RESUMO

Numerous population studies conducted worldwide indicate that the prevalence of asthma is higher in obese versus lean individuals. It has been reported that sensitized lean mice has a better recovery of lung inflammation in asthma. Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an essential role in the structural support of the lungs regulating the airways diameter, thus preventing its collapse during expiration. ECM renewal by metalloproteinase (MMPs) enzymes is critical for pulmonary biology. There seems to be an imbalance of MMPs activity in asthma and obesity, which can impair the lung remodeling process. In this study, we characterized the pulmonary ECM of obese and lean mice, non-sensitized and sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). Pharmacological intervention was performed by using anti-TNF-α, and MMP-8 and MMP-9 inhibitors in obese and lean sensitized mice. Activity of MMPs was assessed by gelatinase electrophorese, western blotting and zymogram in situ. Unbalance of MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9 and MMP-12 was detected in lung tissue of OVA-sensitized obese mice, which was accompanied by high degradation, corroborating an excessive deposition of types I and III collagen in pulmonary matrix of obese animals. Inhibitions of TNF-α and MMP-9 reduced this MMP imbalance, clearly suggesting a positive effect on pulmonary ECM. Obese and lean mice presented diverse phenotype of asthma regarding the ECM compounds and the inhibition of MMPs pathway could be a good alternative to regulate the activity in ECM lungs of asthmatic obese individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 8 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012328, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: About half of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) require surgery within 10 years of diagnosis. Resection of the affected segment is highly effective, however the majority of patients experience clinical recurrence after surgery. Most of these patients have asymptomatic endoscopic recurrence weeks or months before starting with symptoms. This inflammation can be detected by colonoscopy and is a good predictor of poor prognosis.Therapy guided by colonoscopy could tailor the management and improve the prognosis of postoperative CD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prophylactic therapy guided by colonoscopy in reducing the postoperative recurrence of CD in adults. SEARCH METHODS: The following electronic databases were searched up to 17 December 2019: MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, Clinical Trials.gov, WHO Trial Registry and Cochrane IBD specialized register. Reference lists of included articles, as well as conference proceedings were handsearched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and cohort studies comparing colonoscopy-guided management versus management non-guided by colonoscopy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently considered studies for eligibility, extracted the data and assessed study quality. Methodological quality was assessed using both the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool for RCTs and Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) for cohort studies. The primary outcome was clinical recurrence. Secondary outcomes included: endoscopic, surgical recurrence and adverse events. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for each dichotomous outcome and extracted the hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes. All estimates were reported with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Data were analysed on an intention-to-treat (ITT) basis. The overall quality of the evidence was evaluated using GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: Two RCTs (237 participants) and five cohort studies (794 participants) met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was not conducted as the studies were highly heterogeneous. We included two comparisons. Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus intensification guided by clinical recurrence One unblinded RCT and four retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. All participants received the same prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery. In the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was intensified in case of endoscopic recurrence; in the control group the therapy was intensified only in case of symptoms. In the RCT, clinical recurrence (defined as Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) > 150 points) in the colonoscopy-based management group was 37.7% (46/122) compared to 46.1% (21/52) in the control group at 18 months' follow up (RR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.56 to 1.18, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). There may be a reduction in endoscopic recurrence at 18 months with colonoscopy-based management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.95, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty evidence). The certainty of the evidence for surgical recurrence was very low, due to only four cohort studies with inconsistent results reporting this outcome. Adverse events at 18 months were similar in both groups, with 82% in the intervention group (100/122) and 86.5% in the control group (45/52) (RR 0.95, 95% CI:0.83 to 1.08, 1 RCT, 174 participants, low-certainty of evidence).The most common adverse events reported were alopecia, wound infection, sensory symptoms, systemic lupus, vasculitis and severe injection site reaction. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. Initiation of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy versus initiation immediately after surgery An unblinded RCT and two retrospective cohort studies addressed this comparison. The control group received prophylactic therapy immediately after surgery, and in the colonoscopy-based management group the therapy was delayed up to detection of endoscopic recurrence. The effects on clinical and endoscopic recurrence are uncertain (clinical recurrence until week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; endoscopic recurrence at week 102: RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.84; 1 RCT, 63 participants, very low-certainty evidence). Results from one cohort study were similarly uncertain (median follow-up 32 months, 199 participants). The effects on surgical recurrence at a median follow-up of 50 to 55 months were also uncertain in one cohort study (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.38 to 1.62, 133 participants, very low-certainty evidence). There were fewer adverse events with colonoscopy-based management (54.8% (17/31)) compared with the control group (93.8% (30/32)) but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.58, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.82; 1 RCT, 63 participants). Common adverse events were infections, gastrointestinal intolerance, leukopenia, pancreatitis and skin lesions. Perforations or haemorrhages secondary to colonoscopy were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intensification of prophylactic-therapy guided by colonoscopy may reduce clinical and endoscopic postoperative recurrence of CD compared to intensification guided by symptoms, and there may be little or no difference in adverse effects. We are uncertain whether initiation of therapy guided by colonoscopy impacts postoperative recurrence and adverse events when compared to initiation immediately after surgery, as the certainty of the evidence is very low. Further studies are necessary to improve the certainty of the evidence of this review.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Doença de Crohn/prevenção & controle , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adalimumab/efeitos adversos , Adalimumab/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Azatioprina/efeitos adversos , Azatioprina/uso terapêutico , Viés , Estudos de Coortes , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Mesalamina/efeitos adversos , Mesalamina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Purinas/efeitos adversos , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
11.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(10): 1722-1724, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826572

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It has been hypothesized that people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, it is not known whether immunosuppressive therapies exacerbate the COVID-19 outcome. METHODS: We reviewed data on the prevalence and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD. RESULTS: COVID-19 prevalence in patients with IBD was comparable with that in the general population. Therapies using antitumor necrosis factor-α agents have been associated with better clinical outcomes. DISCUSSION: Management and treatments provided by gastroenterologists were effective in reducing COVID-19 risk. Antitumor necrosis factor-α agents seem to mitigate the course of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Prevalência , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21447, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The comparative efficacy and safety of small molecule and biological agents in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of 14 small molecule and biological agents by network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS: Relevant randomized controlled trials involving biological treatments for PsA were identified by searching PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Clinicaltrials.gov and by manual retrieval, up to June 2018. NMA was conducted with Stata 14.0 based on the frequentist method. Effect measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Intervention efficacy and safety were ranked according to the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA). RESULTS: A total of 30 studies involving 10,191 adult subjects were included. According to NMA, ≥ 20% improvement in modifed American College of Rheumatology response criteria (ACR20) response, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index 75 (PASI75) response, and serious adverse events rate (SAEs) were observed. In direct comparisons, most of the biologics performed better than placebo in terms of ACR20 response rate and PASI75 response rate. Additionally, all medicines were comparable to placebo in terms of SAEs except secukinumab. In terms of mixed comparisons, with regard to the ACR20 response, etanercept (ETN) and infliximab (IFX) were more effective than golimumab (GOL), with ORs of 3.33 (95% CI: 1.17-9.48) and 1.24 (95% CI: 0.61-2.52), respectively. For PASI75 response, IFX was superior to certolizumab pegol (OR = 10.08, 95% CI: 1.54-75.48). In addition, these medicines were comparable to each other in terms of SAEs. ETN and IFX were shown to have the most favorable SUCRA for achieving improved ACR20 and PASI75 responses, respectively, while ABT-122 exhibited the best safety according to the SUCRA for SAEs. Considering both the efficacy (ACR20, PASI75) and safety (SAEs), GOL, ETN, and IFX are the top 3 treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Direct and indirect comparisons and integrated results suggested that the 3 anti- tumor necrosis factor -α biologics (GOL, ETN, and IFX) can be considered the best treatments for PsA after comprehensive consideration of efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Artrite Psoriásica/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Fatores Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Certolizumab Pegol/uso terapêutico , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metanálise em Rede , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Segurança , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(10): 900-907, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The LIR!C trial showed that laparoscopic ileocaecal resection is a cost-effective treatment that has similar quality-of-life outcomes to treatment with infliximab, an anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) drug. We aimed to compare long-term outcomes of both interventions and identify baseline factors associated with the duration of treatment effect in each group. METHODS: In this retrospective follow-up study, we collected data from patients who participated in the LIR!C trial, a multicentre randomised controlled trial that compared quality of life after surgical resection versus infliximab in adult patients with non-stricturing and immunomodulator-refractory ileocaecal Crohn's disease. From Jan 1 to May 1, 2018, we collected follow-up data from the time from enrolment in the LIR!C trial until the last visit at either the gastrointestinal surgeon or gastroenterologist. In this study, outcomes of interest were need for surgery or repeat surgery or anti-TNF therapy, duration of treatment effect, and identification of factors associated with the duration of treatment effect. Duration of treatment effect was defined as the time without need for additional Crohn's disease-related treatment (corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biologics, or surgery). FINDINGS: We collected long-term follow-up data for 134 (94%) of 143 patients included in the LIR!C trial, of whom 69 were in the resection group and 65 were in the infliximab group. Median follow-up was 63·5 months (IQR 39·0-94·5). In the resection group, 18 (26%) of 69 patients started anti-TNF therapy and none required a second resection. 29 (42%) patients in the resection group did not require additional Crohn's disease-related medication, although 14 (48%) of these patients were given prophylactic immunomodulator therapy. In the infliximab group, 31 (48%) of 65 patients had a Crohn's disease-related resection, and the remaining 34 patients maintained, switched, or escalated their anti-TNF therapy. Duration of treatment effect was similar in both groups, with a median time without additional Crohn's disease-related treatment of 33·0 months (95% CI 15·1-50·9) in the resection group and 34·0 months (0·0-69·3) in the infliximab group (log-rank p=0·52). In both groups, therapy with an immunomodulator, in addition to the allocated treatment, was associated with duration of treatment effect (hazard ratio for resection group 0·34 [95% CI 0·16-0·69] and for infliximab group 0·49 [0·26-0·93]). INTERPRETATION: These findings further support laparoscopic ileocaecal resection as a treatment option in patients with Crohn's disease with limited (affected segment ≤40 cm) and predominantly inflammatory terminal ileitis for whom conventional treatment is not successful. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Ceco/cirurgia , Doença de Crohn/terapia , Íleo/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Ceco/patologia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Doença de Crohn/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 464, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite successful clinical outcomes of biologic medications in patients with chronic rheumatic diseases, some considerable adverse effects such as infections remain a major concern. Possibility of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation over treatment with anti-tumor necrotizing factor (TNF) alpha agents has necessitated a screening test before initiation of treatment. However, screening over the course of treatment is not recommended in those patients with negative baseline screening tests. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tuberculin skin test (TST) before treatment in patients with chronic rheumatologic diseases who were indicated to receive anti-TNF-alpha therapy and the necessity of repeating this test over the course of treatment. METHODS: In this prospective study, patients with chronic rheumatologic diseases receiving anti-TNF-alpha agents were studied in a two-year period. TST was performed before treatment and those with positive results were excluded from the study. Thereafter, treatment with anti-TNF-alpha agents was initiated with the indicated dose. TST was repeated before administration of biologic treatment until TST became positive or 16 weeks after the initiation of treatment with anti-TNF-alpha. RESULTS: A total of 51 cases were studied, of whom one patient (1.9%) was excluded due to positive TST before treatment. All participants received infliximab and the TST test became positive in one patient (2%) 2 weeks after receiving the first dose. Also, the results of further tests at weeks 6, 10, and 14 were all negative for the remaining patients. CONCLUSION: Due to the possibility of TST conversion after administration of anti-TNF-alpha therapy, it is important to consider TB monitoring in patients under treatment with these agents using available methods such as TST.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/uso terapêutico , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Teste Tuberculínico/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Antirreumáticos/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Infliximab/farmacologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e21131, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664142

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mediated inflammation has been implicated, in knee osteoarthritis, despite being a predominantly degenerative condition. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 56-year old female, a case of left knee pain not responding to conventional conservative strategies. DIAGNOSIS: A diagnosis of primary osteoarthritis of the left knee, grade 3 osteoarthritis as per the Kellgren-Lawrence Scale was established. INTERVENTIONS: She was administered an intra-articular injection of 10 mg of Adalimumab, a commonly used anti-TNF agent. OUTCOMES: The patient was evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and at 6 months. There was a marked improvement in pain intensity (visual analog scale) and quality of life, despite no objective change on the parameters seen on ultrasound of the knee. CONCLUSION: Injection of adalimumab via the intra-articular route into the knee joint in primary osteoarthritis yields promising results.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/diagnóstico , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Medição da Dor/métodos , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Artralgia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Articulação do Joelho , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236508, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726333

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell membrane-derived phospholipid bilayer nanostructures that contain bioactive proteins, enzymes, lipids and polymers of nucleotides. They play a role in intercellular communication and are present in body fluids. EVs can be isolated by methods like ultracentrifugation (UC), polyethylene-glycol-precipitation (PEG) or size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The co-presence of immunoglobulins (Ig) in EV samples isolated from plasma (pEVs) is often reported and this may influence the assessment of the biological function and phenotype of EVs in bio- and immunoassay. Here, we studied the presence of an Ig-based therapeutic (etanercept) in pEV samples isolated from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and improved the isolation method to obtain purer pEVs. From plasma of etanercept (Tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-α antibodies)-treated RA patients pEVs were isolated by either UC, PEG or SEC. SEC isolated pEVs showed the highest particle-to-protein ratio. Strong TNF-α inhibition determined in a TNF-α sensitive reporter assay was observed by pEVs isolated by UC and PEG, and to a lesser extent by SEC, suggesting the presence of functional etanercept. SEC isolation of etanercept or labelled immunoglobulin G (IgG) showed co-isolation of these antibodies in the pEV fraction in the presence of plasma or a high protein (albumin) concentration. To minimize the presence of etanercept or immunoglobulins, we extended SEC (eSEC) column length from 56mm to 222mm (total stacking volume unchanged). No effect on the amount of isolated pEVs was observed while protein and IgG content were markedly reduced (90%). Next, from six etanercept- treated RA patients, pEVs were isolated on a eSEC or standard SEC column, in parallel. TNF-α inhibition was again observed in pEVs isolated by conventional SEC but not by eSEC. To confirm the purer pEVs isolated by eSEC the basal IL-8 promoter activation in human monocytes was determined and in 4 out of 5 SEC isolated pEVs activation was observed while eSEC isolated pEVs did not. This study shows that extended SEC columns yielded pEVs without detectable biologicals and with low protein and IgG levels. This isolation method will improve the characterization of pEVs as potential biomarkers and mediators of disease.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Cromatografia em Gel , Etanercepte/sangue , Etanercepte/uso terapêutico , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Interleucina-8/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 92(4): e12946, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697374

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated disease with autoimmune characteristics modulated by genetic susceptibility along with environmental triggers. Inflammatory pathways marked with excessive production of cytokines IL-12 and IL-23, drive differentiation of pathogenic T cell responses resulting in TNF and IL-17 production. These cytokines are an integral part of the TNF/IL-23/IL-17 axis, which is responsible for maintaining inflammation in psoriatic skin. Our improved understanding of the immunopathogenesis led to the development of biological drugs in the treatment of moderate-to-severe disease. Biologics have revolutionized the management of psoriasis, highlighting the central role of TNF/IL-23/IL-17 axis in the physiopathology of the disease. Still, psoriasis usually requires long-term treatment, aiming to fully remove psoriatic lesions without experiencing adverse events. In this review, we discuss the recent findings of all 27 available head-to-head trials investigating the efficacy and safety of systemic and biologic therapies in moderate-to-severe psoriasis vulgaris, as it is thought to provide more useful knowledge than placebo intervention alone. According to our evaluation, inhibitors that specifically target IL-23 or IL-17 are clinically more beneficial than inhibitors of IL-12/IL-23 and TNF. More informative results might be obtained by comparing these more efficient biological agents to each other. In addition, newer therapies for psoriasis using small-molecule drugs may represent important advances compared to well-established biologics as these are less expensive and orally administered.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-17/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-23/antagonistas & inibidores , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos
18.
Dermatol Online J ; 26(3)2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609446

RESUMO

With recent advancements in the understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis, Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors have emerged as a promising new treatment modality, but their effects remain incompletely elucidated. Tofacitinib, an oral JAK 1/3 inhibitor approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, has previously been shown to induce significant re-pigmentation in vitiligo. However, as with other novel targeted therapies, cutaneous adverse effects have been observed. We report a 36-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis, refractory to multiple pharmacotherapies, who was initiated on tofacitinib and subsequently developed progressive depigmented patches consistent with new-onset vitiligo. Although definitive causation cannot be established in this case without additional studies, it is important to note that many targeted therapies have the potential to induce paradoxical effects, that is, the occurrence or exacerbation of pathologic conditions that have been shown to respond to these medications. Paradoxical findings with other targeted therapies include the occurrence of melanoma during treatment with BRAF inhibitors, keratoacanthomas with PD-1 inhibitors, vitiligo and psoriasis with TNF-alpha inhibitors, and hidradenitis suppurativa with various biologic agents. Although JAK inhibitors hold therapeutic promise in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders, further research is warranted to more fully comprehend their effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Vitiligo/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Hidradenite Supurativa/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores de Janus Quinases/uso terapêutico , Ceratoacantoma/induzido quimicamente , Melanoma/induzido quimicamente , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/induzido quimicamente , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimidinas/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico
19.
Transplant Proc ; 52(6): 1869-1874, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rapid loss of blood volume causes ischemic injury to myocardial cells and impairs cardiac function. Subsequent reperfusion, although necessary to revitalize stunned tissues, can induce production of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, causing further tissue damages and weakening cardiac function. Ibudilast, a Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) antagonist and an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. In this study, we aim to examine the protective efficacy of ibudilast against hemorrhagic shock and reperfusion (HSR)-induced myocardial injury and cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Studies were conducted on male Sprague-Dawley rats in 3 groups: sham-operated, HSR with, and HSR without pretreatment of ibudilast. Hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood from the femoral artery until the mean aortic pressure dropped to around 40 mm Hg; reperfusion was conducted by replenishing blood after 120 minutes of hemorrhagic shock, and the observation continued for another 240 minutes. The left ventricular (LV) contractility, diastolic suction capacity, and ventricular stiffness were evaluated using simultaneous LV pressure, and volume was recorded during a temporary inferior vena cava constriction at the end of reperfusion. Ibudilast (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 3 days and 20 minutes prior to HSR. Serum creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) was examined at the end of both HSR, and serum CK-MB, myocardial TLR4 protein expression, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels at the end of reperfusion. RESULTS: HSR induced an increase in serum CK-MB. Subsequent reperfusion further increased serum CK-MB, upregulated myocardial TLR4 protein expression, and increased tissue levels MDA and TNF-α vs the sham (P < .05). HSR reduced LV contractility, prolonged LV relaxation time, and increased LV diastolic stiffness. Ibudilast pretreatment attenuated HSR-induced TLR4 protein expression, reduced myocardial MDA and TNF-α levels, and protected against cardiac dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Ibudilast pretreatment reduced myocardial TLR4 expression, decreased MDA and TNF-α levels, and protected against HSR-induced decrease in LV contractility, prolonged LV relaxation time, and increased diastolic stiffness.


Assuntos
Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Piridinas/farmacologia , Choque Hemorrágico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Animais , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 125(5): 503-504, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585180

Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Administração por Inalação , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Asma/virologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Endorribonucleases/antagonistas & inibidores , Endorribonucleases/genética , Endorribonucleases/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-8/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-8/genética , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Receptores Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Virais/genética , Receptores Virais/imunologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/imunologia
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