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1.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(7): 577-582, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537240

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the roles of Th1 cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and multifunctional T cells in nucleotides binding oligomer domain 2 knockout (NOD2-/-) mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Ra. Methods Mouse models of pulmonary infection were established by tracheal instillation of MTB strain H37Ra into NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice (n=10 each group). Lung tissues were removed and stained by HE staining and pathological scores were evaluated 4 weeks after infection. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung homogenates were detected by ELISA, and the ratio of multifunctional CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in the spleen were examined by flow cytometry. Results MTB infection promoted lung inflammation of NOD2-/- mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ in the lung tissues of NOD2-/- mice increased. Compared with normal saline group, TNF-α+, IFN-γ+ cells and TNF-α+IFN-γ+ cells in CD4+/CD8+T cells significantly increased in NOD2-/- mice and C57BL/6 mice after the infection. TNF-α+CD4+T cells, IFN-γ+CD4+T cells and IFN-γ+CD8+T cells in MTB-infected NOD2-/- mice were significantly higher than those in MTB-infected C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion H37Ra can induce Th1 immune response in NOD2-/- mice.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9796-9804, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393712

RESUMO

Overactivated microglia and persistent neuroinflammation hold an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. The extract of Lycoris chejuensis (CJ) and its active compound, 7-deoxy-trans-dihydronarciclasine (named E144), attenuated expressions of pro-inflammatory factors, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin 6, secreted by lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 microglial cells, as measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. In contrast, CJ extract and E144 promoted the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 10. Moreover, we found that E144 attenuated the expression of TNF-α and COX-2 in the cerebral cortex of lipopolysaccharide-treated mice and/or T2576 transgenic mice as well as reduced the reactive immune cells visualized by ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. Our results suggest the possibility of E144 to serve as a potential anti-neuroinflammatory agent by preventing excess production of pro-inflammatory factors.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Lycoris/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Animais , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Isoquinolinas/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(36): 10079-10088, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461286

RESUMO

Geraniin has been reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory properties and to modulate the macrophage polarization. This study sought to evaluate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of geraniin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation and neurobiological alternations as well as cognitive impairment. Daily intragastrical administration with geraniin (20 mg kg-1 day-1) for 14 days significantly prolonged the duration in the target quadrant (26.53 ± 2.03 versus 37.09 ± 3.27%; p < 0.05) and increased crossing-target number (1.93 ± 0.22 versus 3.08 ± 0.17; p < 0.01) in the probe test of LPS-treated mice. Geraniin also ameliorated LPS-elicited neural/synaptic impairments and decreased levels of LPS-induced Aß generation (p < 0.05), amyloid precursor protein (APP) (p < 0.05) and ß-site amyloid precursor protein cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, geraniin suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) (9.85 ± 0.58 versus 5.20 ± 0.52 pg/mg of protein; p < 0.01), interleukin (IL)-1ß (16.31 ± 0.67 versus 8.62 ± 0.46 pg/mg of protein; p < 0.01), and IL-6 (12.12 ± 0.45 versus 7.43 ± 0.32 pg/mg of protein; p < 0.05), and inhibited glial cell activation. Moreover, geraniin effectively polarized the microglia toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Further study revealed that geraniin targeted toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling and decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV-2 microglial cells. These results indicate that geraniin mitigates LPS-elicited neural/synaptic neurodegeneration, amyloidogenesis, neuroinflammation, and cognitive impairment and suggest geraniin as a therapeutic option for neuroinflammation-associated neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/administração & dosagem , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Secretases da Proteína Precursora do Amiloide , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/genética , Precursor de Proteína beta-Amiloide/imunologia , Animais , Ácido Aspártico Endopeptidases , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/imunologia , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/imunologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315359

RESUMO

Objective: To observe the effect of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) monoclonal antibody on autophagy in allergic rhinitis (AR) mice. Methods: Thirty six weeks old BALB/c mice were randomly divided by random number table method into five groups: control group, model group (AR group), TNF-α antibody intervention group (AR+TNF-α group), autophagy inhibitor (3-methylindole, 3-NA) intervention group (AR+3-MA group), TNF-α antibody combined with autophagy inducer rapamycin (RAP) intervention group (AR+TNF-α+RAP group), with 6 mice in each group. AR model was established by conventional method, the corresponding reagent was administered before nasal cavity stimulation sensitization and during the whole experiment. Behavioral scores of mice were obtained, blood was collected from the eye socket, and mice in each group were sacrificed to collect nasal mucosa tissue samples. Pathological changes of nasal mucosa were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Expression levels of inflammatory factor and IgE in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expressions of autophagy related indicators microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3B (LC3B), Beclin-1, sequestosome1 (p62), autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), autophagy-related 7 (ATG7) were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot. The aggregation of LC3B protein was observed by immunofluorescence. SPSS 19.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Compared with the AR model group, symptoms of AR in AR+TNF-α group and AR+3-MA group were mild; the pathological changes of nasal mucosa were weak; the expression of IgE, TNF-α, interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in serum significantly reduced (IgE: 666.19±78.35 (x±s) vs. 692.38±64.29 vs. 1 059.05±146.44, TNF-α: 112.06±12.95 vs. 113.17±15.43 vs. 161.22±17.96, IL-4: 54.05±7.14 vs. 58.26±5.67 vs. 79.95±6.33, IFN-γ: 28.58±4.51 vs. 30.67±2.60 vs. 39.83±3.31, all P<0.05), and the expression of LC3B Ⅱ/Ⅰ, Beclin-1, ATG5, ATG7 in nasal mucosa significantly decreased, the expression of p62 significantly elevated. After intervention with autophagy inducer RAP, the therapeutic effect of TNF-α monoclonal antibodies on AR was antagonized. Conclusion: TNF-α monoclonal antibody significantly improves nasal symptoms in AR mice by inhibiting autophagy levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Autofagia/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica/tratamento farmacológico , Rinite Alérgica/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8361-8369, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339708

RESUMO

The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-protein receptor, is well recognized for its role in the regulation of adipocyte proliferation, in modulating adipose tissue dysfunction, and as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. In the present study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of γ-glutamylvaline (γ-EV) on mouse adipocytes and explore the role of γ-EV-activated CaSR in the regulation of cellular homeostasis using the mouse 3T3-L1 cell line in vitro model. Our results indicate that the 3T3-L1 adipocyte-like cells accumulated lipids and expressed CaSR after 2 days of differentiation and 7 days of maturation period. The pretreatment with γ-EV (10 µM) suppressed the production of TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines, i.e., IL-6 (23.92 ± 5.45 ng/mL, p < 0.05)) and MCP-1 (101.17 ± 39.93 ng/mL, p < 0.05), while enhancing the expression of PPARγ (1.249 ± 0.109, p < 0.001) and adiponectin (7.37 ± 0.59 ng/mL, p < 0.05). Elevated expression of Wnt5a was detected in γ-EV-treated cells (115.90 ± 45.50, p < 0.001), suggesting the involvement of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Also, phosphorylation of ß-catenin was shown to be significantly inhibited (0.442 ± 0.034) by TNF-α but restored when cells were pretreated with γ-EV (0.765 ± 0.048, p < 0.05). These findings suggest that γ-EV-induced CaSR activation not only prevents TNF-α-induced inflammation in adipocytes but also modulates the cross-talk between Wnt and PPARγ pathways. Concentrations of serine phosphorylated IRS-1 were shown to be lower in γ-EV-treated cells, indicating γ-EV may also prevent inflammation in the context of insulin resistance. Thus, γ-EV-activated CaSR plays a significant role in the cross-talk between adipocyte inflammatory and metabolic pathways through the regulation of extracellular sensing.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/imunologia , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/imunologia , Animais , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Camundongos , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/imunologia , Fosforilação , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8810-8818, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318199

RESUMO

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck is a popular fruit cultivated around the world, and its peels are sometimes used for the treatment of cough, abdominal pain, and indigestion in China. However, the peel is discarded after fruit consumption in most cases, and its chemical constituents and biological activities have not been validated before. The present study focused on evaluation of the chemical and pharmacological profile of coumarins from peels of C. grandis against inflammation. The extracts and phytochemicals from peels of C. grandis were prepared, and anti-inflammatory activities were carried out in vivo and in vitro, including inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß, prostaglandin 2, and tumor-necrosis factor α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results indicated that methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and four major coumarins (compounds 7, 8, 13, and 16) inhibited swelling induced by xylene and carrageenan, separately, in vivo. Furthermore, 18 coumarins inhibited inflammatory factor secretion in macrophages primed by LPS, in which compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, 17 showed the most pronounced change, which were comparable to dexamethasone. In summary, peel of C. grandis showed an anti-inflammatory effect and coumarin compounds were responsible for regulating inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which might provide a novel nutritional strategy for inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Resíduos/análise
7.
J Dermatol ; 46(9): 802-807, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271451

RESUMO

Perifolliculitis capitis abscedens et suffodiens (PCAS) or dissecting cellulitis is a rare condition presenting deep follicular occlusions, follicular ruptures and follicular infections in the scalp area with unknown etiology, which consequently cause primary neutrophilic cicatricial alopecia by the repeated follicular inflammation. PCAS is categorized as one of the "follicular occlusion tetrad" along with hidradenitis suppurativa, acne conglobata and pilonidal cyst. In the pathogenesis of the follicular occlusion tetrad, the involvement of neutrophils and its activator tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been discussed. Here, we report a case of PCAS that was successfully treated with adalimumab, a human anti-TNF monoclonal antibody. This is the first Asian case of PCAS that was improved by a TNF inhibitor.


Assuntos
Adalimumab/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Celulite (Flegmão)/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatopatias Genéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Celulite (Flegmão)/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Dermatoses do Couro Cabeludo/imunologia , Dermatopatias Genéticas/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Dermatol ; 46(9): 808-811, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290564

RESUMO

Disseminated granuloma annulare (GA) is a rare granulomatous dermatitis of unknown etiology. Treatment is often challenging and lack of a uniformly effective treatment, adds to the disease morbidity. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is an important cytokine in granuloma formation and previous reports have shown improvement of disseminated GA with anti-TNF-α therapy. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism of actions of TNF-α inhibitors in GA remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate alterations in the inflammatory infiltrate in a patient who experienced complete clearance of GA after treatment with infliximab. A skin biopsy was obtained before and 24 weeks after treatment with infliximab 5 mg/kg at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14 and 24. Immunohistochemical stains were performed in pre- and post-treatment biopsy specimens using CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD11c, CD32, CD68, CD69, CD163, CD183 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR to characterize alterations of the infiltrates. Parallel with clinical improvement, we observed a marked decrease in myeloid (CD11c) dendritic cells, different macrophage subsets (CD68, CD32, CD163) and T cells. In addition, a marked reduction of activation markers (HLA-DR, CD69) and CD183+ (CXCR3) cells was observed in post-treatment biopsy specimens. In conclusion, the clinical improvement of disseminated GA by infliximab is paralleled by inhibition of activated myeloid dendritic cells, different macrophage subsets and type 1 T cells.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Dermatológicos/farmacologia , Granuloma Anular/tratamento farmacológico , Infliximab/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biópsia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Granuloma Anular/imunologia , Granuloma Anular/patologia , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Receptores CXCR3/imunologia , Receptores CXCR3/metabolismo , Pele/citologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 236-241, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232052

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To assess the across-shift changes of cytokine concentrations in nasal lavage (NAL) samples were collected from workers exposed to bacterial cell wall components present in organic dust in three different occupational environments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 38 employees including 10 workers from a municipal waste sorting plant (WSP), 20 from a sewage treatment plant (STP) and 8 from an office building (OB), who were established as a reference group, not exposed to organic dust. Interleukins 1ß (IL-1ß), 6 (IL-6), 8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were examined in NAL before and after work shift on Wednesdays. Bioaerosol exposure was determined by personal measurements and analysed for organic dust, endotoxins (END) and peptidoglycans (PGN). RESULTS: The analysis included the results for IL-8 only, because for the other cytokines their concentrations in 80% of cases were below the detection level. The most polluted were the workplaces in WSP with average concentrations of organic dust - 3.47 mg/m3, END - 96.31 ng/m3 and PGN - 571.88 ng/m3. The results of IL-8 showed a significant difference between the studied groups after the work shift (p=0.007). Among WSP workers concentrations of IL-8 increased also significantly (p=0.015) during the work shift. Multivariate analysis showed that organic dust and END were the factors that in the most distinct way (p<0.001) influenced changes of IL-8 levels in NAL. CONCLUSIONS: Each alteration in the composition of bioaerosols will probably determine the changes in the mechanisms responsible for both formation and modulation of inflammatory reactions in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/imunologia , Parede Celular/imunologia , Líquido da Lavagem Nasal/imunologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Poeira/análise , Poeira/imunologia , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-8/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lavagem Nasal , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Esgotos/efeitos adversos , Esgotos/análise , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5870-5880, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a set of serious organic manifestations caused by an infection, whose progression culminates in exacerbated inflammation and oxidative stress, poor prognosis, and high hospital costs. Antioxidants used against sepsis have been evaluated, including essential oils such as ß-caryophyllene (BCP), and polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the association of these two compounds. RESULTS: Treatment with BCP-DHA, at a dose of 200 µL/animal, significantly inhibited the migration of neutrophils in a Cg-induced peritonitis model. After Staphylococcus aureus infection, in the groups treated with BCP-DHA there was a significant decrease in the total and differential count of leukocytes, increased expression of cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ in treated groups, an increase of IL-4 and IL-5 in B/D and B/D + SA groups, and an augmentation of IL-6 and IL-12 groups in B/D + SA groups. Histological and bacterial analysis revealed lower neutrophil migration and lower bacterial load in the infected and treated groups. CONCLUSION: In general, the BCP-DHA association presented anti-inflammatory activity against two different models of acute inflammation and infection, showing promising potential as a therapeutic adjuvant in sepsis. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Peritonite/tratamento farmacológico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Sesquiterpenos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Peritonite/genética , Peritonite/imunologia , Peritonite/microbiologia , Sepse/genética , Sepse/imunologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6076-6083, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the health benefits to weaning pigs, raised under low sanitary conditions, of dietary supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product (Cyberlindnera jadinii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In total, 160 weaning pigs (7.21 ± 1.05 kg) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (CON) and CON + 2 g kg-1 multi-strain yeast fraction product (MsYF) during weeks 1-2 and 0.4 g kg-1 MsYF during weeks 3-6. RESULTS: The MsYF supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) at day 42 and average daily gain (ADG) during days 1-14 and days 1-42 (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), fecal Lactobacillus counts, and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at day 42 were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed a MsYF supplemented diet. The concentration of serum haptoglobin in pigs receiving a MsYF-supplemented diet was higher (P < 0.05) at days 7, 14, and 42 than those receiving CON. The mRNA expression for INF-γ and TNF-α genes were lower (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 7 respectively and the expression of IL-6 and TLR-2 genes was lower (P < 0.01) at days 7 and 14 in pigs fed an MsFY supplemented diet than those fed CON. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product had a positive effect on ADG during the early post-weaning period and led to better health in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Higiene , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Desmame
12.
Mol Immunol ; 112: 188-197, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176198

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic, synovitis-based inflammatory disease with unknown etiology. Neutrophils play important roles in the pathogenesis of RA. Apoptosis and NETosis of neutrophils are two major mechanisms of programmed cell death that differ in their morphological characteristics and effects on the immune system. In rheumatoid arthritis, delayed neutrophil apoptosis amplifies the inflammatory response; and massive release of NETs and their components may cause tissue damage and provide self-antigens. Emodin is a natural anthraquinone derivative that occurs in many widely used Chinese medicinal herbs. In this study, we evaluated the effect of emodin on a murine adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) model of RA in vivo and on neutrophil apoptosis and NETosis in vitro. Our results show that emodin alleviated AA by reducing neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-α) release. Emodin promoted apoptosis and inhibited autophagy and NETosis in neutrophils. These findings indicate that emodin represents a potential therapeutic agent for RA.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Emodina/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Animais , Artrite Experimental/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Autofagia/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
13.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 25-33, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213269

RESUMO

Porcine productive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and classical swine fever virus (CSFV) both are major pathogens of swine that pose a great threat to the Chinese pig industry. It has been found that PRRSV infection can lead to vaccination failure of CSFV C strain-derived modified live vaccine (CSFV-C) by interfering with the immune responses to the latter. To investigate whether PRRSV can suppress CSFV-C replication, we created a 3D4/21-based cell line PAM39 that is susceptible to both viruses by expressing PRRSV receptors CD163 and CD169, and then investigated their interplay under the condition of either sequential or simultaneous co-infection. The most significant suppressive effect came from the sequential infection when the cells were first infected by PRRSV and then followed by CSFV-C at an interval of 6 h. In addition, this effect was independent of PRRSV strains. Mechanistically, PRRSV induced an elevated level of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), through the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway to inhibit the replication of CSFV-C in vitro. Thus, our studies provide an alternative explanation on PRRSV-induced CSFV vaccination failure, and this has an important implication in CSF vaccination and control.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/fisiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Linhagem Celular , Imunofluorescência , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Lectina 1 Semelhante a Ig de Ligação ao Ácido Siálico/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7556-7569, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229286

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ruminal epithelium activates a local inflammatory response following a short-term subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) challenge. Seven ruminally cannulated, nonpregnant, nonlactating beef heifers, fed a baseline total mixed ration (TMR) with 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio, were used in a crossover design with 2 periods and 2 treatments: SARA and control (CON). Induction of SARA included feed restriction (25% of dry matter intake [DMI] for 24 h) followed by a grain overload (30% of baseline DMI) and provision of the full TMR; whereas, the CON group received the TMR ad libitum. Ruminal pH was recorded using indwelling probes, and ruminal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentration was measured daily following the challenge until d 6. Biopsies of ruminal papillae from the ventral sac were collected on d 2 and 6 after the grain overload. Transcript abundance of genes associated with acute inflammation was measured by quantitative real-time PCR, normalized to the geometric mean of 3 stable housekeeping genes. Target genes included toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, TLR9, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFA), prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 (PTGS1), PTGS2 transforming growth factor ß-1 (TGFB1), and 4 intermediate enzymes of leukotriene synthesis (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, LTA4H, and LTC4S). Protein localization and expression of TLR4 were quantified by image analysis of fluorescence intensity. Statistical analysis was performed using as a crossover design with fixed effects of treatment, day, and the treatment × day interaction with the random effect of day within period. Ruminal pH was below 5.6 for 4.5 h/d and below 5.8 for 6.9 h/d in the SARA group compared with 22 and 72 min/d, respectively, for CON. Ruminal LPS concentration peaked on d 2 in SARA heifers at 51,481 endotoxin units (EU)/mL compared with 13,331 EU/mL in CON. Following grain overload, small but statistically significant decreases in the transcriptional abundance of TLR2, TLR4, TNF, PTGS2, ALOX5, and ALOX5AP were seen in SARA versus CON heifers. A functionally relevant decrease in TLR4 expression in SARA heifers compared with CON was confirmed by a decrease in fluorescence intensity of the corresponding protein following immunohistofluorescent staining of papillae. The study results indicate a suppression of the inflammatory response in the ruminal epithelium and suggest that the response is tightly regulated, allowing for tissue recovery and return to homeostasis following SARA.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Epitélio/imunologia , Rúmen/imunologia , Acidose/induzido quimicamente , Acidose/genética , Acidose/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lipopolissacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/genética , Prostaglandina-Endoperóxido Sintases/imunologia , Rúmen/química , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
15.
Wiad Lek ; 72(4): 716-722, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Autoimmune uveitis (AU) is an inflammation of the uvea due to an autoimmune reaction to self-antigens. There are no standardized treatment protocols for AU. A new class of drugs called biologics, that target the various mediators of the inflammation cascade, may potentially provide more effective and less toxic corticosteroids treatment of AU. The aim: The aim of this review was to make the evaluatation of the interleukins influence on intraocular inflammation in available literature and summarize the expediency of using anti-interleukins agent in case of AU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: This article is a review and summary of the up-to-date results of pivotal experimental and clinical trials targeting the Interleukins (IL), including IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Also reviews focus on the potential use of anti-interleukin therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases (AD). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: AU is an inflammation of the uvea due to an autoimmune reaction to self-antigens. The most important IL in the pathogenesis of AU are IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-22, IL-23 and TNF-α. Anti-interleukin therapy is partially described. Future randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to be conduct.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Uveíte/imunologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007354, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are sentinel receptors of the innate immune system. TLR4 detects bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR5 detects bacterial flagellin. A common human nonsense polymorphism, TLR5:c.1174C>T, results in a non-functional TLR5 protein. Individuals carrying this variant have decreased mortality from melioidosis, infection caused by the flagellated Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Although impaired flagellin-dependent signaling in carriers of TLR5:c.1174C>T is well established, this study tested the hypothesis that a functional effect of TLR5:c.1174C>T is flagellin-independent and involves LPS-TLR4 pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole blood from two independent cohorts of individuals genotyped at TLR5:c.1174C>T was stimulated with wild type or aflagellated B. pseudomallei or purified bacterial motifs followed by plasma cytokine measurements. Blood from individuals carrying the TLR5:c.1174C>T variant produced less IL-6 and IL-10 in response to an aflagellated B. pseudomallei mutant and less IL-8 in response to purified B. pseudomallei LPS than blood from individuals without the variant. TLR5 expression in THP1 cells was silenced using siRNA; these cells were stimulated with LPS before cytokine levels in cell supernatants were quantified by ELISA. In these cells following LPS stimulation, silencing of TLR5 with siRNA reduced both TNF-α and IL-8 levels. These effects were not explained by differences in TLR4 mRNA expression or NF-κB or IRF activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The effects of the common nonsense TLR5:c.1174C>T polymorphism on the host inflammatory response to B. pseudomallei may not be restricted to flagellin-driven pathways. Moreover, TLR5 may modulate TLR4-dependent cytokine production. While these results may have broader implications for the role of TLR5 in the innate immune response in melioidosis and other conditions, further studies of the mechanisms underlying these observations are required.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Melioidose/genética , Melioidose/imunologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Burkholderia pseudomallei/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Flagelina/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Masculino , Melioidose/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Mutação Puntual , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2986-2996, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31074758

RESUMO

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease associated with a high mortality (40-60%) in newborn infants. Cronobacter sakazakii is an important factor for NEC. However, studies regarding NEC pathogenesis and therapeutic treatments are still limited. Here, a C. sakazakii-induced mouse neonatal intestinal inflammation model was employed to determine the effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on infections. TC treatment reduced the number of C. sakazakii colony-forming units in the ileal tissues and mitigated the morphological damage in intestinal tissues. Additionally, it reduced the mRNA transcription of inflammatory genes and production of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in mice infected with C. sakazakii. Moreover, TC treatment suppressed caspase-3 activity, modulated enterocyte apoptosis, and inhibited the nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway activation induced by C. sakazakii. These findings suggest that TC has protective effects on C. sakazakii-induced murine intestinal inflammation and that it may be a potential agent for preventing NEC.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Cronobacter sakazakii/fisiologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/tratamento farmacológico , Intestinos/imunologia , Acroleína/administração & dosagem , Acroleína/química , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Necrosante/genética , Enterocolite Necrosante/imunologia , Enterocolite Necrosante/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Isomerismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
18.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 136-144, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054407

RESUMO

Production of antimicrobial peptides cathelicidins, interferons and cytokines is an important feature in airway epithelial host defense. The innate immune response to alpha-herpesvirus infection at the sites of primary replication has not been fully studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression of innate immune components, cathelicidins, IFNß, TNFα and TNF receptors (TNFRI and TNFRII) during acute infection and reactivation of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) in the respiratory tract and lymphoid tissue of their natural host. We found that BoHV infection modulates mainly the expression of BMAP28, a key cathelicidin in cattle. It was downregulated by both viruses in retropharyngeal lymph nodes of acutely infected-calves, and it was accompanied by a lower expression of IFNß, TNFα and TNFRI. BoHV-5 showed a pronounced role in the downregulation of BMAP28, even in nasal mucosa and lung. However, during reactivation, BoHV-5 upregulated both BMAP28 and IFNß in retropharyngeal lymph nodes. Acute replication induced also TNFα mRNA and protein synthesis, and expression of TNFRI and II was positively regulated during both acute infection and reactivation, particularly in the trachea. Moreover, BMAP27 was detected during BoHV-1 reactivation suggesting a potential role at this stage. Thus, cathelicidins are implicated in alpha-herpesvirus infections of the bovine respiratory system and the response is distinct during BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 acute infection and reactivation. This demonstrates that these viruses modulate differentially the components of innate immune response, possibly influencing their pathogenesis. This study provides an initial pilot analysis of factors that might be implicated in alpha-herpesvirus infection of the bovine respiratory system.


Assuntos
Catelicidinas/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/imunologia , Herpesvirus Bovino 1/imunologia , Interferon beta/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Citocinas/imunologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Projetos Piloto , RNA Mensageiro/imunologia , Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/imunologia , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
19.
Analyst ; 144(10): 3250-3259, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049499

RESUMO

The trend for improved more precise diagnostics and management of disease heavily relies on the measurement of panels of biomarkers in physiological samples of patients. Ideally, the ultimate goal would be to detect as many clinically relevant biomarkers as possible in a single drop of blood, achieving quick, sensitive, reproducible, and affordable detection in small volume physiological samples. Bioluminescent (BL) proteins provide many of the desired characteristics required for such labels, including detection at extremely low concentrations, no interference from physiological fluids leading to excellent detection limits, and compatibility with many miniaturized systems. However, to date the use of BL proteins has been restricted by their limited multiplexing capabilities. BL proteins typically exhibit a single emission profile and decay kinetics making the simultaneous detection of multiple analytes difficult. Recent progresses in this area include the use of two different engineered luminescent proteins to achieve resolved signals via one-dimensional time resolution. This approach, however, to date only lead to a dual analyte detection. Herein, we have demonstrated that using a two-dimensional approach that combines both temporal and spatial resolution, we can expand the multiplexing capabilities of bioluminescent proteins. To that end, the photoprotein aequorin (AEQ) has been employed for the simultaneous detection of three separate analytes in a single well, differentiated through the use of three discrete time/wavelength windows. Through a combination of site-specific mutations and synthetic coelenterazines "semi-synthetic" AEQ variants have been developed with altered emission profiles and decay kinetics. In this study, two AEQ mutant proteins were genetically conjugated to three pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukins 6 and 8) resulting in AEQ-labeled cytokines. These fusion proteins were combined with synthetic coelenterazines resulting in proteins with differing emission maxima and half-lives to allow for the simultaneous detection of all three cytokines in a single sample. The validity of the assay was demonstrated in serum by employing human physiological samples and comparing our results with commercially available individual tests for each of the three cytokines.


Assuntos
Equorina/química , Interleucina-6/sangue , Interleucina-9/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Equorina/genética , Animais , Cabras , Humanos , Hidrozoários/química , Imidazóis/química , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-9/imunologia , Limite de Detecção , Luminescência , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Camundongos , Mutação , Pirazinas/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
20.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(1): 121-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050260

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine if there are quantitative differences in Candida fungi between pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (before and after exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), and the biologic therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha - (IFX)), and healthy controls. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and PCR was used to determine the number of fungal cells. Both therapeutic interventions resulted in a statistically significant decrease in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index. The numbers of Candida decreased during both therapeutic intervention but the difference was statistically significant for the IFX intervention only (p = 0.045). Moreover, fungi population in both study groups declined during intervention when compared to the control group but the difference was significant before treatment only in the IFX group (p = 0.013). The total distribution of Candida with both IFX and EEN as well as in the control group differed significantly (p = 0.01) before treatment only. No correlation between the numbers of Candida and disease activity as well as the following biochemical parameters: serum iron concentration, protein or glucose level were found. It cannot be ruled out that, in combination with genetic and immunological disorders, fungi can contribute to the initiation of the disease process and perpetuation of active inflammation.The aim of this study was to determine if there are quantitative differences in Candida fungi between pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (before and after exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN), and the biologic therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha ­ (IFX)), and healthy controls. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and PCR was used to determine the number of fungal cells. Both therapeutic interventions resulted in a statistically significant decrease in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index. The numbers of Candida decreased during both therapeutic intervention but the difference was statistically significant for the IFX intervention only (p = 0.045). Moreover, fungi population in both study groups declined during intervention when compared to the control group but the difference was significant before treatment only in the IFX group (p = 0.013). The total distribution of Candida with both IFX and EEN as well as in the control group differed significantly (p = 0.01) before treatment only. No correlation between the numbers of Candida and disease activity as well as the following biochemical parameters: serum iron concentration, protein or glucose level were found. It cannot be ruled out that, in combination with genetic and immunological disorders, fungi can contribute to the initiation of the disease process and perpetuation of active inflammation.


Assuntos
Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Candida/genética , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Fúngico/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestino Grosso/patologia , Ferro/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
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