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1.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1496, 2022 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932047

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) was significantly associated with cognition and mental health in children and adolescent. However, there were few studies examining the associations of PA with academic achievement (AA) and academic burden (AB) by gender and school grade. Hence, this study aimed to 1) investigate the associations of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) with AA and AB in Chinese children and adolescents, and 2) assess whether these associations vary by gender and school grade. METHODS: Using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling design (at four different regions in Southern east China), 2653 children and adolescents (8-19 years old, 51.2% girls) were included. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on study participants' gender, school grade, family social economic status (SES), parental education level, MVPA, AA and AB. Binary logistic regression was applied to examine the associations of MVPA with AA (groups: above-average AA, average and below-average AA) and AB (groups: reporting AB, reporting no AB) with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After testing gender*grade interaction, those associations were explored by gender and school grade separately. RESULTS: In the overall sample, compared with children and adolescents who did not meet the PA guidelines (at least 60 min MVPA daily), children and adolescents who met the PA guidelines were more likely to have above-average (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21-2.11) AA, and report no AB (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.13-2.30). In both genders, meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.03 for boys; OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.43-3.44 for girls). However, the significant relationship between meeting the PA guidelines and AB was observed only in girls (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.17-3.39). Meeting the PA guidelines was positively associated with above-average AA (OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.18-2.40), and reporting no AB (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.08-2.91) only in middle school students. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested that sufficient PA may be a contributary factor of improved AA and lower level of AB in Chinese children and adolescents. However, associations of PA with AA and AB may be different across gender or school grade. Promoting PA among girls or middle school students may be a good approach to improve AA and reduce AB.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939444

RESUMO

There is an ongoing debate about whether gender equality in education has been achieved or not. Research efforts have focused on primary and secondary education, while there are fewer studies on higher education, and few studies refer to distance education. To contribute to address this gap, this article presents a gender analysis of educational outcomes in economics at Spain's leading distance university, UNED, which is also the largest university in the European Union in terms of enrolment. The aim of the article is to assess whether there is a gender gap in academic results and to identify the sociodemographic and academic variables that may be causing such a gap by analysing how they shape such differences. Finally, the impact of COVID-19 is also considered. The results confirm that women underperformed significantly in our sample in terms of passing and scoring, especially among those between 30 and 45 years of age, who are more likely to have young children. When considering a distribution of family tasks biased against women, along with the higher average age of distance learning university students, gender gaps could probably be greater in nonface-to-face education. COVID-19 narrowed the gender gap during the lockdown period, as some men and women staying at home together were able to improve task sharing capabilities. After the lockdown, however, women's results worsened compared to pre-COVID-19 levels. A possible explanation is that they had to continue performing the same family duties in addition to substituting education and caring services (e.g., nurseries and day centres for the elderly) that did not resume activity immediately or continuously.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1524, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of hypertension increases with age, but there is a general perception in India that women are less affected at every stage of life, although empiric evidence hardly exists regarding gender difference in hypertension in Indians of different ages. Therefore, we aimed to examine the gender difference in hypertension among Indians across various age-groups; and the contribution of variation in body mass index (BMI) to this difference. METHODS: Data were analysed after combining National Family Health Survey 4 (n = 294,584 aged 35-49 years) and Study of Ageing and Health wave 2 (n = 7118 aged 50 + years) datasets (NFHS-SAGE). Longitudinal Ageing Study of India (LASI) dataset (n = 65,900 aged > 45years) was analysed to replicate the results. Hypertension was defined if systolic and diastolic blood pressure was > 89 and/or > 139 respectively and/or if there was a history of anti-hypertensive medication. Descriptive summaries were tabulated and plotted to examine the gender difference in hypertension in various age-groups (35-39,40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, ≥ 70). Odds Ratios (ORs) from logistic regression models estimated the age gradient of hypertension and their male-female difference, adjusted for Body Mass Index (BMI). RESULTS: Males had a higher prevalence of hypertension up to 50 years; after that, females had higher rates. The estimates of age gradient, expressed as ORs, were 1.02 (1.02, 1.02) in males versus 1.05(1.05, 1.06) in females (p < 0.001) in NFHS-SAGE and 1.01(1.01, 1.02) in males versus 1.04(1.03, 1.04)in females (p < 0.001) in LASI;these differences marginally changed after adjustment with BMI. CONCLUSION: This is perhaps the first study to comprehensively demonstrate that cardio-metabolic risk in Indian females surpasses males after 50 years of age, "busting the myth" that Indian females are always at much lower risk than males; and this evidence should inform the Indian healthcare system to prioritise older women for screening and treatment of hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2209460119, 2022 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939691

RESUMO

There is a longstanding belief in relationship science and popular opinion that women are the barometers in mixed-gender relationships such that their perceptions about the partnership carry more weight than men's in predicting future relationship satisfaction, but this idea has yet to be rigorously tested. We analyze data from two studies to test within-person links between men's and women's relationship satisfaction on their own and their partner's next-day and next-year satisfaction. Study 1 combined nine daily diary datasets from Canada and the United States with 901 mixed-gender couples who provided 29,541 daily reports of relationship satisfaction. Study 2 analyzed five annual waves of data from the German Family Panel (pairfam) that surveyed 3,405 mixed-gender couples who provided 21,115 relationship satisfaction reports. Latent curve models with structured residuals (LCM-SR) revealed that in both studies, men's and women's relationship satisfaction significantly predicted their own and their partner's relationship satisfaction, with no gender differences in the magnitude of these effects. Results underscore the interdependence of romantic partners' satisfaction and indicate that both men and women jointly shape romantic relationship satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Parceiros Sexuais , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 2115-2122, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Esophageal variceal bleeding is a common reason for hospitalization in patients with cirrhosis. The main objective of this study was to analyze the effects of gender differences on outcomes in hospitalizations related to Esophageal variceal bleeding in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database for all hospitalizations with a discharge diagnosis of esophageal varices with hemorrhage from 2016 to 2019. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, while secondary outcomes included rate of early endoscopy (defined as less than 1 day), AKI, blood transfusion, sepsis, ICU admission and TIPS (Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt). We also compared the length of stay and total hospitalization charges. RESULTS: We identified a total of 166,760 patients with variceal bleeding of which 32.7% were females. In-hospital mortality was higher in males, 9.91%, compared to females, 8.31% (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.88, p-value=.008, when adjusted for confounding factors). The odds of undergoing an EGD, length of stay, or total hospitalization charges did not differ between the two groups. Compared to men, women had lower odds of receiving TIPS (aOR = 0.83, p-value=.002). CONCLUSION: Women hospitalised with esophageal variceal bleeding are at a lower risk of death compared to males. Further research is needed to elucidate the factors associated with this lower risk.


Assuntos
Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas , Derivação Portossistêmica Transjugular Intra-Hepática , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/complicações , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Longit Life Course Stud ; 13(3): 454-464, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920635

RESUMO

Young adults are co-residing with their parents at higher rates now than in the past, and recent research has explored the correlates of both leaving and subsequently returning to the parental home. Of relevance here, females tend to leave home earlier than their male counterparts, and research finds that drinking and drug use are also linked to residential transitions. This research note explores if substance use during adolescence and young adulthood plays a role in gender differences in home-leaving and home-returning. We find that marijuana use plays a role in both home-leaving and home-returning, with adolescent females who use marijuana the most at risk for early exits from home, and marijuana using males the most at risk for home-returning.


Assuntos
Fumar Maconha , Uso da Maconha , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 259-267, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205964

RESUMO

Objetivos. Examinar las diferencias de género en las características de la parada cardiaca extrahospitalaria (PCRE), los tratamientos, la supervivencia, y los cambios evolutivos en España. Método. Datos de dos series temporales (2013/2014 y 2017/2018) del registro prospectivo de PCRE (OHSCAR). Se incluyeron todos los casos consecutivos en los que intervino un equipo de emergencias. Las variables dependientes fueron las variables de atención de la PCRE, la llegada al hospital con pulso espontáneo, la supervivencia global al alta, y con buenos resultados neurológicos. El sexo fue la variable independiente. Resultados. Las mujeres fueron significativamente mayores, menos propensas a presentar una PCRE en lugar público, recibir desfibrilación externa automática, tener un ritmo inicial desfibrilable y ser atendidas por una ambulancia en menos de 15 minutos. Además, menos mujeres recibieron intervención coronaria percutánea o hipotermia al ingreso hospitalario. Tanto en 2013/2014 como en 2017/2018 las mujeres tuvieron menos probabilidades de supervivencia al ingreso hospitalario (OR = 0,52; p < 0,001; OR = 0,61; p = 0,009 respectivamente), y al alta hospitalaria (OR = 0,69; p = 0,001; OR = 0,72; p = 0,001, respectivamente) y con buenos resultados neurológicos (OR = 0,50; p < 0,001; OR = 0,63; p <0,001, respectivamente). Conclusiones. En ambos periodos las mujeres tuvieron menos probabilidades de sobrevivir y de hacerlo en buenas condiciones neurológicas. Estos resultados indican la necesidad de adoptar nuevos enfoques para abordar las diferencias de género en la PCRE. (AU)


Objective. To examine gender-related differences in the management and survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Spain during 2 time series. Methods. Analysis of data recorded in the prospective Spanish OHCA registry (OHSCAR in its Spanish acronym) for 2 time series (2013-2014 and 2017-2018). We included all 11036 consecutive cases in which an emergency team intervened. The dependent variables were arrival at the hospital after return of spontaneous circulation, overall survival to discharge, and overall survival with good neurological outcomes. Sex was the independent variable. We report descriptive statistics, patient group comparisons, and changes over time. Results.Women were significantly older and less likely to experience an OHCA in a public place, receive automatic external defibrillation, have a shockable heart rhythm, and be attended by an ambulance team within 15 minutes. In addition, fewer women underwent percutaneous coronary interventions or received treatment for hypothermia on admission to the hospital. In 2013-2014 and 2017-2018, respectively, the likelihood of survival was lower for women than men on admission (odds ratio [OR], 0.52 vs OR, 0.61; P < .001 and P = .009 in the 2 time series) and at discharge (OR, 0.69 vs 0.72 for men; P = .001 in both time series). Survival with good neurological outcomes was also less likely in women (OR, 0.50 vs 0.63; P < .001 in both series). Conclusions. The odds for survival and survival with good neurological outcomes were lower for women in nearly all patient groups in both time series. These findings suggest the need to adopt new approaches to address gender differences in OHCA. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , 57426 , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia
10.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 268-274, Ago. 2022. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205965

RESUMO

Introducción. Analizar de forma independiente en mujeres y hombres la frecuencia y las características clínicas asociadas a una clasificación inicial errónea (CIE) en urgencias del dolor torácico (DT) como no coronario. Método. Se analizan todas las consultas por DT atendidas en urgencias entre 2008 y 2017 clasificadas inicialmente (historia clínica y ECG) como DT no coronario. Se consideró como CIE si el diagnóstico final fue síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). Se crearon dos modelos multivariable, uno con 10 factores de riesgo, y otro con 10 características clínicas del DT, en los que se investigó la asociación de estas variables con una CIE. Se analizaron independientemente mujeres y hombres. Resultados. Se analizaron 8.093 mujeres con DT clasificado inicialmente como no coronario (edad mediana: 54 años, RIC: 38-73), 72 con CIE (0,9%). Los factores de riesgo asociados independientemente a CIE fueron obesidad (OR = 0,40; IC 95% = 0,17-0,97) y consumo de cocaína (5,18; 1,16-23,2), y las características clínicas fueron relación con el esfuerzo (2,01; 1,21-3,33), existencia de irradiación (2,05; 1,23-3,41) y síntomas vegetativos acompañantes (1,86; 1,02-3,41). Se analizaron 9.979 hombres (edad mediana: 47 años, RIC: 33-64), 83 con CIE (0,8%). Los factores de riesgo asociados a CIE fueron edad > 40 años (1,74; 1,04-2,91) e hipertensión (0,45; 0,24-0,84). No hubo características clínicas del DT asociadas a CIE. Conclusión. En las mujeres con dolor torácico, se identifican más características asociadas al error de clasificación que en los hombres. Este estudio remarca la necesidad de análisis independiente por sexo en el SCA, en el que clásica- mente se ha considerado la clínica en las mujeres como atípica. (AU)


Objective. To analyze the frequency and clinical characteristics associated with erroneous initial classifications of noncardiac chest pain (NCP) in men and women. Methods. We analyzed all case records in which chest pain was initially classified as noncardiac in origin according to clinical signs and electrocardiograms evaluated in our emergency department between 2008 and 2017. We considered the initial evaluation of NCP to be in error if the final diagnosis was acute coronary syndrome. A risk model for an erroneous initial classification of NCP was developed based on multivariable analysis of our patient data. We also used multivariable analysis to explore associations between 10 clinical signs of chest pain and an erroneous initial NCP classification. The data for men and women were analyzed separately. Results. NCP was the initial classification for 8093 women; their median (interquartile range) age was 54 (38-73) years. The classification was in error for 72 women (0.9%). Odds ratios (ORs) showed that patient risk factors associated with an erroneous NCP classification in the women in our series were obesity (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.17- 0.97) and cocaine consumption (OR, 5.18; 95% CI, 1.16-23.2). Clinical risk factors associated with erroneous NCP classification in women were recent physical exertion (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.21-3.33), radiation exposure (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.23-3.41), and vegetative symptoms (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.02-3.41). For 9979 men with a median age of 47 (33-64) years, NCP was the initial classification; in 83 of the men (0.8%) the classification was erroneous. Patient factors associated with erroneous NCP classification in men were age over 40 years (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.04-2.91) and hypertension (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.24-0.84). No clinical signs of chest pain in men were associated with error. Conclusions. More clinical characteristics are associated with an erroneous classification of NCP in women. [...] (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos adversos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 275-281, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205966

RESUMO

Objetivo. Investigar si existen diferencias en las manifestaciones clínicas por consumo de cannabis según la edad, y si estas se modifican en función del sexo o el consumo de etanol. Método. Estudio observacional descriptivo de pacientes atendidos en 11 servicios de urgencias con consumo de can- nabis como motivo de consulta. Se recogieron 11 manifestaciones clínicas y se analizó su frecuencia relativa en fun- ción de la edad mediante curvas spline cúbicas restringidas. Se analizó si existía interacción en el comportamiento etario de cada uno de los síntomas en función del sexo y del consumo de etanol. Resultados. Se analizaron 949 pacientes, edad media 29 años, 74% varones y 39% con coingesta de etanol. Se iden- tificaron tres patrones de síntomas según la edad: estable (vómitos, cefalea, convulsiones, hipotensión), incrementada en edades medias (agresividad-agitación, ansiedad, psicosis, palpitaciones, alucinaciones) y con aumento progresivo con la edad (dolor torácico e hipertensión). En la relación síntoma-edad, la frecuencia de palpitaciones, vómitos y ce- falea tuvo un comportamiento significativamente diferente según el sexo, más constante en hombres y con un incre- mento marcado en edades medias en mujeres. La coingesta de etanol se asoció con más agitación-agresividad (34,0%/23,4%, p < 0,001) y menos palpitaciones (9,8%/15,6%, p = 0,01), ansiedad (20,7%/27,8%, p = 0,01), psico- sis (10,3%/16,6%, p = 0,007) y dolor torácico (3,8%/9,5%, p = 0,001). En cuanto a la relación síntoma-edad, el eta- nol solo modificó significativamente la frecuencia de vómitos y de psicosis. Conclusión. La edad condiciona efectos clínicos diferenciales en algunas manifestaciones agudas de la intoxicación por cannabis que precisa asistencia hospitalaria, y el sexo y el consumo simultáneo de alcohol modifican esta relación entre edad y frecuencia de algunos síntomas. (AU)


Objectives. To study whether there are age-related differences in the clinical effects of cannabis poisoning and whether any age differences found are also related to sex or coingestion of alcohol. Methods. Descriptive observational study of patients treated in 11 emergency departments for symptoms related to cannabis use. We collected data on 11 clinical manifestations and used a restricted cubic spline model to analyze their relative frequency according to age. We also looked for any interactions between the findings and patient sex or alcohol coingestion. Results. A total of 949 patients were studied. The mean age was 29 years, 74% were males, and 39% had also consumed alcohol. We identified 3 symptom patterns related to age. One set of symptoms (vomiting, headache, convulsions, and hypotension) remained stable across all ages. Manifestations that increased in the middle of the age range studied were agitation and aggressivity, psychosis, palpitations and hallucinations. Chest pain and hypertension increased in older-aged patients. The frequencies of palpitations, vomiting, and headache differed according to sex. These manifestations held constant in males but were markedly higher in young-adult females. Coingestion of alcohol was associated with agitation and aggressivity (in 34.0% vs 23.4%, P < .001), fewer reports of palpitations (in 9.8% vs 15.6%, P = .01), less anxiety (in 20.7% vs 27.8%, P = .01), less psychosis (in 10.3% vs 16.6%, P = .007), and less chest pain (in 3.8% vs 9.5%, P = .001). The only significant interaction between age and alcohol coingestion occurred with respect to vomiting and psychosis. Conclusions. There are age-related differences in the acute clinical manifestations of cannabis poisoning requiring emergency hospital care. Sex and coingestion of alcohol modify the relationship between age and frequency of some manifestations. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Canabinoides , Transtornos Psicóticos , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/etiologia , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 34(4): 282-286, Ago. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-205967

RESUMO

Objetivos. Analizar la desigualdad de género en la producción científica de la revista EMERGENCIAS en la última década. Método. Estudio longitudinal retrospectivo que revisó los números publicados entre enero de 2011 y diciembre de 2020. Se analizaron el número de autores, género, tipo y año de publicación y autoría preferencial (primera autoría, autoría de correspondencia o última autoría). La participación de la mujer se calculó en base a valores porcentuales y se analizó la tendencia existente a lo largo de los años. Resultados. Se recogieron 1.240 artículos con un número total de 5.213 firmantes, 1.889 de ellos (36,2%) mujeres. En 384 (31%) artículos, una mujer asumió la primera autoría, en 352 (28,4%) fue autora para correspondencia y en 358 (28,9%) la última autora. A lo largo de la década, se identificó una tendencia creciente en los que una mujer fue primera autora en los artículos originales o metanálisis (p = 0,047). En los editoriales, revisiones, cartas científicas o comunicaciones breves, cartas al editor y otros no existió una tendencia creciente significativa en las autorías preferenciales. Conclusión. La participación de autoras en la producción científica de la revista EMERGENCIAS ha aumentado en la última década. No obstante, comparado con la de hombres, sigue existiendo una menor participación. (AU)


Objective. To analyze gender disparity in scientific productivity reflected by the authorship of articles in the journal Emergencias over the past decade. Methods. Retrospective longitudinal study. We included articles in all issues published between January 2011 and December 2020, analyzing the number of authors, their gender, article type, year of publication, and preferential authorship credit (first author, corresponding author, and last author positioning). The percentages of women named in each position were calculated, and the trend over time was analyzed. Results. A total of 1240 articles signed by 5213 authors were collected; a woman was named in 1889 of the cases (36.2%). A woman was the first author of 384 articles (31%), the corresponding author of 352 (28.4%), and the last author of 358 (28.9%). The number of female authors of original research articles or meta-analyses tended to increase over time (P = .047), but no statistically significant gender trends were observed in the authorship of editorials, narrative reviews, scientific letters or short communications, letters to the editor, or any other publication category. Conclusions. The publication of articles by women in Emergencias has increased over the past decade. However, women continue to author fewer articles than men. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Publicações de Divulgação Científica , Fatores Sexuais , Autoria e Coautoria na Publicação Científica , Emergências , Estudos Longitudinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sexismo
14.
Ann Card Anaesth ; 25(3): 264-269, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35799552

RESUMO

Background: The objectives of this study were to find out of normal reference value for age-dependent longitudinal strain values in children and find its correlation with conventional echocardiographic parameters. Methods: In total, 100 healthy normal children aged between 2 and 15 years were enrolled and divided into three age groups, namely, 2-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-15 years. Using the GE Vivid 7 ultrasound platform with 4 or 7 MHz probes, both LV and RV global longitudinal strains and conventional echocardiographic parameters were acquired. Results: In normal healthy children, left ventricular GLS values were -20.10 to -19.68 (mean: -19.89), -21.93 to -21.02 (mean: -21.48), and -20.87 to -20.41 (mean: -20.64)) in children aged 2-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-15 years and right ventricular GLS values were -16.80 to -16.44 (mean: -16.62), -27.85 to -27.27 (mean: -27.56), -28.44 to -27.93 (mean: -28.19) in the above three groups, respectively. No significant increase was noted in the left ventricular strain value from basal to the apical segment from age group 2 years to 15 years and no gender differences were seen. None of the conventional echocardiographic parameters commonly used to assess the left or right ventricular systolic function had a significant correlation with LVGLS and RVGLS. Conclusions: The mean LVGLS values were -19.89, -21.48, and -20.64 and RVGLS were -16.62, -27.56, and -28.19 in healthy normal children aged 2-5 years, 5-10 years, and 10-15 years, respectively, and conventional echocardiographic parameters did not have any significant correlation with these values.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Sístole
15.
Elife ; 112022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35822694

RESUMO

Being a parent has long been associated with gender disparities in academia. However, details of the mechanisms by which parenthood and gender influence academic career achievement and progression are not fully understood. Here, using data from a survey of 7,764 academics in North America and publication data from the Web of Science, we analyze gender differences in parenthood and academic achievements and explore the influence of work-family conflict and partner support on these gender gaps. Our results suggest that gender gaps in academic achievement are, in fact, "parenthood gender gaps." Specifically, we found significant gender gaps in most of the measures of academic achievement (both objective and subjective) in the parent group but not in the non-parent group. Mothers are more likely than fathers to experience higher levels of work-family conflict and to receive lower levels of partner support, contributing significantly to the gender gaps in academic achievement for the parent group. We also discuss possible interventions and actions for reducing gender gaps in academia.


Assuntos
Mães , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , América do Norte , Fatores Sexuais
16.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e144, 2022 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35875948

RESUMO

Sex/gender is a continuous variable that researchers frequently treat as dichotomous. This practice can mask continuous underlying adaptive traits and yield spurious dichotomous "sex differences." As such, many sex differences in self-protection may be evolutionary by-products of underlying adaptations rather than adaptations themselves. Binary analysis of continuous sex/gender is ill-considered science that can contribute to inequality and counterproductive public policy.


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Política Pública , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270976, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802732

RESUMO

Given that skill variety is widely regarded a key component of entrepreneurial human capital, gender differences in entrepreneurship could be rooted in the formation of such skill variety. Analyzing 12-year longitudinal data following 1,321 Finnish adolescents into adulthood, we study whether gender differences in skill variety open up early in the vocational development of entrepreneurs vs. non-entrepreneurs, thereby contributing to the persisting gender gap in entrepreneurship in adulthood. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test and compare the mediating effect of early skill variety in adolescence vs. education- and work-related skill variety in early adulthood on the gender gap in entrepreneurial intentions in adulthood. We find that education- and work-related skill variety indeed operate as an obstacle for women entrepreneurship, despite women outperforming men in early skill variety in adolescence. Hence, we identify a critical turning point in early adulthood where women fall behind in their development of entrepreneurial human capital.


Assuntos
Empreendedorismo , Intenção , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupações , Fatores Sexuais
18.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35834595

RESUMO

There is a substantial body of work in physics education looking at gender disparities in physics. Recent work has linked gender disparities in college physics course performance to disparities in high school physics preparation, but to our knowledge, the origin of the disparity in high school physics preparation is still underexplored. In a select sample, we found that women on average had lower force and motion conceptual evaluation (FMCE) pre-scores (the FMCE is a short conceptual assessment of Newton's laws), and FMCE pre-score entirely mediated the effects of high school preparation and social-psychological factors on exam performance. The gender gap in FMCE pre-scores could not be explained by differences in the number of physics courses taken in high school. Instead, we find that the gender gap in the FMCE is partially explained by female students' higher levels of general test anxiety. We hypothesize that the format of the FMCE, a timed assessment, triggers stereotype threat in female students despite being a low-stakes assessment. Therefore, instructors and researchers should take care in interpreting the results of such concept inventory scores and should re-think the way they assess understanding of physics concepts. Results of this work aligned with previous findings on gender disparity in timed exams call upon investigating gender equitable assessment formats for evaluating physics knowledge to replace timed assessments, either high or low stakes.


Assuntos
Física , Estudantes , Feminino , Humanos , Física/educação , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
19.
Riv Psichiatr ; 57(4): 159-164, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856315

RESUMO

The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women has recently received considerable attention, as research has shown an underestimation of the disorder in females, due to a difference in presentation compared to males: females have a higher risk of having ADHD, without those "disruptive" symptoms that determine the request for help. The purpose of the present narrative review is to identify the neglected clinical problems in the diagnostic and therapeutic intervention of women with ADHD and to analyze the associated comorbid problems. The conducted PubMed search and the relevant literature review on the topic show that the impairment of ADHD in women is underestimated due to the different ways the phenomenon manifests compared to traditional male's symptoms. This underestimation consequently leads to an inadequate treatment and has negative repercussions on the social context in which women are involved in.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
20.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(4): 120, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35864771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the influence of gender on the different pain subtypes experienced by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Two hundred patients with PD were recruited for this research. Demographic features for all patients were recorded, as well as clinical data on age, disease duration, levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD), and scores for Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS III), Hoehn-Yahr Scale (H&Y), King's Parkinson's disease Pain Scale (KPPS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), activities of daily living scale (ADL), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA) scales. RESULTS: Male and female patients showed no significant differences in terms of age, disease duration, LEDD, H&Y stage, and UPDRS III, HAMD, HAMA, PSQI and ADL scores. Women showed significantly lower MMSE than men, but their KPPS scores were higher (both p < 0.05). Female also showed significantly higher scores for chronic, fluctuation-related pain and oro-facial pain and more discoloration;edema/swelling than males (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Female gender was associated with pain in PD patients, with stronger associations for certain subtypes of PD-related pain.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Atividades Cotidianas , Ansiedade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dor/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Fatores Sexuais
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