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1.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 243-252, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202548

RESUMO

El estudio de la resiliencia como recuperación del estrés se ha extendido, y se requiere dar cuenta del desarrollo y las propiedades psicométricas de las escalas que permiten utilizarla. El objetivo fue adaptar transculturalmente la Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) y evaluar sus propiedades psicométricas en población joven chilena. Participaron en el año 2016, tres traductores, y 1,237 estudiantes de 18 a 24 años de una universidad de la zona Central de Chile, 60.8% mujeres y 39.2% hombres. Se consiguió la equivalencia lingüística y conceptual después de una doble traducción, retro traducción y de realizar las entrevistas cognitivas con la población diana. Se observaron dificultades en el ítem 2. Del Análisis Factorial Exploratorio surgieron dos factores. Los índices de ajuste del Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio fueron adecuados: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035, IC 90% [.000, .076]. El omega total .81. La estabilidad por ítem fue moderada y para la puntuación total, elevada. Las medias en general fueron menores en mujeres, pero similares entre grupos de edad. Hubo evidencia de validez concurrente y convergente. La versión chilena de la BRS puede ser útil para medir la resiliencia en jóvenes chilenos


The study of resilience as recovery from stress has been extended, and it is necessary to account for the development and psychometric properties of the scales that allow it to be used. The aim was to report on the cross-cultural adaptation process and psychometric properties of the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS) in young Chilean population. In 2016, three translators, and 1,237 students between 18 and 24 years old from a university in the Fifth Region of Chile participated. Linguistic and conceptual equivalence was achieved after carried out a double translation, back-translation and cognitive interviews with the target population. Difficulties were observed in item 2. From the Exploratory Factor Analysis, two factors emerged. In the Confirmatory Factorial Analysis, the fit indexes were suitable: χ2 = 9.256(6), p = .160; CFI = .995; TLI = .988; RMSEA = .035 IC 90% .000, .076. Total omega was .81. The stability per item was moderate; and high for the total score. Means were generally lower in women than in men but similar among age groups. It has evidence for concurrent and convergent validity. The BRS Chilean version might be useful for measuring resilience in young Chileans


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comparação Transcultural , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Psicometria , Análise Fatorial , Fatores Sexuais , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Traduções , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Chile , Estudantes/psicologia
2.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 253-264, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-202549

RESUMO

Ambivalent sexism is a multidimensional construct composed of two elements: hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. The main aim of this study is to analyse the acceptance of ambivalent sexist attitudes in a sample of future teachers from Spain and Latin America. The research is based on a quantitative methodological strategy. The sample is composed of 2798 trainee teachers, and their mean age is 22.62 years (SD = 6.23), they were residing in seven countries: Spain, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina and Mexico. The data collection technique was the structured questionnaire. The results show that ambivalent sexist attitudes exist to a varying degree in future teachers of every country. The assumption of sexism varies significantly between men and women and among countries. There seems to be a relationship between levels of sexism with indices of gender inequality and human development. Education institutions are not exempt from obstacles and gender bias that impede the attainment of equality between women and men. Sexist attitudes of teachers can be transmitted through the education system and the socialization process, so including gender issues in initial and in service teacher training plans is essential


El sexismo ambivalente es un constructo multidimensional compuesto por dos componentes: el sexismo hostil y el sexismo benévolo. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido analizar la aceptación de las actitudes sexistas ambivalentes en una muestra de futuros y futuras docentes de España y Latinoamérica. En la investigación participaron 2798 docentes en formación con una edad media de 22.62 años (DE = 6.23) que residían en siete países: España, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Colombia, Chile, Argentina y México. Los resultados muestran que las actitudes sexistas están presentes, con diferentes grados de aceptación, en el profesorado en formación de todos los países. La aceptación del sexismo varía significativamente entre hombres y mujeres y entre los países de la muestra. Parece existir una relación entre los niveles de sexismo y los índices de desigualdad de género y desarrollo humano. Las actitudes sexistas del profesorado pueden transmitirse a través del sistema educativo y de los procesos de socialización, por lo que es fundamental incluir la perspectiva de género en los planes de formación inicial y continua del profesorado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Professores Escolares/estatística & dados numéricos , Capacitação de Professores , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Sexuais , Sexismo/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Valores de Referência , Hostilidade , Empatia , Espanha , América Latina
3.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 298-310, mayo-sept. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202553

RESUMO

En el marco del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, el profesorado ha de contar con capacidades profesionales para impulsar en el alumnado la competencia aprender a aprender, que hace referencia a la capacidad de autorregulación del propio proceso de aprendizaje. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en diseñar y validar un cuestionario para medir los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje que el profesorado universitario activa para el desarrollo de la competencia aprender a aprender, el CAA. En primer lugar, en base a la revisión teórica y empírica, se definieron 86 ítems. A continuación, se examinaron la validez de contenido (n = 20 expertos), la validez basada en los procesos de respuesta (n = 10 docentes), la validez basada en la estructura interna (n = 415 docentes), la validez concurrente y la validez externa. Los resultados mostraron una adecuada calidad psicométrica, consistencia interna, fiabilidad y bondad de ajuste. La versión final del CAA comprendió 4 dimensiones y 39 ítems. Este instrumento puede ser una herramienta de rápida aplicación, válida y fiable, para conocer el desarrollo de los contextos facilitadores de aprendizaje de la competencia aprender a aprender. Asimismo, puede servir para detectar necesidades de formación profesional en el desarrollo de dicha competencia


Within the European Higher Education Area framework, educators must have acquired professional skills in order to promote the learning to learn competence, which refers to the ability to self-regulate the learning process itself, in their students. The objective of this work was to design and validate a questionnaire, the learning to learn questionnaire (LLQ), to measure the facilitative learning contexts implemented by university educators to develop the learning to learn competence. First, based on a theoretical and empirical review, 86 items belonging to 7 dimensions were de-fined. Next, content validity (n = 20 experts), validity based on response processes (n = 10 teachers), validity based on internal structure (n = 415 teachers), and concurrent validity were examined. Our results showed sufficient psychometric quality, reliability of scores and goodness of fit. The final version of the LLQ consisted of 4 dimensions and 39 items. This instrument can be considered a valid and reliable tool that can be quickly ap-plied in order to identify the development of facilitative learning contexts in the evolution of the learning to learn competence. Likewise, it can also serve to detect training needs in the development of this competence in university educators


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aprendizagem , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Docentes/psicologia , Competência Profissional , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise Fatorial , Escolaridade , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores Sexuais
4.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 311-322, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202554

RESUMO

Desde la teoría del liderazgo transformacional, este estudio tenía como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de una versión adaptada al ámbito educativo del Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). Un total de 1551 estudiantes españoles (M = 15,47 años ± 0,72; 679 chicos y 872 chicas) de 31 centros de enseñanza secundaria participaron en el estudio. El análisis factorial confirmatorio de la estructura inicial de nueve factores de la escala determinó la necesidad de eliminar dos ítems del factor dirección por excepción pasiva, agrupando en un solo factor el liderazgo pasivo. En un segundo modelo de ocho factores, se hallaron altas correlaciones entre los factores del liderazgo transformacional, señalando la necesidad de establecer un factor de primer orden. Finalmente, se testó un tercer modelo que obtuvo valores adecuados de validez y fiabilidad, que estaba compuesto por 34 ítems distribuidos en 4 factores principales (liderazgo transformacional, recompensa contingente, dirección por excepción activa y liderazgo pasivo) y 5 factores secundarios para el liderazgo transformacional (influencia idealizada conducta, influencia idealizada atribuida, motivación inspiracional, estimulación intelectual y consideración individualizada. Por tanto, la versión española del MLQ-5X en el ámbito educativo puede ser utilizada para evaluar el liderazgo transformacional de los docentes desde la percepción del alumnado


Drawing on the transformational leadership theory, this study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of a version adapted to the educational environment of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X). A total of 1551 Spanish students (M = 15.47 years ± 0.72; 679 boys and 872 girls) from 31 secondary schools participated in the study. The confirmatory factor analysis of the initial nine-factor structure of the scale determined the need to eliminate two items of the passive exception management factor, grouping passive leadership into a single factor. A second eight-factor model found high correlations between the factors of transformational leadership, revealing the need to establish a first-order factor. Finally, a third model, which obtained adequate values of validity and reliability, was composed of 34 items distributed in 4 main factors (transformational leadership, contingent reward, leadership by active exception, and passive leadership) and 5 secondary factors for transformational leadership (idealized influence behavior, attributed idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration). The Spanish version of the MLQ-5X in the educational field can be used to assess the students' perception of teacher leadership


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Liderança , Estudantes/psicologia , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Análise Fatorial , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
5.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 352-360, mayo-sept. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202558

RESUMO

El presente estudio bibliométrico tuvo como objetivo conocer y analizar la actividad científica disponible sobre percepción y detección de violencia de género (VG) e identificación como víctimas. Se realizó una búsqueda sin límite temporal en la base de datos Scopus hallando 2.152 documentos. Para reducir el ruido documental de la búsqueda, se cribaron los resultados y se analizaron 974 documentos finales procedentes de 465 fuentes documentales, 160 revistas, 2.758 autores/as, 159 instituciones y 79 países. Los resultados muestran un aumento en la producción en los últimos años, destacando la publicación de artículos originales. Asimismo, predomina la autoría única por país, siendo Estados Unidos el país puntero. Entre los objetivos de los documentos más citados se encuentra la detección de VG por el personal sanitario, la valoración del riesgo de reincidencia mediante la percepción de las víctimas, así como el estudio de percepciones y actitudes de diferentes actores hacia la VG


This bibliometric study seeks to know and analyse the available scientific activity on the perception and detection of gender violence as well as in the identification as victims. An unlimited search was conducted in the Scopus database, finding 2,152 documents. Subsequently, the results were screened by reducing the documentary noise. The results were obtained from 1984-2020 and the final 974 documents were analysed from 465 documentary sources, 160 journals, 2,758 authors, 159 institutions, and 79 countries. The results show an increase in production in recent years, highlighting the publication of original articles. Likewise, the single author-ship per country predominates, being the United States the leading country. The main objectives of the most cited documents are detection of gender violence by healthcare personnel, assessment of the risk of recidivism through the perception of the victims, as well as the study of perceptions and attitudes of different actors towards gender-violence


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Liderança , Estudantes/psicologia , Aspirações Psicológicas , Engajamento no Trabalho , Identidade de Gênero , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Análise Fatorial
6.
An. psicol ; 37(2): 393-402, mayo-sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-202562

RESUMO

Professional drivers often have problems sleeping or resting properly. This may be due to various factors, both personal and specific to their working conditions. In this study, we set out to develop a predictive model for the quality of sleep in professional drivers using the following indicators: Age, Gender, Seat Comfort, Seat Suspension, Adjustable Lum-bar Support of the Driver's Seat, Driving Hours, Musculoskeletal Problems, Driver Stress, Irritation, Resistant Personality, Burnout, Safety Behaviors and Impulsivity. METHOD: The participants were 369 professional drivers from different transport sectors, obtained through non-probabilistic sampling. The SPSS 25.0 program was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The predictive capacity of certain variables that affect drivers' sleep quality is determined. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep quality can be predicted by means of certain variables, the best predictor of which is Exhaustion (Burnout). This research contributes to the body of knowledge on sleep quality and on improving the health of professional drivers


Los conductores profesionales suelen padecer problemas para dormir o descansar correctamente. Esto puede deberse a diversos factores tanto personales como específicos de las condiciones laborales. En el presente trabajo nos hemos planteado desarrollar un modelo predictivo sobre la calidad del sueño en conductores profesionales utilizando los indicadores siguientes: Edad, Género, Confort del asiento, suspensión del asiento, Soporte lumbar ajustable del asiento del conductor, Horas de conducción, Problemas musculoesqueléticos, Drivers Stress, Irritación, Personalidad resistente, Burnout, conductas de seguridad e Impulsividad. MÉTODO: Los participantes han sido 369 conductores profesionales, de distintos sectores del transporte, obtenidos mediante un muestreo no probabilístico. Se han utilizado el programa SPSS 25.0. RESULTADOS: Se determina la capacidad predictiva de algunas variables que afectan a los conductores sobre la calidad del sueño. CONCLUSIONES: La calidad del sueño se puede predecir a través de determinadas variables, siendo la mejor predictora Exhaustion (Burnout). Esta investigación contribuye a un mayor conocimiento de la calidad del sueño y a la mejora de la salud de los conductores profesionales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Valores de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Condições de Trabalho , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Adv Respir Med ; 89(3): 254-261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196377

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has been likened to the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. We aim to study the similarities and differences between patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and H1N1 influenza in order to provide better care to patients, particularly during the co-circulation of Influenza A Subtype H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in order to compare clinical characteristics, complications, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with PCR-confirmed H1N1 influenza pneumonia and COVID-19 at a tertiary care center in Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 were compared with 55 patients with H1N1 Influenza A pneumonia. Median age was similar in both COVID-19 patients (54 years) and in patients with H1N1 influenza (59 years), but there was male predominance in COVID-19 patients (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.12-7.79). Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.14-1.62) times more likely to have a greater duration of illness prior to presentation compared to H1N1 influenza patients. COVID-19 patients were 4.59 times (95% CI: 1.32-15.94) more likely to be admitted to a general ward compared to H1N1 pneumonia patients. Moreover, patients with COVID-19 were 7.62 times (95% CI: 2.42-24.00) more likely to be treated with systemic steroids compared to patients with H1N1 pneumonia. The rate of nosocomial infections as well as mortality was similar in both H1N1 and COVID-19 pneumonia. CONCLUSION: Our study found a male predominance and longer duration of illness in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 compared to H1N1 influenza patients but no difference in outcomes with either infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Signal ; 14(690)2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230210

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has poorer clinical outcomes in males than in females, and immune responses underlie these sex-related differences. Because immune responses are, in part, regulated by metabolites, we examined the serum metabolomes of COVID-19 patients. In male patients, kynurenic acid (KA) and a high KA-to-kynurenine (K) ratio (KA:K) positively correlated with age and with inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and negatively correlated with T cell responses. Males that clinically deteriorated had a higher KA:K than those that stabilized. KA inhibits glutamate release, and glutamate abundance was lower in patients that clinically deteriorated and correlated with immune responses. Analysis of data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project revealed that the expression of the gene encoding the enzyme that produces KA, kynurenine aminotransferase, correlated with cytokine abundance and activation of immune responses in older males. This study reveals that KA has a sex-specific link to immune responses and clinical outcomes in COVID-19, suggesting a positive feedback between metabolites and immune responses in males.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Ácido Cinurênico/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/sangue , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/etiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/imunologia , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Triptofano/metabolismo
9.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1845-1860, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of female sex on in-hospital outcomes and to provide estimates for sex-specific prediction models of adverse outcomes following left atrial appendage closure (LAAC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cohort-based observational study querying the National Inpatient Sample database between October 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017. Demographics, baseline characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Elixhauser Comorbidity Index score (ECS), and CHA2DS2-VASc score. The primary outcome was in-hospital major adverse events (MAEs) defined as the composite of bleeding, vascular, cardiac complications, post-procedural stroke, and acute kidney injury. The associations of the CCI, ECS, and CHA2DS2-VASc score with in-hospital MAE were examined using logistic regression models for women and men, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 3294 hospitalizations were identified, of which 1313 (40%) involved women and 1981 (60%) involved men. Women were older (76.3±7.7 vs 75.2±8.4 years, P<.001), had a higher CHA2DS2-VASc score (4.9±1.4 vs 3.9±1.4, P<.001) but showed lower CCI and ECS compared with men (2.1±1.9 vs 2.3±1.9, P=.01; and 9.3±5.9 vs 9.9±5.7, P=.002, respectively). The primary composite outcome occurred in 4.6% of patients and was higher in women compared with men (women 5.6% vs men 4.0%, P=.04), and this was mainly driven by the occurrence of cardiac complications (2.4% vs 1.2%, P=.01). In women, older age, higher median income, and higher CCI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21 to 1.44; P<.001), ECS (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.07; P=.002), and CHA2DS2-VASc score (aOR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.39; P<.001) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital MAE. In men, non-White race/ethnicity, lower median income, and higher ECS (aOR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.09; P<.001) were associated with increased risk of in-hospital MAE. CONCLUSION: Women had higher rates of in-hospital adverse events following LAAC than men did. Women with older age and higher median income, CCI, ECS, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were associated with in-hospital adverse events, whereas men with non-White race/ethnicity, lower median income, and higher ECS were more likely to experience adverse events. Further research is warranted to identify sex-specific, racial/ethnic, and socioeconomic pathways during the patient selection process to minimize complications in patients undergoing LAAC.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrilação Atrial , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Implantação de Prótese/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Regras de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Prognóstico , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Dispositivo para Oclusão Septal , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
10.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1874-1887, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate sex differences in valve morphology, disease phenotype, progression, and outcomes among children and young adults with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study examining all children and young adults (aged ≤22 years) with isolated BAV diagnosed, by excluding patients with concomitant congenital heart defects or genetic syndromes, from January 1, 1990, through December 1, 2016, at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. RESULTS: Of 1010 patients with BAV, 558 had isolated BAV. Distributions of morphology were right-left in 65.8% (n=367), right-noncoronary in 34% (n=190), and left-noncoronary cusp fusion in 0.2% (n=1) of patients; with no sex differences. Male to female ratio was 3:1. At the first echocardiographic evaluation in the study, there were no sex differences in terms of frequency of aortic valve stenosis or regurgitation. However, males had significantly higher grades of aortic valve regurgitation at 17 years of age onward (P<.0001). Males had significantly larger mid-ascending aorta (P=.01) and sinus of Valsalva dimensions (z score; P=.0001) as compared with females, with a novel finding of peak aortic dimensions around 8 years of age. Males also had more than 2-fold higher risk for sinus of Valsalva dilation (z score >2) as compared with females (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.2; P=.01). There were no significant sex differences in the primary cardiac outcomes of interventions on aortic valve and/or aorta, aortic dissection, or death. CONCLUSION: In children and young adults with BAV, males have a higher grade of aortic regurgitation in late adolescence, significantly larger aortic dimensions, different patterns of aortic growth, and more frequent sinus of Valsalva dilation as compared with females. Overall, the rate of primary cardiac events is lower in young patients, with no significant sex differences.


Assuntos
Aorta , Valva Aórtica , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Fatores Sexuais , Seio Aórtico , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aorta/patologia , Valva Aórtica/anormalidades , Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Aórtica/etiologia , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/diagnóstico , Doença da Válvula Aórtica Bicúspide/fisiopatologia , Variação Biológica da População , Criança , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Seio Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Seio Aórtico/patologia
11.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1955-1969, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218868

RESUMO

There are marked sex differences in asthma prevalence and severity. Sex hormones play a central role in these sex biases and directly interact with multiple key cells involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. Here we review the known effects of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone on airway epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells, the mononuclear phagocyte system, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, mast cells, T cells, and B cells, all in the context of asthma. Furthermore, we explore unresolved clinical questions, such as the role of sex hormones in the link between asthma and obesity.


Assuntos
Asma , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Inata , Fatores Sexuais
13.
WMJ ; 120(2): 152-155, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255958

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine the associations between heart disease, obesity, and demographic factors and increased COVID-19 mortality. METHODS: We extracted deidentified patient-level data from the Froedtert Health System and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin and used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to characterize relationships between heart disease, obesity, age group, sex, race and ethnicity and mortality following COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: We found heart disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.85; 95% CI, 2.11-8.83) and other demographic factors are significant predictors of increased mortality in COVID-19 patients. However, obesity was not a significant predictor of mortality (AOR 1.04; 95% CI, 0.53- 3.10). DISCUSSION: These unique results indicate some comorbid conditions and patient demographics contribute more strongly to mortality in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Cardiopatias/complicações , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Cardiopatias/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/etnologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265874

RESUMO

Objective: To measure the mental health effects (perceived stress, anxiety, and depression) among health care workers and medical students in Lebanon during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and subsequent to the Beirut blast.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered online questionnaire was developed and distributed between late December 2020 and early February 2021 among health care workers and medical students via social media. The 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire for Depression and Anxiety (PHQ-4) were administered. P values between variables were calculated using χ2 test.Results: Overall, 98% of the respondents had a low PSS-10 score and 89% had a low PHQ-4 score. About 58.1% of health care workers and 69.0% of student respondents had moderate to severe stress on the PSS-10, and 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, reported moderate to severe anxiety and depression on the PHQ-4. Prevalence of depression and anxiety was relatively higher among health care workers with monthly incomes < LBP 4 million (57.1%) and higher in women (39.9%) compared to men (17.2%). Furthermore, the prevalence of depression and anxiety was higher among health care workers traveling between different districts (63.0%) compared to those with residence and work location within the same district and was higher among females (65.4%) compared to males (34.6%).Conclusions: The resilience of the Lebanese people as well as their ability to adapt in the face of trauma, tragedy, threats, or any significant source of stress is remarkable and seen in their everyday lives, especially subsequent to the Beirut blast. However, the psychological well-being and mental health of health care workers and medical students in Lebanon should be carefully surveilled and recorded during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially within the ongoing socioeconomic crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Desastres , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Recessão Econômica , Feminino , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet HIV ; 8(7): e429-e439, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa matures, evidence about the age distribution of new HIV infections and how this distribution has changed over the epidemic is needed to guide HIV prevention. We aimed to assess trends in age-specific HIV incidence in six population-based cohort studies in eastern and southern Africa, reporting changes in mean age at infection, age distribution of new infections, and birth cohort cumulative incidence. METHODS: We used a Bayesian model to reconstruct age-specific HIV incidence from repeated observations of individuals' HIV serostatus and survival collected among population HIV cohorts in rural Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zimbabwe, in a collaborative analysis of the ALPHA network. We modelled HIV incidence rates by age, time, and sex using smoothing splines functions. We estimated incidence trends separately by sex and study. We used estimated incidence and prevalence results for 2000-17, standardised to study population distribution, to estimate mean age at infection and proportion of new infections by age. We also estimated cumulative incidence (lifetime risk of infection) by birth cohort. FINDINGS: Age-specific incidence declined at all ages, although the timing and pattern of decline varied by study. The mean age at infection was higher in men (cohort mean 27·8-34·6 years) than in women (24·8-29·6 years). Between 2000 and 2017, the mean age at infection per cohort increased slightly: 0·5 to 2·8 years among men and -0·2 to 2·5 years among women. Across studies, between 38% and 63% (cohort medians) of the infections in women were among those aged 15-24 years and between 30% and 63% of infections in men were in those aged 20-29 years. Lifetime risk of HIV declined for successive birth cohorts. INTERPRETATION: HIV incidence declined in all age groups and shifted slightly to older ages. Disproportionate new HIV infections occur among women aged 15-24 years and men aged 20-29 years, supporting focused prevention in these groups. However, 40-60% of infections were outside these ages, emphasising the importance of providing appropriate HIV prevention to adults of all ages. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Austral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4015, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230477

RESUMO

Sex and gender differences impact the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality. Furthermore, sex differences influence the frequency and severity of pharmacological side effects. A large number of clinical trials to develop new therapeutic approaches and vaccines for COVID-19 are ongoing. We investigated the inclusion of sex and/or gender in COVID-19 studies on ClinicalTrials.gov, collecting data for the period January 1, 2020 to January 26, 2021. Here, we show that of the 4,420 registered SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 studies, 935 (21.2%) address sex/gender solely in the context of recruitment, 237 (5.4%) plan sex-matched or representative samples or emphasized sex/gender reporting, and only 178 (4%) explicitly report a plan to include sex/gender as an analytical variable. Just eight (17.8%) of the 45 COVID-19 related clinical trials published in scientific journals until December 15, 2020 report sex-disaggregated results or subgroup analyses.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Estudos Clínicos como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seleção de Pacientes , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4144, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34230476

RESUMO

To investigate the duration of humoral immune response in convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, we conduct a 12-month longitudinal study through collecting a total of 1,782 plasma samples from 869 convalescent plasma donors in Wuhan, China and test specific antibody responses. The results show that positive rate of IgG antibody against receptor-binding domain of spike protein (RBD-IgG) to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors exceeded 70% for 12 months post diagnosis. The level of RBD-IgG decreases with time, with the titer stabilizing at 64.3% of the initial level by the 9th month. Moreover, male plasma donors produce more RBD-IgG than female, and age of the patients positively correlates with the RBD-IgG titer. A strong positive correlation between RBD-IgG and neutralizing antibody titers is also identified. These results facilitate our understanding of SARS-CoV-2-induced immune memory to promote vaccine and therapy development.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Receptores Virais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Doadores de Sangue , COVID-19/terapia , Linhagem Celular , China , Chlorocebus aethiops , Convalescença , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Imunização Passiva , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Células Vero
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200395

RESUMO

Rainbow trout are considered as a poor user of dietary carbohydrates, displaying persistent postprandial hyperglycaemia when fed a diet containing high amounts of carbohydrates. While this phenotype is well-described in juveniles, less attention was given to broodstock. Our objective was to assess for the first time the short-term consequences of feeding mature female and male, and neomale trout with a low-protein high-carbohydrate diet on glucose and lipid metabolism. Fish were fed for two days with a diet containing either no or 32% of carbohydrates. We analysed plasma metabolites, mRNA levels and enzymatic activities of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, de novo lipogenesis and ß-oxidation in the liver. Results demonstrated that the glucose and lipid metabolism were regulated by the nutritional status in all sexes, irrespective of the carbohydrate intake. These data point out that carbohydrate intake during a short period (5 meals) at 8 °C did not induce specific metabolic changes in broodstock. Finally, we demonstrated, for the first time, sex differences regarding the consequences of two days of feeding on glucose and lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gluconeogênese , Glucose/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Oncorhynchus mykiss/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oncorhynchus mykiss/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200797

RESUMO

Although sex differences in the brain are prevalent, the knowledge about mechanisms underlying sex-related effects on normal and pathological brain functioning is rather poor. It is known that female and male brains differ in size and connectivity. Moreover, those differences are related to neuronal morphology, synaptic plasticity, and molecular signaling pathways. Among different processes assuring proper synapse functions are posttranslational modifications, and among them, S-palmitoylation (S-PALM) emerges as a crucial mechanism regulating synaptic integrity. Protein S-PALM is governed by a family of palmitoyl acyltransferases, also known as DHHC proteins. Here we focused on the sex-related functional importance of DHHC7 acyltransferase because of its S-PALM action over different synaptic proteins as well as sex steroid receptors. Using the mass spectrometry-based PANIMoni method, we identified sex-dependent differences in the S-PALM of synaptic proteins potentially involved in the regulation of membrane excitability and synaptic transmission as well as in the signaling of proteins involved in the structural plasticity of dendritic spines. To determine a mechanistic source for obtained sex-dependent changes in protein S-PALM, we analyzed synaptoneurosomes isolated from DHHC7-/- (DHHC7KO) female and male mice. Our data showed sex-dependent action of DHHC7 acyltransferase. Furthermore, we revealed that different S-PALM proteins control the same biological processes in male and female synapses.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/fisiologia , Lipoilação , Plasticidade Neuronal , Neurônios/fisiologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Sinapses/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neurônios/citologia , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201025

RESUMO

Medical procreation impairs both the biological and psychological lives of couples. However, male and female attitudes to infertility are different and require a different approach during the IVF journey. Thus, the gender impact assessment (GIA) method was used to analyse original studies present in the literature. We found some gender-related differences and, subsequently, possible outcomes of intervention to improve healthy reproduction management and prevent infertility. In particular, it became apparent that there was the need for an in-depth male infertility assessment and a gender-specific follow-up.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Masculino , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Fatores Sexuais
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