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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(2): 30-34, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945030

RESUMO

Each year, excessive drinking accounts for one in 10 deaths among U.S. adults aged 20-64 years (1), and approximately 90% of adults who report excessive drinking* binge drink (i.e., consume five or more drinks for men or four or more drinks for women on a single occasion) (2). In 2015, 17.1% of U.S. adults aged ≥18 years reported binge drinking approximately once a week and consumed an average of seven drinks per binge drinking episode, resulting in 17.5 billion total binge drinks, or 467 total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking (3). CDC analyzed 2011-2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data to assess trends in total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking in the United States overall and in the individual states. The age-adjusted† total annual number of binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking increased significantly from 472 in 2011 to 529 in 2017. Total annual binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking also increased significantly from 2011 to 2017 among those aged 35-44 years (26.7%, from 468 to 593) and 45-64 years (23.1%, from 428 to 527). The largest percentage increases in total binge drinks per adult who reported binge drinking during this period were observed among those without a high school diploma (45.8%) and those with household incomes <$25,000 (23.9%). Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force§ for reducing excessive drinking (e.g., regulating alcohol outlet density) might reduce binge drinking and related health risks.


Assuntos
Bebedeira/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 42-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888361

RESUMO

AIMS: Patient engagement in adaptive health behaviours and interactions with their healthcare ecosystem can be measured using self-reported instruments, such as the Patient Activation Measure (PAM-13) and the Effective Consumer Scale (ECS-17). Few studies have investigated the influence of patient engagement on limitations (patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs)) and patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). First, we assessed whether patient engagement (PAM-13, ECS-17) within two to four weeks of an upper limb fracture was associated with limitations (the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (QuickDASH), and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Upper Extremity Physical Function computer adaptive test (PROMIS UE PF) scores) measured six to nine months after fracture, accounting for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. Secondly, we assessed the association between patient engagement and experience (numerical rating scale for satisfaction with care (NRS-C) and satisfaction with services (NRS-S) six to nine months after fracture. METHODS: A total of 744 adults with an isolated fracture of the proximal humerus, elbow, or distal radius completed PROMs. Due to multicollinearity of patient engagement and psychosocial variables, we generated a single variable combining measures of engagement and psychosocial factors using factor analysis. We then performed multivariable analysis with p < 0.10 on bivariate analysis. RESULTS: Patient engagement and psychosocial factors combined to form a single factor (factor 1) accounting for 20% (QuickDASH, semi-partial R2 = 0.20) and 14% (PROMIS UE PF, semi-partial R2 = 0.14) of the variation in limitations six to nine months after fracture. Factor 1 also accounted for 17% (NRS-C, semi-partial R2 = 0.17) of variation in satisfaction with care, and 21% (NRS-S, semi-partial R2 = 0.21) of variation in satisfaction with services. Demographic factors (age, sex, work status) and measures of greater pathophysiology (type of fracture, high-energy injury, post-surgical complications), accounted for much less variation. CONCLUSION: Patients who actively manage their health and demonstrate effective emotional and social functioning share a common underlying trait. They have fewer limitations and greater satisfaction with care during recovery from upper limb fractures. Future efforts should focus on evaluating initiatives that optimize patient engagement, such as patient education, coaching, and a communication strategy for healthcare professionals. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):42-47.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/lesões , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fraturas do Úmero/cirurgia , Fraturas Intra-Articulares/cirurgia , Participação do Paciente , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Fraturas do Úmero/psicologia , Fraturas Intra-Articulares/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Fraturas do Rádio/psicologia , Autoeficácia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 47-53, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914569

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy and relevant factors of cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of demographic characteristics and cancer prevention consciousness focusing on nine common risk factors, including smoking, alcohol, fiber food, food in hot temperature or pickled food, chewing betel nut, helicobacter pylori, moldy food, hepatitis B infection, estrogen, and exercise. The logistic regression model was adopted to identify the influencing factors. Results: The overall health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness was 77.4% (24 980 participants), with 77.4% (12 018 participants), 79.9% (6 406 participants), 77.2% (1 766 participants) and 74.5% (4 709 participants) in each group (P<0.001). The correct response rates for nine risk factors ranged from 55.2% to 93.0%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with community residents, people with primary school level education or below, and the number of people living together in the family <3, the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, cancer patients, those with junior high school level educationor above and the number of people living in the family ≥3 had better health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Compared with females, 39 years old and below, government-affiliated institutions or civil servants, from the eastern region, males, older than 40 years, company or enterprise employees, and from the middle or western region had worse health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents should be improved. The cancer screening intervention, gender, age, education, occupation, the number of people co-living in the family, and residential region were associated with the health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 54-61, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914570

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early detection among urban residents and identify the influencing factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. Self-designed questionnaires were used to collect population, socioeconomic indicators, self-cancer risk assessment, regular participation in physical examination and other information. The multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors of people who had not regularly participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years. Results: The self-assessment results of 32 357 residents showed that there were 27.54% (8 882) of total study population with self-reported cancer risk, 45.48% (14 671) without cancer risk and 26.98% (8 704) with unclear judgement on their own cancer risk. Among population with cancer risk, 79.84% (7 091) considered physical examination accounted. In the past five years, there were 21 105 (65.43%) residents participated in regular physical examination and 11 148 (34.56%) participated in non-scheduled one, respectively. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with unmarried and western region residents, divorced, middle and eastern region residents had a stronger consciousness to participate in the regular physical examination (P<0.05). Compare with residents with annual household income less than 20 000 CNY in 2014, cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, and self-assessment with cancer risk, residents with annual household income between 20 000 CNY and 59 000 CNY in 2014, occupational population, community residents, cancer patients, self-reported cancer-free risk, and self-assessment with unclear judgement of cancer risk were less likely to participate in the regular physical examination (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a acceptable consciousness of the cancer early detection. The marital status, annual household income, population group and self-assessment of cancer risk were related to the consciousness of the cancer early detection of people who had not participated in the regular physical examination in the past five years.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 62-68, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914571

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis among urban residents and identify the related factors from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The general demographic characteristics, the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis (whether people would have a willingness or encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the abnormal results once which were detected from the physical examination) and other information were collected by using the self-designed questionnaire. The non-conditional logistic regression model was used to identify the relateol factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Results: As for residents with abnormal result from the physical examination, 89.29% (28 802) of residents would choose to seek medical treatment for further diagnosis. If their relatives/friends had abnormal results from the physical examination, 89.55% (28 886) of residents would encourage their relatives/friends to confirm the diagnosis in time. The non-conditional logistic regression model analysis showed that compared with the public institution staff/civil servants, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, the western region and the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, the company staff, annual household income about 40 000 CNY and more, and the residents from the middle and eastern region had a stronger consciousness to seek further diagnosis; while the unemployed residents and community residents were less likely to seek further diagnosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2015 to 2017, the Chinese urban residents had a good consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis. Occupation, annual household income, residential region and population group were related to the consciousness of the cancer early diagnosis.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 69-75, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914572

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and its demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The questionnaire collected personal information, the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and relevant factors. The Chi square test was used to compare the difference between the consciousness of the cancer early treatment and relevant factors among the four groups. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early treatment. Results: With the assumption of being diagnosed as precancer or cancer, 89.97% of community residents, 91.84% of cancer risk assessment/screening population, 93.00% of cancer patients and 91.52% of occupational population would accept active treatments (P<0.001). If the immediate family members were diagnosed as precancer or cancer, people who would encourage their family members to receive early treatment in the four groups accounted for 91.96%, 91.94%, 92.44% and 91.55%, respectively (P<0.001). The company employees, annual household income with 40 000 yuan and more and other three groups had a relatively better consciousness of the cancer early treatment (P<0.05). Male, widowed, unemployed and from the central and western regions had a relatively worse consciousness of the cancer early treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Residents in urban China participants had a good consciousness of the cancer early treatment. The marital status, occupation, annual household income and residential regions were major factors related to the consciousness of the cancer early treatment.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 76-83, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914573

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment among urban residents of China, and explore the related factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The health literacy of the cancer prevention, early discovery, early diagnosis, early treatment and the demands of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was analyzed. The level of health literacy among different groups were calculated and compared. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Results: The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment was 56.97% among all study population; in each group it was 55.01% for community residents, 59.08% for cancer risk assessment/screening population, 61.99% for cancer patients and 57.31% for occupational population, respectively (P<0.001). The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of residents aged 50 to 69 years old, other occupational groups, unmarried, the central and western region residents and the group with unclear self-assessment of cancer risk was significantly lower than that of residents younger than 40 years old, personnel of public institutions/civil servants, married, the eastern region residents and the group whose self-assessment without cancer risk (P<0.05) . The level of health literacy of cancer prevention and treatment of females, people who went to high school or over, cancer risk assessment/screening population, cancer patients and occupational population was significantly higher than that of males, people who had an education level of primary school or below and community residents (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of urban residents in China was relatively high, but there was still room for improvement. Gender, age, educational level, occupation, region, marital status, self-assessment of cancer risk, and type of respondents were the key influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Male, 50-69 years old, lower educational level, central and western regions, unclear cancer risk self-assessment, and without specific environmental exposure to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge or related risk factors were the characteristics of the key intervention group of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 84-91, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914574

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the demand and access to the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge and related factors among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of general demographic characteristics, the demand and access to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge, and the influencing factors of the attitude. The Chi-square test was used to analyze the difference of the demand of the cancer prevention knowledge among different groups and the corresponding factors of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were analyzed by using the logistic regression model. Results: The proportion of residents who need the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was 79.5%. The demand rate of the inducement, symptom and diagnosis methods of cancer in the occupational population was highest, about 66.8%, 71.0% and 20.8%, respectively. The demand rate of treatment methods and cost in current cancer patients was the highest, about the 45.9% and 21.9%, respectively. The top three sources to acquire the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge were "broadcast or television" (69.5%), "books, newspapers, posters or brochures" (44.7%) and "family and friends" (33.8%). The multivariate analysis showed that compared with public institution personnel/civil servants, unmarried/cohabiting/divorced/widowed and others, annual household income less than 20 000 CNY, from the eastern region, people without cancer diagnosis and people with self-assessment of cancer risk, the demand rate of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was higher in enterprise personnel/workers, married, annual household income between 60 000 CNY and 150 000 CNY, from the central region, people with cancer and people with unclear cancer risk (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: There was a high demand for the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge among urban residents in China from 2015 to 2017. The main access to the knowledge is from the radio or television. The occupation, marital status, annual household income, residential region, health status and risk of disease were the main factors of the demand of the cancer prevention and treatment knowledge.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 99-103, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914576

RESUMO

To explore the epidemiological characteristics, trends and relevant factors of pre-hospital mortality due to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from 1999 to 2016 in Tianjin city, based on mortality surveillance information and household registration population information. Standardized mortality rates were calculated using the year 2000 world standard population. From 1999 to 2016, the research result showed that the pre-hospital crude mortality rates of AMI were 39.47/100 000 to 90.64/100 000 and the standardized mortality rates were 30.92/100 000 to 53.90/100 000. The proportion of pre-hospital AMI deaths was 73.96%-81.92% (t=1.09, P>0.05) within the same period. Aged, female, rural residents, unmarried, divorced, widowed, low education level, and outdoor workers have a relative higher proportion of pre-hospital AMI mortality.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 23-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910756

RESUMO

Socio-Economic Differences in the Lausanne CoLaus Cohort Abstract. The CoLaus study allowed to highlight the existence of broad social inequalities in health among the population of the city of Lausanne. In fact, participants with low socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors, risk behaviors, sleep disturbances, and higher inflammatory markers compared to the more socio-economically advantaged participants in the study. In most cases, these inequalities are similar to those found in the neighboring cantons and countries.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia
13.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 12: 257-262, jan.-dez. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1047911

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar o perfil epidemiológico dos usuários atendidos em ação de saúde na Baixada Litorânea do Rio de Janeiro. Método: trata-se de um estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, exploratório de natureza quantitativa que utilizou como delineamento a pesquisa documental por meio da análise de dados secundários. Resultados: foram avaliados 746 registros, com prevalência do sexo feminino (69,7%), idade entre 20 e 29 anos (41,6%), ensino superior incompleto (63,9%) e estado civil solteiro (69,4%). O sexo masculino apresentou uma média mais elevada de níveis pressóricos quando comparado com as mulheres. Evidenciou-se que com o avançar da idade e baixa escolaridade, maiores são os níveis de pressão arterial e glicêmicos. Conclusão: estudos que ampliam o conhecimento sobre o perfil epidemiológico de uma população representam uma ferramenta importante para subsidiar o cuidado em saúde


Objective: to reveal the epidemiological profile of the users met in health action in the Coastal Lowlands of Rio de Janeiro. Method: this is a descriptive study, retrospective, exploratory quantitative in nature used as documentary research design through the analysis of secondary data. Results: 746 records were evaluated, with female prevalence (69.7%), age between 20 and 29 years (41.6%), incomplete higher education (63.9%) and marital status single (69.4%). Males showed an average blood pressure higher when compared with the female. It was evidenced that with advancing age and lower educational level, the greater the blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Conclusion: it is considered that studies about the knowledge of the epidemiological profile of a population becomes an important tool to support health actions


Objetivo: identificar el perfil epidemiológico de los usuarios se reunieron en la acción sanitaria en las tierras bajas costeras de Río de Janeiro. Método: se trata de un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, utilizado cuantitativo en naturaleza exploratoria como diseño de investigación documental a través del análisis de datos secundarios. Resultados: se evaluaron registros de 746, con predominio femenino (69.7%), edad entre 20 y 29 años (41.6%), educación superior incompleta (63.9%) y el estado civil solo (69,4%). Los varones mostraron mayor los niveles de presión arterial media en comparación con las mujeres. Se evidenció que con el avance de edad y menor nivel educativo, mayor será los niveles de glucosa en sangre y presión arterial. Conclusión: estudios que amplían el conocimiento sobre el perfil epidemiológico de una población representan una herramienta importante para apoyar la atención de la salud


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Perfil de Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus , Hipertensão
14.
Ambio ; 49(1): 281-298, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852779

RESUMO

The main determinants of agricultural employment are related to households' access to private assets and the influence of inherited social-economic stratification and power relationships. However, despite the recommendations of rural studies which have shown the importance of multilevel approaches to rural poverty, very few studies have explored quantitatively the effects of common-pool resources and household livelihood capitals on agricultural employment. Understanding the influence of access to both common-pool resources and private assets on rural livelihoods can enrich our understanding of the drivers of rural poverty in agrarian societies, which is central to achieving sustainable development pathways. Based on a participatory assessment conducted in rural communities in India, this paper differentiates two levels of livelihood capitals (household capitals and community capitals) and quantifies them using national census data and remotely sensed satellite sensor data. We characterise the effects of these two levels of livelihood capitals on precarious agricultural employment by using multilevel logistic regression. Our study brings a new perspective on livelihood studies and rural economics by demonstrating that common-pool resources and private assets do not have the same effect on agricultural livelihoods. It identifies that a lack of access to human, financial and social capitals at the household level increases the levels of precarious agricultural employment, such as daily-wage agricultural labour. Households located in communities with greater access to collective natural capital are less likely to be agricultural labourers. The statistical models also show that proximity to rural centres and access to financial infrastructures increase the likelihood of being a landless agricultural labourer. These findings suggest that investment in rural infrastructure might increase livelihood vulnerability, if not accompanied by an improvement in the provisioning of complementary rural services, such as access to rural finance, and by the implementation of agricultural tenancy laws to protect smallholders' productive assets.


Assuntos
Pobreza , População Rural , Agricultura , Países em Desenvolvimento , Economia , Emprego , Características da Família , Humanos , Índia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Ambio ; 49(1): 258-270, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859399

RESUMO

Impacts of the legal designation of protected areas (PAs) may have contrasting implications for different stakeholders, and at different spatial scales. In this study, we analysed the organisational perception on the socioeconomic effects of PA designation from all sectors of activity in Spain, accounting for PAs' legal stringency. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 68 organisations at national, regional (Andalusia) and local scales (two municipalities in the Almeria province, Andalusia) through an online survey. Local stakeholders and the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors were most concerned about the social and economic impacts of PAs designation on their organisations. By contrast, organisations at the national or regional scales together with public institutions, the quaternary sector and other miscellaneous stakeholders perceived predominantly positive effects. Only national organisations perceived an increase in local social and economic effects from the designation of legally stringent PAs with regard to multiple-use PAs.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cidades , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
16.
Ambio ; 49(1): 208-217, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020612

RESUMO

In the context of continuing ecosystem degradation and deepening socio-economic inequality, sustainability scientists must question the adequacy of current scholarship and practice. We argue that pre-occupation with external phenomena and collective social structures has led to the neglect of people's 'inner worlds'-their emotions, thoughts, identities and beliefs. These lie at the heart of actions for sustainability, and have powerful transformative capacity for system change. The condition of people's inner worlds ought to also be considered a dimension of sustainability itself. Compassion, empathy and generosity, for example, are personal characteristics that mark individual expressions of sustainability. Sustainability science must take inner life more seriously by considering how language shapes and is shaped by paradigms about the world, prioritising enquiry into how spirituality, contemplation and sustainability transformation relate, and encouraging scholars and practitioners to intentionally cultivate their inner worlds to strengthen inner resources necessary for addressing sustainability challenges.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Espiritualidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
JAAPA ; 33(1): 1-2, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880656
18.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 73-83, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic circumstances can influence access to healthcare, the standard of care provided, and a variety of outcomes. This study aimed to determine the association between crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality and socioeconomic group after emergency laparotomy, measure differences in meeting relevant perioperative standards of care, and investigate whether variation in hospital structure or process could explain any difference in mortality between socioeconomic groups. METHODS: This was an observational study of 58 790 patients, with data prospectively collected for the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit in 178 National Health Service hospitals in England between December 1, 2013 and November 31, 2016, linked with national administrative databases. The socioeconomic group was determined according to the Index of Multiple Deprivation quintile of each patient's usual place of residence. RESULTS: Overall, the crude 30-day mortality was 10.3%, with differences between the most-deprived (11.2%) and least-deprived (9.8%) quintiles (P<0.001). The more-deprived patients were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, were more acutely unwell at the time of surgery, and required a more-urgent surgery. After risk adjustment, the patients in the most-deprived quintile were at significantly higher risk of death compared with all other quintiles (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: Q1 [most deprived]: reference; Q2: 0.83 [0.76-0.92]; Q3: 0.84 [0.76-0.92]; Q4: 0.87 [0.79-0.96]; Q5 [least deprived]: 0.77 [0.70-0.86]). We found no evidence that differences in hospital-level structure or patient-level performance in standards of care explained this association. CONCLUSIONS: More-deprived patients have higher crude and risk-adjusted 30-day mortality after emergency laparotomy, but this is not explained by differences in the standards of care recorded within the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/economia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/economia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Pobreza , Risco Ajustado , Medicina Estatal , Adulto Jovem
19.
Braz Oral Res ; 33: e118, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859707

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of caries related to social capital and associated factors in adults in large-scale population-based study. A Cross-sectional study was performed in 163 municipalities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (SBSP-2015). 17,560 people were evaluated, of which 6051 were adults aged 35-44 years. Hierarchical logistic regression analysis was proposed. Outcome variables (decayed teeth, missing teeth and DMFT) and independent variables were included in the model, considering the distal (income and schooling); intermediate (social capital) and proximal levels (sex and ethnicity). Results showed that income up to 1,500 reais - US$ 367.6 in 11/11/2019 - (OR = 1.91;1.75-2.08), schooling up to 8 years (OR = 1.32;1.12-1.56) and non-white ethnicity (OR = 1.54;1.35-1.76) were more likely to have decayed teeth. Income up to 1500 reais (OR = 1.29;1.15-1.44), schooling up to 8 years (OR = 2.13;1.90-2.38), low social capital (OR = 1.84;1.65-2.04), medium social capital (OR = 1.15;1.01-1.30) and females were more likely to have lost teeth (OR = 1.13;1.03-1.23). Schooling up to 8 years (OR = 1.51;1.35-1.69), low social capital (OR = 1.25; 1.14-1.37) and female (OR = 1.40,1.19-1.53) were associated with DMFT. It was concluded that sociodemographic factors and low social capital were associated with the experience of caries, which should be taken into account in the formulation of public policies.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Capital Social , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Índice CPO , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(4): 896-910, out.-dez. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047674

RESUMO

A Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra reiterou a urgência de qualificação dos processos educativos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) em prol da superação do racismo institucional. A revisão integrativa, apresentada neste artigo, analisou as concepções teóricas e as práticas educativas em estudos dirigidos à saúde da população negra. Foram utilizadas as bases de dados da Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS); a Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); a ferramenta de pesquisa na web Google Scholar e o acervo darevista da Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as, a Revista da ABPN. A produção na temática é heterogênea, dispersa entre periódicos das áreas da educação, educação em saúde e interdisciplinar. Há vanguardismo da enfermagem e forte presença de estudos com povos e comunidades tradicionais. Nota-se dificuldade de interpenetração de referenciais teóricos e pedagógicos do campo da educação na sustentação das práticas educativas de saúde. Sugerem-se a cooperação e a integração científica entre esses campos visando ao protagonismo do sujeito negro nos processos de cuidado.


The Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Integral Health Policy of the Black Population) reiterated the urgency of qualifying educational processes in the Unified Health System (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) in order to overcome institutional racism. The integrative review presented in this article analyzed the theoretical conceptions and the educational practices in studies directed to the health of the black population. The databases of the Virtual Health Library (VHL); the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO); the web search engine Google Scholar and the collection of the Revista da ABPN that is the magazine of the Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Brazilian Association of Black Researchers) were examined. The production in this thematic is heterogeneous, dispersed in periodicals of the areas of education, health education and interdisciplinary. When the matter is the health of black population, the nursing is an avantgarde profession carrying out a number of studies with traditional peoples and communities. It was noted the difficulty of interpenetration of theoretical and pedagogical references of the field of education in support of educational health practices. We suggest the cooperation and the scientific integration between these fields aiming at the protagonism of the black population in the process of care.


La Política de Saúde Integral da População Negra (Política de Salud Integral de la Población Negra) reiteró la urgencia de calificación de los procesos educativos en el Sistema Único de Salud (SUS ­ Sistema Único de Saúde) en pro de la superación del racismo institucional. La revisión integrativa, presentada en este artículo, analizó las concepciones teóricas y las prácticas educativas en estudios dirigidos a la salud de la población negra. Se utilizaron las bases de datos de la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud (BVS); la Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO); el motor de búsqueda web Google Scholar y el acervo de la Revista da ABPN, la cual es la revista de la Associação Brasileira de Pesquisadores/as Negros/as (Asociación Brasileña de Investigadores/ as Negros/as. La producción en la temática es heterogénea, dispersa entre periódicos del área de la educación, educación en salud y interdisciplinaria. La enfermería se destaca en la literatura acerca de la salud de la población negra en la cual hay fuerte presencia de estudios con pueblos y comunidades tradicionales. Se observa dificultad de interpenetración de referenciales teóricos y pedagógicos del campo de la educación en la sustentación de las prácticas educativas de salud. Proponemos la cooperación y la integración científica entre esos campos visando el protagonismo del sujeto negro en los procesos de cuidado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação em Saúde , Equidade em Saúde , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Racismo , Saúde das Minorias Étnicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Revisão , Equidade no Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Vulnerabilidade Social , Atividades Científicas e Tecnológicas , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Comunicação em Saúde
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