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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 69-75, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190651

RESUMO

This study analyses the psychosocial characteristics based on recidivism risk of juvenile offenders in conditions of internment. A sample of 102 juvenile offenders (92 male, 10 female) who were serving sentences in the only detention centre in Navarra (Spain) was used. Data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics as well as features related to recidivism risk were collected through the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and data on personality characteristics were obtained through the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The results showed that risk of reoffending was high for 21.6% of the sample, moderate for 31.4%, and low for 47.1%. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for various psychosocial and personality characteristics. In addition, the main variables related to the different risk levels of criminal recidivism were the presence/absence of history of violent behaviour, school performance, problem-solving skills, and submission as a personality trait. These four variables correctly classified 80.4% of the sample. According to the results, these variables must be considered in the development of effective intervention programmes in detention centres with juvenile offenders in order to decrease criminal reoffending rates


En este estudio se analizan las características psicosociales de una muestra de menores infractores en un centro de internamiento en función del riesgo de reincidencia. Se evaluó una muestra de 102 menores infractores (92 varones y 10 mujeres) que cumplían una medida judicial en el único centro de internamiento de Navarra (España). Se recogió información sobre las características sociodemográficas, psicosociales y el riesgo de reincidencia a través del Inventario para la Gestión y la Intervención con Jóvenes (IGI-J), así como sobre las características de personalidad a través del Inventario Clínico de Adolescentes de Millon (MACI). Los resultados mostraron que el riesgo de reincidencia era alto para el 21.6% de la muestra, moderado para el 31.4% y bajo para el 47.1%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en numerosas características psicosociales y de personalidad. Además, las principales variables relacionadas con los diferentes niveles de riesgo de reincidencia fueron la presencia/ausencia de una historia de conductas violentas, el rendimiento escolar, las habilidades para la solución de problemas y la sumisión como características de personalidad. Estas cuatro variables clasificaban correctamente al 80.4% de la muestra. Con arreglo a los resultados encontrados, estas variables se deben tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de programas de intervención eficaces en los centros de internamiento con menores infractores con el objetivo de disminuir la tasa de reincidencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Reincidência/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 77-84, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190652

RESUMO

Motivational strategies are among the most promising approaches to improve the effectiveness of batterer intervention programs (BIPs). An individualized motivational plan (IMP) is one of these motivational strategies. The present study aimed to explore whether adding an IMP to a standard BIP improved the participant-facilitator working alliance and participants' protherapeutic behaviors. To this end a randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred fifty-three men convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to either a standard BIP (control condition, n = 79) or a standard BIP plus IMP (experimental condition, n = 74). Working alliance (i.e., general working alliance, agreement, and bond) was assessed with the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer, short version. Protherapeutic behaviors (i.e., assumption of responsibility, participant role behavior, and group value) were assessed with the Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Both working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors were assessed by an external observer early and late in intervention. Our results showed that both general working alliance and agreement and bond, were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP intervention condition, both early and late in intervention. All protherapeutic behaviors were significantly higher in the standard BIP plus IMP early in intervention, and also late in intervention for assumption of responsibility and group value. Our findings have important practical implications as our results clearly showed that a motivational strategy tool such as the IMP improves key intervention processes (i.e., working alliance and protherapeutic behaviors) in BIPs, therefore increasing their effectiveness


Las estrategias motivacionales se encuentran entre los enfoques más prometedores para mejorar la eficacia de los programas de intervención con maltratadores. El plan motivacional individualizado (PMI) es una de estas estrategias motivacionales. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo explorar si añadir un plan motivacional individualizado a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores mejora la alianza de trabajo facilitador-participante y la conducta proterapéutica de los participantes. Para ello se realizó un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. Ciento cincuenta y tres hombres condenados por violencia de género fueron asignados aleatoriamente bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores (condición control, n = 79) o bien a un programa estándar de intervención con maltratadores más PMI (condición experimental, n = 74). La alianza de trabajo (i.e., alianza general, acuerdo y vínculo) se evaluó con la versión breve del Working Alliance Inventory-Observer. Las conductas proterapéuticas (i.e., asunción de responsabilidad, rol conductual del participante y valoración del grupo) fueron evaluadas con el Observational Coding of Protherapeutic Group Behavior. Tanto la alianza de trabajo como las conductas proterapéuticas fueron evaluadas por un observador externo al principio y al final de la intervención. Los resultados mostraron que tanto la alianza de trabajo general como el acuerdo y el vínculo fueron significativamente mayores en la condición experimental, tanto al principio como al final de la intervención. La expresión de todas las conductas proterapéuticas al inicio de la intervención fue significativamente mayor en la condición experimental, así como al final de la intervención para la asunción de responsabilidad y la valoración del grupo. Los resultados tienen importantes implicaciones prácticas, puesto que muestran con claridad que una estrategia motivacional como el PMI mejora procesos clave de la intervención con maltratadores (i.e., la alianza de trabajo y las conductas proterapéuticas), mejorando por lo tanto la efectividad de estos programas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Violência de Gênero/prevenção & controle , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Processos Grupais , Motivação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 239-253, nov. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191356

RESUMO

Las carencias sociales de México empeorarán por la pandemia SARS-COV2. A saber, el acceso a la salud, derechos laborales básicos, y la infructuosa respuesta del gobierno para erradicar la violencia machista contra las mujeres. El desinterés histórico para fomentar una cultura del apoyo mutuo y el autocuidado ha provocado que gran parte de la ciudadanía se haya desconectado de sus derechos sociales y sanitarios. Así, no se sigue una indicación -quédate en casa- por desigualdades estructurales. Propongo que la libertad efectiva puede conseguirse mediante la aprobación de la renta básica universal desde una perspectiva feminista. Concluyo que las secuelas de la pandemia, que definirán la vida cotidiana, ameritan la aprobación de esta medida. Igualmente, las mujeres como clase sexual requieren protección desde una perspectiva feminista


Many of the social deprivations of Mexico will be worsened due to SARS-COV2 pandemic. Namely, the insufficient access to public health, lack of labor rights, and the unsuccessful government's response to eradicate male violence against women. The historical unconcern in promoting a culture rooted in mutual aid and self-care has provoked many citizens are disconnected from their social and health rights. Thus, people's inability to carry through one direction -stay home- is unfulfilled, in part, due to structural inequalities. I affirm that effective liberty could be obtained by approving a Universal Basic Income from a feminist perspective. I conclude that the aftermath of COVID-19, which will define everyday life for a while, require the endorsement of such measure. Likewise, women as a class deserve protection from a feminist critical framework


Les mancances socials de Mèxic empitjoraran per la pandèmia SARS-COV-2. A saber, l'accés a la salut, els drets laborals bàsics I la infructuosa resposta de govern per eradicar la violència masclista contra les dones. El desinterès històric per fomentar una cultura de suport mutu I l'autocura ha provocat que gran part de la ciutadania s'hagi desconnectat dels seus drets socials I sanitaris. Així, no se segueix una indicació -queda't a casa- per desigualtats estructurals. Proposo que la llibertat efectiva pot aconseguir-se mitjançant l'aprovació de la renda bàsica universal des d'una perspectiva feminista. Concloc que les seqüeles de la pandèmia, que definiran la vida quotidiana, mereixen l'aprovació d'aquesta mesura. Igualment, les dones com a classe sexual requereixen protecció des d'una perspectiva feminista


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Renda per Capita , Apoio Social , Incerteza , Política Pública , Política de Saúde , Fatores Socioeconômicos , México/epidemiologia
4.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 407-423, nov. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | IBECS | ID: ibc-191365

RESUMO

O processo de consentimento informado para participação de pesquisa com seres humanos visa fornecer as informações adequadas ao indivíduo possibilitando que este tome a decisão de participar de maneira voluntária, livre de pressões externas. A possibilidade de remuneração poderia interferir na voluntariedade deste processo de consentir. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar percepção de influência da remuneração monetária por meio de simulações de pesquisa que variam em nível de risco (Bioequivalência e de Fase I) e tipo de remuneração monetária (com e sem). Participaram do estudo 80 voluntários. Os resultados sugerem que a remuneração não constituiu uma interferência na voluntariedade do processo de consentimento, visto que participantes aceitaram convite para participar da primeira pesquisa para a qual foram convidados e não se sentiram influenciados indebidamente


El proceso de consentimiento informado para la participación de sujetos humanos en investigación tiene por objeto dar la información adecuada al individuo, permitiendo que tome la decisión de participar de manera voluntaria y libre de presiones externas. La posibilidad de remuneración podría interferir en la voluntariedad de este proceso de consentir. El presente estudio evalúa la percepción de la influencia de la remuneración monetaria a través de simulaciones de investigación que varían en nivel de riesgo (Bioequivalencia y de Fase I) y tipo de remuneración monetaria (con y sin). Participaron del estudio 80 voluntarios. Los resultados sugieren que la remuneración no constituyó una interferencia en la voluntariedad del proceso de consentimiento, ya que los participantes aceptaron una invitación para participar en la primera encuesta a la que fueron invitados y no se sintieron influenciados incorrectamente


El procés de consentiment informat per a la participació de subjectes humans en recerca té per objecte donar la informació adequada a l'individu, permetent que prengui la decisió de participar de manera voluntària I lliure de pressions externes. La possibilitat de remuneració podria interferir en la voluntarietat d'aquest procés de consentir. El present estudi avalua la percepció de la influència de la remuneració monetària a través de simulacions de recerca que varien en nivell de risc (Bioequivalencia I de Fase I) I tipus de remuneració monetària (amb I sense). Van participar de l'estudi 80 voluntaris. Els resultats suggereixen que la remuneració no va constituir una interferència en la voluntarietat del procés de consentiment, ja que els participants van acceptar una invitació per a participar en la primera enquesta a la qual van ser convidats I no es van sentir influenciats incorrectament


The process of informed consent for research participation with human beings aims to provide appropriate information to individuals enabling him or her to make the decision to participate voluntarily, free of external pressures. The possibility of remuneration could interfere in the willingness to consent. The present study aims to evaluate the perception of influence of the monetary payment through research simulations that vary in the level of risk (Bioequivalence and Phase I) and type of monetary payment (with and without). Eighty volunteers participated in the study. The results suggest that remuneration did not interfere with the willingness of the consent process, as participants accepted an invitation to participate in the first research option to which they were invited to and did not feel undue influence


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Remuneração , Decisões , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Ética em Pesquisa , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200095, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027434

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess, through space-time analyses, whether the income inequality of the Federative Units (FUs) in Brazil can be associated with the risk of infection and death by COVID-19. METHODS: This was an ecological study, based on secondary data on incidence and mortality rates for COVID-19. Data were analyzed at the state level, having the Gini coefficient as the main independent variable. Records of twelve days were used, spaced one week each, between April 21th and June 7th, 2020. The weekly variation in the rates was calculated through Prais-Winsten regression, aiming at measuring the evolution of the pandemic in each FU. Spearman's correlation test was used to assess correlation between the rates and their weekly evolution and the independent variables. Lastly, a spatial dependence diagnosis was conducted, and a Spatial Regression lag model was used when applicable. RESULTS: Incidence and mortality rates of COVID-19 increased in all Brazilian FUs, being more pronounced among those with greater economic inequality. Association between Gini coefficient and COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates remained even when demographic and spatial aspects were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Income inequality can play an important role in the impact of COVID-19 on the Brazilian territory, through absolute and contextual effects. Structural policies to reduce inequality are essential to face this and future health crises in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
6.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200098, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between the impact of oral health on daily life and sociodemographic variables with oral parameters in adolescents living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with data from 5,409 adolescents who participated in the "State Oral Health Survey of São Paulo - OH", 2015. The impact of oral health on daily life was assessed by the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) index, prevalence (presence or absence of impact) and severity of impact (OIDP scores). The negative binomial regression model (zeros-inflated) was used, considering the complex sampling and the sample weights. Prevalence ratio (PR), ratio of means (ROM) and confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: The prevalence of impact was 37.4%. After adjusting for the model, the impact was more prevalent (PR = 1.59; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) and more severe (RR = 1.49; 95%CI 1.22 ‒ 1.81) among females. Compared to white-skin people, all remaining groups had a higher prevalence of impact. Among socioeconomic characteristics, family income higher than R$ 2,501 (RR = 0.79; 95%CI 0.64 ‒ 0.98) and household crowding (RR = 1.18; 95%CI 1.00 ‒ 1.39) were associated with the severity of impact. In the oral health conditions, untreated caries (PR = 1.46; 95%CI 1.23 ‒ 1.74) and gingival bleeding (PR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.14 ‒ 1.60) were associated with higher prevalence of impact. CONCLUSION: Females, non-whites, with untreated caries and gingival bleeding were associated with higher impact of oral health on daily life. Family income higher than R$ 2,500 and living in less crowded households were factors associated with less impact.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complexity of urbanization processes across Latin American societies encourages investigating its implications in health conditions, especially during childhood. One of the possible links between them is recreation, a component of the daily life of children and, therefore, essential to produce health and life itself. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood context and active public park use among school-aged children in Cordoba, Argentina. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1466 children, aged 9 to 11, attending 19 schools and living in 110 neighborhoods. Multilevel models with Poisson distribution were used for the analyses, stratified by gender. Socio-demographic, behavioral, and physical covariates were included at the individual level, and socioeconomic neighborhood conditions at second level. RESULTS: Girls residing in neighborhoods with a worse socioeconomic context were less likely to report frequent public park use for physical activity, while those from neighborhoods with better socioeconomic conditions were more likely to, regardless of individual characteristics. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that socioeconomic conditions of neighborhoods are associated with public park use for physical activity in school-aged girls, demonstrating gender inequality in the use and appropriation of public spaces.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Parques Recreativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Argentina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007020

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to define the threatened perception types of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic and determine the correlations between the perception types and their demographic factors, their preventive knowledge of COVID-19 and their mental status in order to provide suggestions for pregnant women during pandemic. METHODS: Latent class analysis were used to explore the optimal numbers of clusters. Multinomial logistic regression and multiple correspondence analysis were used to analyze the demographic variables of the latent categories. MANOVA was used to analyze the difference of knowledge of COVID-19 obtained among clusters and their psychological status, and chi-square test was used determine the relationship between the latent clusters and the participant's COVID-19 worry level. RESULTS: Five clusters were found: the first cluster (n = 120, 39%) was unthreatened and confident. Cluster 2(n = 84, 28%) was unthreatened but not confident. Cluster 3 (n = 49, 17%) was threatened but confident. Cluster 4 (n = 25, 9%) was threaten, not confident and knowledgeable, and Cluster 5 (n = 20, 7%) was threatened, not confident and lacking knowledge. Three demographic variables were shown an effect on the classification, they were support from work, family support and intrapartum and postpartum complications. CONCLUSION: This study can help assess the mental health risks of pregnant women during an epidemic. The results could be helpful for families, work units, communities and medical institutions to make targeted intervention decisions for pregnant women.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 316, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many low- and middle-income countries have implemented control measures against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it is not clear to what extent these measures explain the low numbers of recorded COVID-19 cases and deaths in Africa. One of the main aims of control measures is to reduce respiratory pathogen transmission through direct contact with others. In this study, we collect contact data from residents of informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya, to assess if control measures have changed contact patterns, and estimate the impact of changes on the basic reproduction number (R0). METHODS: We conducted a social contact survey with 213 residents of five informal settlements around Nairobi in early May 2020, 4 weeks after the Kenyan government introduced enhanced physical distancing measures and a curfew between 7 pm and 5 am. Respondents were asked to report all direct physical and non-physical contacts made the previous day, alongside a questionnaire asking about the social and economic impact of COVID-19 and control measures. We examined contact patterns by demographic factors, including socioeconomic status. We described the impact of COVID-19 and control measures on income and food security. We compared contact patterns during control measures to patterns from non-pandemic periods to estimate the change in R0. RESULTS: We estimate that control measures reduced physical contacts by 62% and non-physical contacts by either 63% or 67%, depending on the pre-COVID-19 comparison matrix used. Masks were worn by at least one person in 92% of contacts. Respondents in the poorest socioeconomic quintile reported 1.5 times more contacts than those in the richest. Eighty-six percent of respondents reported a total or partial loss of income due to COVID-19, and 74% reported eating less or skipping meals due to having too little money for food. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 control measures have had a large impact on direct contacts and therefore transmission, but have also caused considerable economic and food insecurity. Reductions in R0 are consistent with the comparatively low epidemic growth in Kenya and other sub-Saharan African countries that implemented similar, early control measures. However, negative and inequitable impacts on economic and food security may mean control measures are not sustainable in the longer term.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Relações Interpessoais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1437-1442, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031362

RESUMO

During 2018, estimated incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Hispanic and Latino (Hispanic/Latino) persons in the United States was four times that of non-Hispanic White persons (1). Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 24% (138,023) of U.S. MSM living with diagnosed HIV infection at the end of 2018 (1). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is crucial for viral suppression, which improves health outcomes and prevents HIV transmission (2). Barriers to ART adherence among Hispanic/Latino MSM have been explored in limited contexts (3); however, nationally representative analyses are lacking. The Medical Monitoring Project reports nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical experiences of U.S. adults with diagnosed HIV infection. This analysis used Medical Monitoring Project data collected during 2015-2019 to examine ART adherence and reasons for missing ART doses among HIV-positive Hispanic/Latino MSM (1,673). On a three-item ART adherence scale with 100 being perfect adherence, 77.3% had a score of ≥85. Younger age, poverty, recent drug use, depression, and unmet needs for ancillary services were predictors of lower ART adherence. The most common reason for missing an ART dose was forgetting; 63.9% of persons who missed ≥1 dose reported more than one reason. Interventions that support ART adherence and access to ancillary services among Hispanic/Latino MSM might help improve clinical outcomes and reduce transmission.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Adesão à Medicação/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 17: E124, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034555

RESUMO

Miami-Dade County zip code-level (N = 91 zip codes) coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases (N = 89,556 as of July 21, 2020) reported from the Florida Department of Health were used to estimate rates of COVID-19 per 1,000 population at the census block group level (N = 1,594 study block groups). To identify associations between rates of COVID-19 infections and multidimensional indexes of social determinants of health (SDOH) across Miami-Dade County, Florida, I applied a global model (ordinary least squares) and a local regression model (geographically weighted regression). Findings indicated that a social disadvantage index positively affected COVID-19 infection rates, whereas a socioeconomic status and opportunity index and a convergence of vulnerability index had an inverse but significant connection to COVID-19 infection rates over the study area. Rates of COVID-19 infections were localized to specific geographic areas and ranged from 0 to 60.75 per 1,000 population per square mile.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 62, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption causes almost 638,000 premature deaths per year in India. This study sought to examine the prevalence and determinants of tobacco use among men in India. METHODS: We analyzed data from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey in India. These nationally representative cross-sectional sample data were collected from January 20, 2015, to December 4, 2016. A total of 112,122 men aged 15-54 years were included in this study. Primary outcomes were tobacco use categorized into smoking, smokeless, any tobacco, and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use. Complex survey design and sampling weights were applied in both the descriptive analyses and logistic regression models. We present the findings using odds ratios. RESULTS: The prevalence of tobacco use among men in India for the studied period was 45.5% (95% CI 44.9-46.1), smoking was 24.6% (95% CI 24.1-25.1), smokeless tobacco use was 29.1% (95% CI 28.6-29.6), and both smoked and smokeless tobacco use was 8.4% (95% CI 8.1-8.7). The prevalence of tobacco use among men was higher among the elderly, separated/divorced/widowed individuals, those with lower education and wealth status, alcohol consumers, manual workers, and residents of the northeast region. Multivariate analysis showed that age, lower education, occupation, region, alcohol consumption, separated/divorced/widowed status, and economic status were substantially associated with tobacco use among Indian men. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative and cost-effective strategies targeting high-risk groups are crucial to curbing the tobacco epidemic in India. Anti-smoking campaigns should also focus on mitigating alcohol abuse. Reducing tobacco marketing and implementing formal education about the dangers of tobacco use, progressive taxing, packaging, and labeling of tobacco products and price strategies should be harmonized in legal provisions.


Assuntos
Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1563, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a paucity of research on patterns of cyber-victimization in minority groups, including immigrants. This study aimed to identify individual, interpersonal and contextual characteristics associated with cyber-victimization among immigrants and non-immigrants. METHODS: We drew on nationally representative data from adolescents and adults in the Canadian General Social Survey on victimization (2014). We used multivariable logistic regression to identify potential factors associated with cyber-victimization in the last 12 months, stratified by immigrant status and sex. RESULTS: Among 27,425 survey respondents, the weighted prevalence of cyber-victimization in the last 12 months was 2.1% among immigrants and 2.3% among non-immigrants. Cyber-victimization rates differed significantly by sex among immigrants (2.8% for males vs. 1.4% for females), but not among non-immigrants (2.1% for males vs. 2.4% for females). While most other factors associated with cyber-victimization were similar for immigrants and non-immigrants, there were pronounced associations of past child maltreatment (adjusted prevalence odds ratio [aPOR] 4.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.76, 8.52) and residence in an unwelcoming neighbourhood (aPOR 5.08, 95% CI 2.44, 10.55) with cyber-victimization among immigrants that were diminished or absent among non-immigrants. Additionally, sex-stratified analyses among immigrants showed cyber-victimization to be strongly associated with having a mental health condition (aPOR 3.50, 95% CI 1.36, 8.97) among immigrant males only, and with perceived discrimination (aPOR 4.08, 95% CI 1.65, 10.08), as well as being under 24 years old (aPOR 3.24, 95% CI 1.09, 9.60) among immigrant females. CONCLUSIONS: Immigration status and sex were differentially associated with cyber-victimization. Findings support the salience of a social-ecological perspective and gender-stratified analyses to better elucidate complex pathways linking cyber-victimization to potential gender-based health inequities among immigrants.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Cyberbullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Canadá , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1559, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition among under five children in India is a major public health problem. Despite India's growth in the economy, the child mortality rate due to undernutrition is still high in both urban and rural areas. Studies that focus on urban slums are scarce. Hence the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence and determinants of undernutrition in children under five in Maharashtra, India. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 16 randomly selected clusters in two districts of Maharashtra state, India. Data were collected through house to house survey by interviewing mothers of under five children. Total 2929 mothers and their 3671 under five children were covered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the determinants of child nutritional status seperately in urban and rural areas. RESULTS: The mean age of the children was 2.38 years (±SD 1.36) and mean age of mothers was 24.25 years (± SD 6.37). Overall prevalence of stunting among children under five was 45.9%, wasting was 17.1 and 35.4% children were underweight. Prevalence of wasting, stunting and underweight were more seen in an urban slum than a rural area. In the rural areas exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.001) and acute diarrhea (p = 0.001) were associated with wasting, children with birth order 2 or less than 2 were associated with stunting and exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) and low maternal education were associated with underweight. Whereas in the urban slums exclusive breast feeding (p < 0.05) was associated with wasting, sex of the child (p < 0.05) and type of family (p < 0.05) were associated with stunting,and low income of the family (p < 0.05) was associated with underweight. CONCLUSIONS: Factors like sex of the child, birth order,exclusive breast feeding,economic status of the family, type of family,acute diarrhea and maternal education have influence on nutritional status of the child. Improvement of maternal education will improve the nutritional status of the child. Strategies are needed to improve the economic status of the community. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registration number: CTRI/2017/12/010881 ; Registration date:14/12/2017. Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Nutrição Infantil/epidemiologia , Áreas de Pobreza , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1677-1683, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017241

RESUMO

Four recent reports from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine framed around the issues of poverty; mental, emotional, and behavioral health; adolescence; and young family health and education build on extensive recent evidence of what can be done to improve the health and well-being of children, youth, and families. We describe the process of generating the reports, briefly summarize each report's content, and identify crosscutting themes and recommendations. We also note how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights major disparities and systemic problems addressed in the reports and heightens the relevance of their policy recommendations. The reports issue a unified, urgent call for measures with the potential to change the trajectory and outcomes for children and youth. Among these are basic income supports, other family supports, universal health care structured to meet family needs, and a broad national policy that prioritizes children and youth.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Guias como Assunto , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Formulação de Políticas , Medição de Risco , Sociedades Médicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
17.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(10): 1743-1751, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017236

RESUMO

Expansion of Medicaid and establishment of the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) represent a significant success story in the national effort to guarantee health insurance for children. That success is reflected in the high rates of coverage and health care access achieved for children, including those in low-income families. But significant coverage gaps remain-gaps that have been increasing since 2016 and are likely to accelerate with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the associated recession. Using National Health Interview Survey data, we found that the proportion of uninsured children was 5.5 percent in 2018. Children continue to face coverage interruptions, and Latino, adolescent, and noncitizen children continue to face elevated risks of being uninsured. Although we note the benefits of a universal, federally financed, single-payer approach to coverage, we also offer two possible reform pathways that can take place within the current multipayer system, aimed at ensuring coverage, access, continuity, and comprehensiveness to move the nation closer to the goal of providing the health care that children need to reach their full potential and to reduce racial and economic inequalities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/economia , Saúde da Criança , Children's Health Insurance Program/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
18.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4131-4140, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027349

RESUMO

We investigated the predictors of delay in the diagnosis and mortality of patients with COVID-19 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cohort of 3,656 patients were evaluated (Feb-Apr 2020) and patients' sociodemographic characteristics, and social development index (SDI) were used as determinant factors of diagnosis delays and mortality. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, time-dependent Cox regression models, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The median time from symptoms onset to diagnosis was eight days (interquartile range [IQR] 7.23-8.99 days). Half of the patients recovered during the evaluated period, and 8.3% died. Mortality rates were higher in men. Delays in diagnosis were associated with male gender (p = 0.015) and patients living in low SDI areas (p < 0.001). The age groups statistically associated with death were: 70-79 years, 80-89 years, and 90-99 years. Delays to diagnosis greater than eight days were also risk factors for death. Delays in diagnosis and risk factors for death from COVID-19 were associated with male gender, age under 60 years, and patients living in regions with lower SDI. Delays superior to eight days to diagnosis increased mortality rates.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Diagnóstico Tardio , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
19.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic compounds Mexico's pre-existing challenges: very high levels of both non-communicable diseases (NCD) and social inequity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from national reporting of SARS-CoV-2 tested individuals, we estimated odds of hospitalization, intubation, and death based on pre-existing non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic indicators. We found that obesity, diabetes, and hypertension are positively associated with the three outcomes in a synergistic manner. The municipal poverty level is also positively associated with hospitalization and death. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico's response to COVID-19 is complicated by a synergistic double challenge: raging NCDs and extreme social inequity. The response to the current pandemic must take both into account both to be effective and to ensure that the burden of COVID-19 not falls disproportionately on those who are already disadvantaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Complicações do Diabetes , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Intubação , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22292, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019404

RESUMO

This study aims to assess the survival status of patients with Primary gallbladder cancer (PGC) and analyze the prognosis factors to facilitate the exploration of the prevention and therapeutic strategies of PGC.Data from 2433 PGC patients collected from 2010 to 2015 were extracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The SEER*Stat, SPSS 23.0 and GraphPad Prism 8 were used for statistical analyses. Kaplan Meier analysis was performed for the survival curve, log-rank test analyses were used to compare the survival rate difference and Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognosis factors.A total of 2433 PGC cases were reported from 2010 to 2015. The median age was 64.2 ±â€Š10.4 years old and the percentages of the white patients were 73.7% (1794/2433). The percentage of patients who received surgery treatment was 82.1% (1998/2433). The overall median survival time of all patients was 19 months and the 5-year survival rate was 28.8%. The 5-year survival rate of PGC patients in pN2 stage dropped to 0% and the 5-year survival rate for PGC patients with distant metastasis was only 2.7%. Age, tumor size, grade, pT stage, pM stage were risk factors for prognosis, surgery or not and radiation or not were protective factors for prognosis.Survival analysis of PGC patients based on the SEER database have provided an opportunity for understanding PGC prognosis and the basis for the exploration of viable PGC prevention and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/terapia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Programa de SEER , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Carga Tumoral
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