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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 53-60, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190649

RESUMO

Intimate partner sexual violence has countless consequences for women suffering it. This research analyse the effect of the type of sexual coercion tactic and partner dependence on both the attribution of responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. In Study 1, six scenarios for different sexual tactics were presented (coaxing, coercion, and aggression) to 5 experts in order to select those with better evidence of content validity regarding the construct evaluated. In Study 2, the three selected scenarios were presented to 304 Spanish participants from the general population, analysing the effect of the type of tactic and dependence on attributed responsibility and the probability of leaving a relationship. Results showed that in the sexual aggression scenario, participants assigned the highest responsibility to the aggressorand showed the strongest likelihood of leaving the relationship. Further, results revealed that in the coaxing scenario, dependence had an indirect effect on the probability of leaving the relationship through a lower responsibility attributed to the aggressor. As a conclusion, this study emphasises the importance of the sexual tactic used by aggressors in individuals' perception about sexual coercion, contributing to increasing the visibility of this unacceptable action, especially in its more subtle and normalised form


La violencia sexual en las relaciones de pareja tiene innumerables consecuencias para las mujeres que la sufren. Esta investigación analiza el efecto del tipo de táctica de coerción sexual y la dependencia de la pareja en la atribución de responsabilidad y la probabilidad de dejar la relación. En el Estudio 1 se presentaron seis escenarios sobre diferentes tácticas sexuales(persuasión, coerción y agresión) a 5 expertos con la finalidad de seleccionar a aquellos que mostraran una mayor validez de contenido con respecto al constructo evaluado. En el Estudio 2, 304 participantes leyeron los tres escenarios seleccionados y se analizó el efecto del tipo de táctica y la dependencia en la responsabilidad atribuida y en la probabilidad de dejar la relación. Los resultados mostraron que los participantes responsabilizaban más al agresor y dejarían con más probabilidad la relación en la condición de agresión sexual que en la condición de coerción sexual o persuasión sexual. Además, los resultados revelan que en el escenario más sutil (persuasión) la dependencia tiene un efecto indirecto sobre probabilidad de dejar la relación a través de una menor responsabilidad atribuida al agresor. Como conclusión, esta investigación enfatiza la importancia que tiene la táctica sexual utilizada por el agresor en la percepción de la coerción sexual, contribuyendo a aumentar la visibilidad de este acto inaceptable, especialmente en su forma más sutil y normalizada


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Dependência Psicológica , Manobra Psicológica , Fatores de Risco
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 69-75, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190651

RESUMO

This study analyses the psychosocial characteristics based on recidivism risk of juvenile offenders in conditions of internment. A sample of 102 juvenile offenders (92 male, 10 female) who were serving sentences in the only detention centre in Navarra (Spain) was used. Data on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics as well as features related to recidivism risk were collected through the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI) and data on personality characteristics were obtained through the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). The results showed that risk of reoffending was high for 21.6% of the sample, moderate for 31.4%, and low for 47.1%. Statistically significant differences were found between groups for various psychosocial and personality characteristics. In addition, the main variables related to the different risk levels of criminal recidivism were the presence/absence of history of violent behaviour, school performance, problem-solving skills, and submission as a personality trait. These four variables correctly classified 80.4% of the sample. According to the results, these variables must be considered in the development of effective intervention programmes in detention centres with juvenile offenders in order to decrease criminal reoffending rates


En este estudio se analizan las características psicosociales de una muestra de menores infractores en un centro de internamiento en función del riesgo de reincidencia. Se evaluó una muestra de 102 menores infractores (92 varones y 10 mujeres) que cumplían una medida judicial en el único centro de internamiento de Navarra (España). Se recogió información sobre las características sociodemográficas, psicosociales y el riesgo de reincidencia a través del Inventario para la Gestión y la Intervención con Jóvenes (IGI-J), así como sobre las características de personalidad a través del Inventario Clínico de Adolescentes de Millon (MACI). Los resultados mostraron que el riesgo de reincidencia era alto para el 21.6% de la muestra, moderado para el 31.4% y bajo para el 47.1%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en numerosas características psicosociales y de personalidad. Además, las principales variables relacionadas con los diferentes niveles de riesgo de reincidencia fueron la presencia/ausencia de una historia de conductas violentas, el rendimiento escolar, las habilidades para la solución de problemas y la sumisión como características de personalidad. Estas cuatro variables clasificaban correctamente al 80.4% de la muestra. Con arreglo a los resultados encontrados, estas variables se deben tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de programas de intervención eficaces en los centros de internamiento con menores infractores con el objetivo de disminuir la tasa de reincidencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Transtornos da Personalidade , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Reincidência/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49596, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1094830

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as principais recomendações sobre ações de prevenção de contágio relacionadas à exposição ocupacional dos profissionais de saúde atuantes frente à COVID-19, disponíveis até março de 2020. Conteúdo: A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 tem transmissão favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de pacientes infectados, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Práticas organizacionais de prevenção devem ser previstas antes da chegada do paciente ao serviço de saúde, reduzindo o fluxo de atendimento, no primeiro atendimento e durante as ações assistenciais, para minimizar a exposição ocupacional ao agente biológico. Profissionais de saúde classificados como grupo de risco devem ser afastados de atividades de risco de contaminação. Aqueles contaminados ou adoecidos devem permanecer em quarentena para minimizar a propagação da COVID-19. Considerações finais: os cuidados para prevenção de contaminação de trabalhadores nesta pandemia pelo novo coronavírus devem ser priorizados, evitando impactos negativos na assistência à população que busca atendimento nos serviços de saúde.


Objective: to describe the main recommended actions on prevention actions related to occupational exposure of health professionals working at COVID-19, available until March 2020. Content: The current pandemic disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has its transmission favored by close and unprotected contact with secretions or excretions from infected patients, mainly through salivary droplets. Organizational prevention practices should be prioritized, since patient's arrival at the health service, optimizing the flow of care, the first care and during health care actions, to minimize occupational exposure to the biological agent. Health professionals classified as a risk group should be removed from activities at risk of contamination. Those contaminated or adulterated must remain in quarantine to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Final considerations: care to avoid contamination of workers in this pandemic by the new coronavirus must be prioritized, prevented from affecting the assistance to the population that seeks assistance in health services.


Objetivo: describir las principales acciones recomendadas sobre acciones de prevención relacionadas con la exposición ocupacional de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan en COVID-19, disponible hasta marzo de 2020. Contenido: La enfermedad pandémica actual causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 tiene su transmisión favorecida por contacto cercano y sin protección con secreciones o excreciones de pacientes infectados, principalmente a través de gotas salivales. Se deben priorizar las prácticas de prevención organizacional, desde la llegada del paciente al servicio de salud, optimizando el flujo de atención, la primera atención y durante las acciones de atención de salud, para minimizar la exposición ocupacional al agente biológico. Los profesionales de la salud clasificados como grupo de riesgo deben ser retirados de las actividades en riesgo de contaminación. Las personas contaminadas o adulteradas deben permanecer en cuarentena para minimizar la propagación de COVID-19. Consideraciones finales: se debe priorizar la atención para evitar la contaminación de los trabajadores en esta pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus, evitando que afecte la asistencia a la población que busca asistencia en los servicios de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Riscos Ocupacionais , Fatores de Risco , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Condições de Trabalho , Enfermagem , Betacoronavirus
5.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e36283, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1103400

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a influência das composições familiares na ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência. Método:estudo caso-controle, realizado com 74 gestantes adolescentes, grupo de casos, e 74 adultas jovens sem história pregressa de gravidez na adolescência, grupo controle, pareadas pela variável renda familiar. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas estruturadas realizadas no período deagosto a outubro de 2016 em Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, e em seguida analisados pelos métodos estatísticos descritivo e inferencial. Resultados: identificou-se associação entre a ocorrência do desfecho com pertencer a famílias não nucleares, não permanecer a mesma família durante a infância e adolescência, e a constituição de uma família própria no período da adolescência. Conclusão:verificou-se que adolescentes inseridas em famílias não nucleares estão mais expostas a fatores de risco para ocorrência da gravidez na adolescência, quando comparadas às jovensprovenientes de famílias com ambos os pais.


Objective: to analyze the influence of family compositions in the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence. Method:this is a case-control study performed with 74 pregnant adolescents, group of cases, and 74 young adults without background history of pregnancy during adolescence, group control, paired by family income. Data were collected through structured interviews conducted in the period from August to October 2016 in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, and then analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results:we identified an association between the occurrence of the outcome and the belonging to non-nuclear families, as well as the non-belonging to the same family during childhood and adolescence, besides the constitution of an own family in the period of adolescence. Conclusion: checked that adolescents inserted in nonnuclear families are more exposed to risk factors for the occurrence of pregnancy in adolescence when compared to young people coming from families with both parents.


Objetivo: analizar la influencia de las composiciones familiares en la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente. Método: estudio caso-control efectuado con 74 adolescentes embarazadas, grupo de casos, y 74 jóvenes adultas sin historia anterior de embarazo en la adolescencia, grupo de control, agrupadas por sus ingresos familiares. Los datos se recopilaron mediante entrevistas estructuradas conducidas en el periodo de agosto a octubre de 2016 en Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, y posteriormente analizados por los métodos estadísticos descriptivo e inferencial. Resultados:se identificó una asociación entre la ocurrencia del desenlace y la pertenencia a las familias no nucleares, no permanencia en la misma familia durante niñez y adolescencia, y la constitución de una familia propia en el periodo de la adolescencia. Conclusion: comprobado eso que las adolescentes insertadas en familias no nucleares están más expuestas a los factores de riesgo para la ocurrencia del embarazo adolescente en comparación con las jóvenes provenientes de familias con ambos padres biológicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Gravidez na Adolescência/psicologia , Características da Família , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Núcleo Familiar/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Relações Pai-Filho , Relações Mãe-Filho
9.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 155(7): 281-287, oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191724

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia de interacciones potenciales en pacientes COVID-19 en tratamiento con lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). El objetivo secundario fue elaborar recomendaciones e identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a presentar interacciones potenciales con LPV/r. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal y multicéntrico con la participación de 2 hospitales. Se incluyeron pacientes COVID-19 mayores de 18 años, con ingreso hospitalario y en tratamiento con LPV/r. Se realizó un cribado de las interacciones potenciales relacionadas con LPV/r y la medicación domiciliaria y hospitalaria. Se utilizó como base de datos de consulta Lexicomp® (Uptodate), HIV-drug interacctions y COVID-drug interacctions. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron 361 pacientes con una media de edad de 62,77 ± 14,64 años, donde el 59,6% (n = 215) fueron hombres. El 62,3% (n=225) tuvieron una o más interacciones potenciales y el 26, 87% (n = 97) 2 o más. Las variables independientes asociadas a presentar ≥ 1 interacciones potenciales fueron la edad (> 65) (OR 1,95; IC 95% 1,06-3,59; P = 0,033), el ingreso en UCI (OR 9,22; IC 95% 1,98-42,93; P = 0,005), la enfermedad previa respiratoria (OR 2,90; IC 95% 1,15-7,36; P = 0,024), psiquiátrica (OR 4,14; IC 95% 1,36-12,61; P = 0,013), la dislipemia (OR 3,21; IC 95% 1,63-6,35; P = 0,001) y el número de fármacos prescrito (OR 4,33; IC 95% 2,40-7,81; P = 0,000). CONCLUSIÓN: La prevalencia de interacciones potenciales en paciente COVID-19 en tratamiento con LPV/r es elevada, comportándose como factores de riesgo asociados la edad (> 65), el ingreso en UCI, la enfermedad previa respiratoria, psiquiátrica y la dislipemia y el número de fármacos prescritos


OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of potential interactions in COVID-19 patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). The secondary objective was to develop recommendations and identify the risk factors associated with presenting potential interactions with LPV/r. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional and multicenter study with the participation of 2 hospitals. COVID-19 patients over 18 years of age, admitted to hospital and under treatment with LPV/r were included. A screening of potential interactions related to LPV/r and home and hospital medication was carried out. Lexicomp® (Uptodate), HIV-drug interactions and COVID-drug interactions were used as the query database. RESULTS: 361 patients with a mean age of 62.77 ± 14.64 years were included, where 59.6% (n = 215) were men. 62.3% (n = 225) had 1 or more potential interactions and 26, 87% (n = 97) 2 or more. The independent variables associated with presenting ≥ 1 potential interactions were age (> 65) (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.06-3.59, P =.033), ICU admission (OR 9.22; CI 95% 1.98-42.93; P = .005), previous respiratory pathology (OR 2.90; 95% CI 1.15-7.36; P =.024), psychiatric (OR 4.14; 95 CI % 1.36-12.61; P =.013), dyslipidemia (OR 3.21; 95% CI 1.63-6.35; P = .001) and the number of drugs prescribed (OR 4.33; 95% CI 2.40-7.81; P =.000). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of potential interactions in COVD-19 patient undergoing treatment with LPV/r is high, with age (> 65), ICU admission, previous respiratory and psychiatric pathology, dyslipidemia and the number of prescribed drugs acting as risk factors


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Lopinavir/farmacocinética , Ritonavir/farmacocinética , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Segurança do Paciente
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003634

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide are putting themselves at high risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by treating a large number of patients while lacking protective equipment. We aim to provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the COVID-19 infection among HCWs. We used data on COVID-19 cases in the city of Wuhan to compare epidemiological characteristics between HCWs and non-HCWs and explored the risk factors for infection and deterioration among HCWs based on hospital settings. The attack rate (AR) of HCWs in the hospital can reach up to 11.9% in Wuhan. The time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis in HCWs and non-HCWs dropped rapidly over time. From mid-January, the median time interval of HCW cases was significantly shorter than in non-HCW cases. Cases of HCWs and non-HCWs both clustered in northwestern urban districts rather than in rural districts. HCWs working in county-level hospitals in high-risk areas were more vulnerable to COVID-19. HCW cases working in general, ophthalmology, and respiratory departments were prone to deteriorate compared with cases working in the infection department. The AR of COVID-19 in HCWs are higher than in non-HCWs. Multiple factors in hospital settings may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19. Effective measures should be enhanced to prevent HCWs from COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
18.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200101, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the prevalence of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 in Brazil and the associated factors. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional household-based epidemiological survey. Data were collected from the National Health Survey (PNS), conducted in 2013, by carrying out creatinine blood test and GFR calculation (n = 7,457). The groups of explanatory variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, chronic diseases, anthropometry, and health assessment. The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and the respective 95% confidence intervals were estimated using the Poisson regression to calculate the crude and adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and adjPR) by age, sex, education level, and region. RESULTS: The prevalence of GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 6.48% (95%CI 5.88 - 7.09). After the adjustment, the following aspects remained associated: women (PR = 1.40; 95%CI 1.16 - 1.68), age of 45-59 years (adjPR = 7.27; 95%CI 3.8 - 14.1), 60 years or older (adjPR = 33.55; 95%CI 17.8 - 63.4), obesity (PR = 1.32 (95%CI 1.1 - 1.7), diabetes (PR = 1.44; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.8), poor/very poor self-rated health (PR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.2 - 1.9); and the lowest adjPR was found for the Northeast and Southeast regions, among smokers with high salt intake. CONCLUSION: GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was higher in women, increased with age, in addition to being associated with obesity, diabetes, and poor self-rated health. Knowing the prevalence of chronic kidney disease through biochemical tests and risk and protective factors are paramount to support public health policies.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1196-1202, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the temporal trend, clinical profile, and the prevalence of risk factors and associated comorbidities in new cases of tuberculosis in the Northeast (2001-2016). METHODS: A prevalence study involving all tuberculosis cases registered in Northeast Brasil, 2001-2016. Data were obtained from the National System of Notification of Disorders. For statistical analysis, the inflection point regression model and descriptive statistics were used. RESULTS: 331,245 cases of tuberculosis were reported. The overall incidence rate decreased from 44.84/100,000 inhabitants (2001) to 30.92/100,000 inhabitants (2016), with a decreasing trend (AAPC: -2.3; p<0.001). The profile was characterized by men (73.53%), age 20-59 years (73.56%), pulmonary tuberculosis (86.37%), positive smear microscopy (54.78%). The main risk factors and comorbidities were: AIDS (4.64%), HIV (12.10%), Diabetes mellitus (5.46%), alcohol (11.63%), institutionalized, (4.31%) and deprived of liberty (2.30%). The cure rate was 70.66% and the abandonment rate was 9.11%. CONCLUSIONS: Even with a reduced incidence, tuberculosis represents a real public health problem in the Northeast region. The profile was characterized by a male population, in economically-active age, lung smear-positive pulmonary presentation, and the risk factors and comorbidities of Aids, TB/HIV co-infection, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, institutionalized and deprived of freedom reflect the complexity of the challenges in facing the disease.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , Adulto , Brasil , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1217-1224, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze whether the implementation of a multidisciplinary educational programme for cardiovascular prevention in public schools can contribute to reducing the FramINGHAM CARDIOVASCULAR RISK SCORE OF THE CHILDREN'S PARENTS AFTER ONE YEAR. METHODS: This was a prospective, community-based, case-control study carried out in public schools in Sao Paulo, Brasil. Students were randomized to receive healthy lifestyle recommendations by two different approaches. The control group received written cardiovascular health educational brochures for their parents. The intervention group received the same brochures for the parents, and the children were exposed to a weekly educational programme on cardiovascular prevention with a multidisciplinary health team for one year. Clinical and laboratorial data were collected at the onset and end of the study. RESULTS: We studied 265 children and their 418 parents. At the baseline, the rate of parents with intermediate or high Framingham scores (risk of cardiovascular disease over the next 10 years greater than 10%) was 6.9% in the control group and 13.3% in the intervention group. After one year, the rate of parents with intermediate or high Framingham risk score was reduced by 22.2% in the intervention group and increased by 33.3% in the control group (p=0.031). The cardiovascular risk factors that improved in the intervention group were blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), and glucose levels. CONCLUSION: An educational programme on cardiovascular prevention for school-age children in public schools can reduce the cardiovascular risk of their parents.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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