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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4496, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901024

RESUMO

Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis and the general decline of physiological functions, accompanied by various degenerative diseases and increased rates of mortality. Aging targeting small molecule screens have been performed many times, however, few have focused on endogenous metabolic intermediates-metabolites. Here, using C. elegans lifespan assays, we conducted a worm metabolite screen and identified an eukaryotes conserved metabolite, myo-inositol (MI), to extend lifespan, increase mobility and reduce fat content. Genetic analysis of enzymes in MI metabolic pathway suggest that MI alleviates aging through its derivative PI(4,5)P2. MI and PI(4,5)P2 are precursors of PI(3,4,5)P3, which is negatively related to longevity. The longevity effect of MI is dependent on the tumor suppressor gene, daf-18 (homologous to mouse Pten), independent of its classical pathway downstream genes, akt or daf-16. Furthermore, we found MI effects on aging and lifespan act through mitophagy regulator PTEN induced kinase-1 (pink-1) and mitophagy. MI's anti-aging effect is also conserved in mouse, indicating a conserved mechanism in mammals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Inositol/metabolismo , Longevidade/fisiologia , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Locomoção/fisiologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA-Seq
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4516, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908137

RESUMO

Acinar metaplasia is an initial step in a series of events that can lead to pancreatic cancer. Here we perform single-cell RNA-sequencing of mouse pancreas during the progression from preinvasive stages to tumor formation. Using a reporter gene, we identify metaplastic cells that originated from acinar cells and express two transcription factors, Onecut2 and Foxq1. Further analyses of metaplastic acinar cell heterogeneity define six acinar metaplastic cell types and states, including stomach-specific cell types. Localization of metaplastic cell types and mixture of different metaplastic cell types in the same pre-malignant lesion is shown. Finally, single-cell transcriptome analyses of tumor-associated stromal, immune, endothelial and fibroblast cells identify signals that may support tumor development, as well as the recruitment and education of immune cells. Our findings are consistent with the early, premalignant formation of an immunosuppressive environment mediated by interactions between acinar metaplastic cells and other cells in the microenvironment.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Pâncreas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Biópsia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Heterogeneidade Genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metaplasia/genética , Camundongos , Mutação , Pâncreas/citologia , Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes include tumor-reactive lymphocytes and regulatory T-cells. However, the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains unclear. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate the presence of tumor-infiltrating FoxP3⁺ T-cells and CTLA-4⁺ cells in four distinct histological compartments (tumor parenchyma and stroma at the tumor center, and parenchyma and stroma at the invasive front) and assessed the association between the prevalence of these cells and the histopathological status of 137 patients with OSCC. RESULTS: Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival, and recurrence-free survival were favorable in patients with high numbers of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. Recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival were decreased in patients with high numbers of CTLA-4⁺ cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of FoxP3⁺ T-cells in the parenchyma of the invasive front may be a useful prognostic factor. Our results indicate that FoxP3⁺ T-cells may exert site-specific anti-tumor effects but may not play an immunosuppressive role in OSCC. In addition, our results suggest that CTLA-4+ cells suppress the function of FoxP3+ T-cells and promote anti-tumor immunity in OSCC.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/citologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/mortalidade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Taxa de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(33): 20088-20099, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732436

RESUMO

T lymphocyte motility and interaction dynamics with other immune cells are vital determinants of immune responses. Regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent autoimmune disorders by suppressing excessive lymphocyte activity, but how interstitial motility patterns of Treg cells limit neuroinflammation is not well understood. We used two-photon microscopy to elucidate the spatial organization, motility characteristics, and interactions of endogenous Treg and Th17 cells together with antigen-presenting cells (APCs) within the spinal cord leptomeninges in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. Th17 cells arrive before the onset of clinical symptoms, distribute uniformly during the peak, and decline in numbers during later stages of EAE. In contrast, Treg cells arrive after Th17 cells and persist during the chronic phase. Th17 cells meander widely, interact with APCs, and exhibit cytosolic Ca2+ transients and elevated basal Ca2+ levels before the arrival of Treg cells. In contrast, Treg cells adopt a confined, repetitive-scanning motility while contacting APCs. These locally confined but highly motile Treg cells limit Th17 cells from accessing APCs and suppress Th17 cell Ca2+ signaling by a mechanism that is upstream of store-operated Ca2+ entry. Finally, Treg cell depletion increases APC numbers in the spinal cord and exaggerates ongoing neuroinflammation. Our results point to fundamental differences in motility characteristics between Th17 and Treg cells in the inflamed spinal cord and reveal three potential cellular mechanisms by which Treg cells regulate Th17 cell effector functions: reduction of APC density, limiting access of Th17 cells to APCs, and suppression of Th17 Ca2+ signaling.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio/fisiologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Células Th17/metabolismo , Animais , Autoantígenos , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Bainha de Mielina , Linfócitos T Reguladores
5.
Cancer Invest ; 38(7): 406-414, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 play a key dysfunction of T lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the prognostic role of tumor- TILs and its relationship with PD-L1 expression in stage II and III colon cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemisty was used to assess the densities of CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ cells, and PD-L1 expression in intraepithelial tumor site from 58 stage II and III colon cancers. These were evaluated for association with histopathologic features and overall survival. RESULTS: PD-L1-positive tumors contained a higher number of CD8+ TILs with statistical significance (p = 0.001). CD4+ TILs showed positive correlation with PD-L1 expression (p = 0.034). There were no associations between PD-L1 expression and FOXP3+ TILs. Microsatellite instability (MSI)-high status (p = 0.001; Odd ration 18.0; 95% CI = 4.3-74.8) was the strongest prognostic factor along with mucinous/poor cell differentiation, CD8 and right tumor location was associated with PD-L1 expression (p = 0.024, 0.035 and 0.033, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that PD-L1 expression was associated with MSI-high, increased CD8+ TILs, mucinous and poor cell differentiation, and right-sided tumor location.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18764-18770, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694203

RESUMO

Human progenitor cells (HPCs) support human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency, and their differentiation along the myeloid lineage triggers cellular cues that drive reactivation. A key step during HCMV reactivation in latently infected HPCs is reexpression of viral major immediate early (MIE) genes. We recently determined that the major immediate early promoter (MIEP), which is primarily responsible for MIE gene expression during lytic replication, remains silent during reactivation. Instead, alternative promoters in the MIE locus are induced by reactivation stimuli. Here, we find that forkhead family (FOXO) transcription factors are critical for activation of alternative MIE promoters during HCMV reactivation, as mutating FOXO binding sites in alternative MIE promoters decreased HCMV IE gene expression upon reactivation and significantly decreased the production of infectious virus from latently infected primary CD34+ HPCs. These findings establish a mechanistic link by which infected cells sense environmental cues to regulate latency and reactivation, and emphasize the role of contextual activation of alternative MIE promoters as the primary drivers of reactivation.


Assuntos
Citomegalovirus , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/genética , Citomegalovirus/metabolismo , Citomegalovirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Genes Precoces/genética , Células HeLa , Humanos , Latência Viral
7.
Gene ; 757: 144931, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640308

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the role of close homolog of L1 (CHL1) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and the correlation with the balance of Th17/Treg. METHODS: Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced IBD mice model was established. CHL1 knockout (KO) mice and CHL1 wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to DSS. CHL1 expression was detected using qRT-PCR. Weight was recorded daily, and disease activity index (DAI) score was assessed. The colon length and histological changes were measured. The number of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells was observed by immunohistochemistry. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and the proportion of Th17/Treg cells were detected by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry. The expression of RORγt, STAT3 and Foxp3 was detected by using immunohistochemistry and Western blot. RESULTS: CHL1 expression was upregulated in DSS-induced IBD mice. DSS-CHLl-KO mice exhibited less weight loss than the DSS-CHLl-WT mice. The DAI score and histological score were decreased in DSS-CHLl-KO mice compared with DSS-CHLl-WT mice, while colon length was increased. Number of neutrophils, macrophages and T cells, and expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-23 were decreased in DSS-CHLl-KO mice, while IL-10 expression was increased. Moreover, CHL1-deficient inhibited Th17 cells differentiation and promoted Treg cells differentiation in IBD mice. CHL1-deficient also inhibited the expression of RORγt and STAT3, and promoted the expression of Foxp3 in IBD mice. CONCLUSION: CHL1-deficient reduces the inflammatory response by regulating the balance of Th17/Treg in mice with IBD. CHL1 is expected to be a new target for the treatment of IBD.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/deficiência , Diferenciação Celular , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Membro 3 do Grupo F da Subfamília 1 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Células Th17/citologia
8.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008865, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603360

RESUMO

Fpr1 (FK506-sensitive proline rotamase 1), a protein of the FKBP12 (FK506-binding protein 12 kDa) family in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a primary target for the immunosuppressive agents FK506 and rapamycin. Fpr1 inhibits calcineurin and TORC1 (target of rapamycin complex 1) when bound to FK506 and rapamycin, respectively. Although Fpr1 is recognised to play a crucial role in the efficacy of these drugs, its physiological functions remain unclear. In a hmo1Δ (high mobility group family 1-deleted) yeast strain, deletion of FPR1 induced severe growth defects, which could be alleviated by increasing the copy number of RPL25 (ribosome protein of the large subunit 25), suggesting that RPL25 expression was affected in hmo1Δfpr1Δ cells. In the current study, extensive chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and ChIP-sequencing analyses revealed that Fpr1 associates specifically with the upstream activating sequences of nearly all RPG (ribosomal protein gene) promoters, presumably in a manner dependent on Rap1 (repressor/activator site binding protein 1). Intriguingly, Fpr1 promotes the binding of Fhl1/Ifh1 (forkhead-like 1/interacts with forkhead 1), two key regulators of RPG transcription, to certain RPG promoters independently of and/or cooperatively with Hmo1. Furthermore, mutation analyses of Fpr1 indicated that for transcriptional function on RPG promoters, Fpr1 requires its N-terminal domain and the binding surface for rapamycin, but not peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity. Notably, Fpr1 orthologues from other species also inhibit TORC1 when bound to rapamycin, but do not regulate transcription in yeast, which suggests that these two functions of Fpr1 are independent of each other.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/metabolismo , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Calcineurina/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Cromatina por Imunoprecipitação , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Tacrolimo/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645018

RESUMO

Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a single-exon gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor, which is mainly expressed in the ovary, eyelids and the pituitary gland. FOXL2 plays an essential role in ovarian development. To reveal the effects of FOXL2 on the biological process and gene expression of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), we established stable FOXL2-knockdown GCs and then analysed them using transcriptome sequencing. It was observed that knocking down FOXL2 affected the biological processes of cell proliferation, DNA replication, and apoptosis and affected cell cycle progression. FOXL2 knockdown promoted cell proliferation and DNA replication, decreased cell apoptosis, and promoted mitosis. In addition, by comparing the transcriptome after FOXL2 knockdown, we found a series of DEGs (differentially expressed genes) and related pathways. These results indicated that, through mediating these genes and pathways, the FOXL2 might induce the cell proliferation, cycle, and DNA replication, and play a key role during ovarian development and maintenance.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box L2/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Galinhas/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 17142-17150, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636256

RESUMO

Gut microbes play diverse roles in modulating host fitness, including longevity; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their mediation of longevity remain poorly understood. We performed genome-wide screens using 3,792 Escherichia coli mutants and identified 44 E. coli mutants that modulated Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. Three of these mutants modulated C. elegans longevity via the bacterial metabolite methylglyoxal (MG). Importantly, we found that low MG-producing E. coli mutants, Δhns E. coli, extended the lifespan of C. elegans through activation of the DAF-16/FOXO family transcription factor and the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). Interestingly, the lifespan modulation by Δhns did not require insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling (IIS) but did require TORC2/SGK-1 signaling. Transcriptome analysis revealed that Δhns E. coli activated novel class 3 DAF-16 target genes that were distinct from those regulated by IIS. Taken together, our data suggest that bacteria-derived MG modulates host longevity through regulation of the host signaling pathways rather than through nonspecific damage on biomolecules known as advanced glycation end products. Finally, we demonstrate that MG enhances the phosphorylation of hSGK1 and accelerates cellular senescence in human dermal fibroblasts, suggesting the conserved role of MG in controlling longevity across species. Together, our studies demonstrate that bacteria-derived MG is a novel therapeutic target for aging and aging-associated pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Gene ; 758: 144967, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707299

RESUMO

Bivalve mollusks are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage and have successfully evolved unique strategies for reproduction. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying reproductive regulation in mollusks remain to be elucidated. In this study, transcriptomes of ovary at four reproductive stages in female Chlamys farreri were characterized by RNA-Seq. Regarding signaling pathways, ECM-receptor interaction pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, Fanconi anemia pathway, FoxO signaling pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and Hedgehog signaling pathway were enriched during ovarian development processes. In addition, pathways related to energy metabolism such as Nitrogen metabolism and Arachidonic acid metabolism were enriched at spawn stage. Interestingly, Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction was significantly enriched involved in ovarian development and spawn, and indicated the potential functions of nervous system on reproductive regulation in C. farreri. What's more, this study identified and characterized fourteen genes involved in "sex hormones synthesis and regulation", "ovarian development and spawn" and "maternal immunity" during the four reproductive stages in C. farreri. We determined that CYP17 uniquely affected gamete release by influencing the physiological balance among the steroid hormones and showed that receptors of the 5-HT and GABA neurotransmitters were tightly associated with ovarian maturation. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the maternal effect gene Zar1 in bivalve mollusks, likewise the maternal immunity genes displayed coordinated and cooperative expression during reproductive periods, which strengthened the environmental adaptation mechanisms of bivalves. Taken together, this study provides the first dynamic transcriptomic analysis of C. farreri at four key reproductive stages, which will assist in revealing the molecular mechanisms underlying bivalves on reproductive regulation in ovarian development and spawn.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pectinidae/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/genética
12.
Nature ; 583(7816): 447-452, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499651

RESUMO

Genetic variations underlying susceptibility to complex autoimmune and allergic diseases are concentrated within noncoding regulatory elements termed enhancers1. The functions of a large majority of disease-associated enhancers are unknown, in part owing to their distance from the genes they regulate, a lack of understanding of the cell types in which they operate, and our inability to recapitulate the biology of immune diseases in vitro. Here, using shared synteny to guide loss-of-function analysis of homologues of human enhancers in mice, we show that the prominent autoimmune and allergic disease risk locus at chromosome 11q13.52-7 contains a distal enhancer that is functional in CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and required for Treg-mediated suppression of colitis. The enhancer recruits the transcription factors STAT5 and NF-κB to mediate signal-driven expression of Lrrc32, which encodes the protein glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP). Whereas disruption of the Lrrc32 gene results in early lethality, mice lacking the enhancer are viable but lack GARP expression in Foxp3+ Treg cells, which are unable to control colitis in a cell-transfer model of the disease. In human Treg cells, the enhancer forms conformational interactions with the promoter of LRRC32 and enhancer risk variants are associated with reduced histone acetylation and GARP expression. Finally, functional fine-mapping of 11q13.5 using CRISPR-activation (CRISPRa) identifies a CRISPRa-responsive element in the vicinity of risk variant rs11236797 capable of driving GARP expression. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for association of the 11q13.5 risk locus with immune-mediated diseases and identify GARP as a potential target in their therapy.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 11/genética , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Acetilação , Alelos , Animais , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Sintenia/genética
13.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(5): 369-375, 2020 May 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482025

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effects and the mechanism of FoxO6 on the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Methods: FoxO6 siRNA was transfected into colorectal cancer cell HCT116 and SW480. The overexpression vector pcDNA.3.1-c-Myc was constructed and co-transfected into HCT116 and SW480 cells with FoxO6 siRNA. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of FoxO6, c-Myc, and p21 in HCT116 and SW480 cells. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was used to detect cell proliferation and Transwell assay was performed to detect the invasion ability of these cells. SW480 cells transfected with FoxO6 shRNA lentivirus (LV-FoxO6) and were injected into the right armpit of BAL b/c nude mice to construct a tumor-bearing mode and the tumor volumes were measured on the days of 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25 after injection. Results: The FoxO6 mRNA were 0.91±0.04, 1.72±0.07, and 2.03±0.06, and protein expression were 0.70±0.04, 1.35±0.08, and 1.56±0.07 in normal colon cell FHC, colorectal cancer cells HT116 and SW480, respectively. The protein and mRNA levels of FoxO6 in HCT116 and SW480 were significantly higher than those in FHC (both P<0.05). Knockdown of FoxO6 in HCT116 and SW480 cells decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of FoxO6 (both P<0.05), the cell proliferation ability (absorbances were 0.26±0.07 and 0.27±0.06, both P<0.05), cell invasion ability (the invaded cell numbers were 42.3±3.3 and 45.7±4.1, both P<0.05), and the mRNA and protein expressions of c-Myc, while increased the mRNA and protein expressions of p21 (both P<0.01). Overexpression of Myc in FoxO6 silenced HCT116 and SW480 cells decreased the expression of p21, while increased the cell proliferation ability (absorbances were 0.54±0.09 and 0.58±0.07, both P<0.01) and invasion ability (the invaded cell numbers were 79.2±5.9 and 80.5±6.4, both P<0.01). On the 25th day after cell inoculation in nude mice, the tumor volume of LV-FoxO6 group was (190.6±36.2) mm(3), significantly lower than (437.8.6±69.2) mm(3) of LV-NC group (P<0.05). Conclusion: FoxO6 promotes the proliferation and invasion of colorectal cancer cells through facilitating c-Myc mediated p21 expression inhibition.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus
14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008830, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502192

RESUMO

Many post-transcriptional mechanisms operate via mRNA 3'UTRs to regulate protein expression, and such controls are crucial for development. We show that homozygous mutations in two zebrafish exon junction complex (EJC) core genes rbm8a and magoh leads to muscle disorganization, neural cell death, and motor neuron outgrowth defects, as well as dysregulation of mRNAs subjected to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) due to translation termination ≥ 50 nts upstream of the last exon-exon junction. Intriguingly, we find that EJC-dependent NMD also regulates a subset of transcripts that contain 3'UTR introns (3'UI) < 50 nts downstream of a stop codon. Some transcripts containing such stop codon-proximal 3'UI are also NMD-sensitive in cultured human cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We identify 167 genes that contain a conserved proximal 3'UI in zebrafish, mouse and humans. foxo3b is one such proximal 3'UI-containing gene that is upregulated in zebrafish EJC mutant embryos, at both mRNA and protein levels, and loss of foxo3b function in EJC mutant embryos significantly rescues motor axon growth defects. These data are consistent with EJC-dependent NMD regulating foxo3b mRNA to control protein expression during zebrafish development. Our work shows that the EJC is critical for normal zebrafish development and suggests that proximal 3'UIs may serve gene regulatory function in vertebrates.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Neurogênese/genética , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Axônios/fisiologia , Códon de Terminação , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Embrião não Mamífero , Éxons/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Homozigoto , Humanos , Íntrons/genética , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Mutagênese , Mutação , Crescimento Neuronal/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Terminação Traducional da Cadeia Peptídica , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , RNA-Seq , Alinhamento de Sequência , Regulação para Cima , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20630, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590737

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that the anticancer agent, arsenic trioxide (ATO), could attenuate T cell mediated immunity by not only inhibiting the proliferative response of T cells but by also increasing the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Furthermore, ATO represents a reasonable salvage treatment in some patients with refractory severe aplastic anemia (SAA). The current study aimed to evaluate the function of ATO on the Tregs percentage and cytokines changes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SAA patients.PBMCs were collected from 20 newly diagnosed SAA patients in Henan Cancer Hospital and treated with different concentrations of ATO (0, 1, 2.5, and 5 µmol/L). Then we investigated the efficacy of ATO on Tregs ratio and the levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-17 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 in the peripheral blood of SAA patients in vitro.The results showed that ATO significantly increased the proportion of Tregs (P < .001) at 2.5 and 5 µmol/L concentrations, and the proportion of Tregs was increased with increasing ATO concentration (r = 0.524). At 1 (P = .03), 2.5 (P < .001) and 5 µmol/L (P < .001), ATO significantly up-regulated the expression levels of Foxp3 mRNA, which was positively and linearly correlated with the increase of Tregs cell-frequency (r = 0.52, 95%CI, 0.37-0.67). In addition, ATO significantly reduced the levels of IFN-γ (at 1, 2.5 and 5 µmol/L, P < .001), IL-4 (at 2.5 µmol/L, P = .009; at 5 µmol/L, P < .001), and IL-17 (at 2.5, P = .016; at 5 µmol/L, P < .001). ATO significantly reduced the levels of TGF-ß1 at 5 µmol/L (P = .03), but showed no significant effects at 1 and 2.5 µmol/L (P > .05).ATO could mediate the immune regulation, which might contribute to improve hematopoietic recovery in SAA patients.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/sangue , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Trióxido de Arsênio/administração & dosagem , Interferon gama/sangue , Interleucina-17/sangue , Interleucina-4/sangue , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/sangue , Anemia Aplástica/tratamento farmacológico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Food Chem ; 330: 127228, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535316

RESUMO

Betalain-rich extracts have been used for many years by their nutraceutical potential. However, the study of their bioactivities has always been hampered by their difficult obtention. To explain their mode of action, seventeen pure betalains were tested in vivo using the animal model C. elegans. Four betalains, named indicaxanthin, indoline carboxylic acid-betacyanin, phenylalanine-betaxanthin, and dopaxanthin, behaved as extraordinary in vivo antioxidants and anti-aging compounds, by increasing the lifespan of C. elegans up to 16.82%, 16.65%, 16.53%, and 12.93%, respectively. The first microarrays performed with betalains and biological confirmation with different mutant strains showed that this life extension is due to a reduction of oxidative stress and the activation of the transcription factors DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf2. They are involved in longevity and oxidative stress resistance pathways and lead to overexpression of HSPs genes, involved in resistance to cancer and Alzheimer's, opening novel research lines in the search for effective plant-based treatments.


Assuntos
Betalaínas/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Longevidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
Nature ; 582(7812): 416-420, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499641

RESUMO

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are required to control immune responses and maintain homeostasis, but are a significant barrier to antitumour immunity1. Conversely, Treg instability, characterized by loss of the master transcription factor Foxp3 and acquisition of proinflammatory properties2, can promote autoimmunity and/or facilitate more effective tumour immunity3,4. A comprehensive understanding of the pathways that regulate Foxp3 could lead to more effective Treg therapies for autoimmune disease and cancer. The availability of new functional genetic tools has enabled the possibility of systematic dissection of the gene regulatory programs that modulate Foxp3 expression. Here we developed a CRISPR-based pooled screening platform for phenotypes in primary mouse Treg cells and applied this technology to perform a targeted loss-of-function screen of around 500 nuclear factors to identify gene regulatory programs that promote or disrupt Foxp3 expression. We identified several modulators of Foxp3 expression, including ubiquitin-specific peptidase 22 (Usp22) and ring finger protein 20 (Rnf20). Usp22, a member of the deubiquitination module of the SAGA chromatin-modifying complex, was revealed to be a positive regulator that stabilized Foxp3 expression; whereas the screen suggested that Rnf20, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, can serve as a negative regulator of Foxp3. Treg-specific ablation of Usp22 in mice reduced Foxp3 protein levels and caused defects in their suppressive function that led to spontaneous autoimmunity but protected against tumour growth in multiple cancer models. Foxp3 destabilization in Usp22-deficient Treg cells could be rescued by ablation of Rnf20, revealing a reciprocal ubiquitin switch in Treg cells. These results reveal previously unknown modulators of Foxp3 and demonstrate a screening method that can be broadly applied to discover new targets for Treg immunotherapies for cancer and autoimmune disease.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Animais , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/biossíntese , Edição de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Estabilidade Proteica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/deficiência , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
18.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(5): 31, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428232

RESUMO

Purpose: More recently, literature has emerged providing findings about the novelty of microRNAs (miR)-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB). The prime objective of this study was to identify the potential role of miR-378a-3p and its regulation in RB cells via forkhead box G1 (FOXG1). Methods: The expression of miR-378a-3p and FOXG1 in the clinical RB tissues was determined using RNA quantitation and Western blot assays. The interaction between miR-378a-3p and FOXG1 was identified using dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The potential effects of miR-378a-3p on the RB cell biological processes were evaluated by conducting gain- and loss-of-function studies of miR-378a-3p and FOXG1, followed by cell viability, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis measurements. Furthermore, experiments were performed in nude mice to assess its effects on tumor formation. Results: miR-378a-3p was poorly expressed, whereas FOXG1 was highly expressed in RB tissues and cells. miR-378a-3p bound to the FOXG1 3' untranslated region and negatively modulated its expression. The overexpression of miR-378a-3p was found to decrease RB cell viability and to promote cell apoptosis in vitro, whereas overexpressed FOXG1 reversed the regulatory effects of miR-378a-3p on RB cellular behaviors. In nude mice, the restoration of miR-378a-3p by miR-378a-3p agomir was shown to play a role in the reduction of tumor volume and size relative to nude mice injected with negative control-agomir. Conclusions: Our findings identified that increased miR-378a-3p exerted an inhibitory effect on RB cell proliferation by targeting FOXG1, suggesting the role of miR-378a-3p as a novel therapeutic target for RB.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias da Retina/patologia , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Animais , Western Blotting , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Plasmídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Neoplasias da Retina/metabolismo , Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Transfecção , Transplante Heterólogo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
19.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 69(10): 2063-2073, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447412

RESUMO

Although metastatic disease is responsible for the majority of cancer deaths, tests of novel immunotherapies in mouse tumour models often focus on primary tumours without determining whether these therapies also target metastatic disease. This study examined the impact of depleting Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), on lung metastases, using a mouse model of breast cancer. After Treg-depletion, generation of an immune response to the primary tumour was a critical determinant for limiting development of metastasis. Indeed, resection of the primary tumour abrogated any effect of Treg-depletion on metastases. In addition, whilst the immune response, generated by the primary tumour, prevented metastases development, it had little impact on controlling established disease. Collectively, the data indicate that metastatic cells in the lung are not controlled by immune responses induced by the primary tumour. These findings indicate that targeting Tregs alone will not suffice for treating lung metastases.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Depleção Linfocítica/métodos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/terapia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233037, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401825

RESUMO

Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) levels have prognostic and predictive values in treatment-naïve breast cancers. However, there have been controversies regarding TIL subset changes and their clinical implications in post-treatment breast cancers. This study aimed to explore change and prognostic significance of TIL subset infiltration after primary systemic therapy (PST) in breast cancer. One-hundred-fifty-five patients who had residual disease after anthracycline- or anthracycline plus taxane-based PST were included. The quantities of intratumoral and stromal TIL subsets (CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ TILs) in pre- and post-PST breast cancer samples, as well as changes between them, were analyzed along with their correlations with clinicopathologic features and outcome of patients. As a whole, intratumoral CD8+ and CD4+ TILs increased after PST while stromal TILs decreased. Both intratumoral and stromal FOXP3+ TILs decreased after PST. The chemo-sensitive group [residual cancer burden (RCB) class I and II] showed the same pattern of change in intratumoral CD8+ TILs as the whole group, whereas the chemo-resistant group (RCB class III) showed no significant change in intratumoral CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST. Survival analyses for each TIL subset as well as their ratios revealed that high levels of intratumoral, stromal, and total CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST were independent predictors of longer patient survival. In subgroup analyses, CD8+ TIL infiltration after PST revealed prognostic significance in the chemo-resistant group but not in the chemo-sensitive group. In conclusion, infiltration of CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ TIL changed after PST in the intratumoral and stromal compartments. Especially, increase of intratumoral CD8+ TILs was associated with chemo-responsiveness. Moreover, CD8+ TIL status in residual tumors after PST may be used as a potential prognostic marker in breast cancer patients who receive PST and provide additional prognostic information to chemo-resistant group.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antraciclinas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasia Residual , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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