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1.
Theranostics ; 11(1): 316-329, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391477

RESUMO

Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by systemic hyper-inflammation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and multiple organ failure. Cytokine storm refers to a set of clinical conditions caused by excessive immune reactions and has been recognized as a leading cause of severe COVID-19. While comparisons have been made between COVID-19 cytokine storm and other kinds of cytokine storm such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and cytokine release syndrome, the pathogenesis of cytokine storm has not been clearly elucidated yet. Recent studies have shown that impaired response of type-1 IFNs in early stage of COVID-19 infection played a major role in the development of cytokine storm, and various cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1 were involved in severe COVID-19. Furthermore, many clinical evidences have indicated the importance of anti-inflammatory therapy in severe COVID-19. Several approaches are currently being used to treat the observed cytokine storm associated with COVID-19, and expectations are especially high for new cytokine-targeted therapies, such as tocilizumab, anakinra, and baricitinib. Although a number of studies have been conducted on anti-inflammatory treatments for severe COVID-19, no specific recommendations have been made on which drugs should be used for which patients and when. In this review, we provide an overview of cytokine storm in COVID-19 and treatments currently being used to address it. In addition, we discuss the potential therapeutic role of extracorporeal cytokine removal to treat the cytokine storm associated with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Azetidinas/farmacologia , Azetidinas/uso terapêutico , /imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/farmacologia , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Purinas/farmacologia , Purinas/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5341, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087723

RESUMO

Autoimmunity can occur when a checkpoint of self-tolerance fails. The study of familial autoimmune diseases can reveal pathophysiological mechanisms involved in more common autoimmune diseases. Here, by whole-exome/genome sequencing we identify heterozygous, autosomal-dominant, germline loss-of-function mutations in the SOCS1 gene in ten patients from five unrelated families with early onset autoimmune manifestations. The intracellular protein SOCS1 is known to downregulate cytokine signaling by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway. Accordingly, patient-derived lymphocytes exhibit increased STAT activation in vitro in response to interferon-γ, IL-2 and IL-4 that is reverted by the JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor ruxolitinib. This effect is associated with a series of in vitro and in vivo immune abnormalities consistent with lymphocyte hyperactivity. Hence, SOCS1 haploinsufficiency causes a dominantly inherited predisposition to early onset autoimmune diseases related to cytokine hypersensitivity of immune cells.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/deficiência , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Haploinsuficiência , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação , Linhagem , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína 1 Supressora da Sinalização de Citocina/química , Linfócitos T/imunologia
3.
Cell Rep ; 33(1): 108234, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979938

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replication and host immune response determine coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but studies evaluating viral evasion of immune response are lacking. Here, we use unbiased screening to identify SARS-CoV-2 proteins that antagonize type I interferon (IFN-I) response. We found three proteins that antagonize IFN-I production via distinct mechanisms: nonstructural protein 6 (nsp6) binds TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to suppress interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) phosphorylation, nsp13 binds and blocks TBK1 phosphorylation, and open reading frame 6 (ORF6) binds importin Karyopherin α 2 (KPNA2) to inhibit IRF3 nuclear translocation. We identify two sets of viral proteins that antagonize IFN-I signaling through blocking signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)/STAT2 phosphorylation or nuclear translocation. Remarkably, SARS-CoV-2 nsp1 and nsp6 suppress IFN-I signaling more efficiently than SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Thus, when treated with IFN-I, a SARS-CoV-2 replicon replicates to a higher level than chimeric replicons containing nsp1 or nsp6 from SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV. Altogether, the study provides insights on SARS-CoV-2 evasion of IFN-I response and its potential impact on viral transmission and pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Capsídeo/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Evasão da Resposta Imune , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , RNA Helicases/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/genética , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , alfa Carioferinas/metabolismo
4.
Nanotoxicology ; 14(8): 1058-1081, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813574

RESUMO

Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are increasingly used in nanotechnology applications, yet information on sex differences in NiNP-induced lung disease is lacking. The goal of this study was to explore mechanisms of susceptibility between male and female mice after acute or subchronic pulmonary exposure to NiNPs. For acute exposure, male and female mice received a single dose of NiNPs with or without LPS by oropharyngeal aspiration and were necropsied 24 h later. For subchronic exposure, mice received NiNPs with or without LPS six times over 3 weeks prior to necropsy. After acute exposure to NiNPs and LPS, male mice had elevated cytokines (CXCL1 and IL-6) and more neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), along with greater STAT3 phosphorylation in lung tissue. After subchronic exposure to NiNPs and LPS, male mice exhibited increased monocytes in BALF. Moreover, subchronic exposure of male mice to NiNP only induced higher CXCL1 and CCL2 in BALF along with increased alveolar infiltrates and CCL2 in lung tissue. STAT1 in lung tissue was induced by subchronic exposure to NiNPs in females but not males. Males had a greater induction of IL-6 mRNA in liver after acute exposure to NiNPs and LPS, and greater CCL2 mRNA in liver after subchronic NiNP exposure. These data indicate that susceptibility of males to acute lung inflammation involves enhanced neutrophilia with increased CXCL1 and IL-6/STAT3 signaling, whereas susceptibility to subchronic lung inflammation involves enhanced monocytic infiltration with increased CXCL1 and CCL2. STAT transcription factors appear to play a role in these sex differences. This study demonstrates sex differences in the lung inflammatory response of mice to NiNPs that has implications for human disease.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Níquel/toxicidade , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Caracteres Sexuais , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Quimiocina CXCL1/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
5.
Life Sci ; 260: 118261, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795539

RESUMO

AIMS: Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune systemic disorder causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and disability in various joints. This work was designed to evaluate the effect of sitagliptin and tofacitinib on Janus kinase (JAK)/signaling transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) and toll like receptor (TLR-4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Severity of arthritis was evaluated and serum was analyzed for inflammatory mediators. The mRNA and protein expression level of the most important members of the two signaling pathways were determined. Lipid profile, transaminases and renal function parameters were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: Sitagliptin and tofacitinib significantly decreased the level of inflammatory parameters, the mRNA and protein expression level of the members of JAK/STAT and TLR-4/NF-κB pathways with more prominent effect of sitagliptin on TLR-4/NF-κB pathway and more expected obvious effect of tofacitinib on JAK/STAT pathway. The combination offered additional anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the cross talk between these pathways as inhibition of NF-κB activation decreased the serum level of IL-6 preventing the activation of STAT-3 in tibiotarsal tissues. SIGNIFICANCE: The combination of tofacitinib and sitagliptin normalized serum lipids and blood glucose level which could offer protection against cardiovascular diseases and caused partial reversal of serum transaminases and creatinine levels which can protect against tofacitinb's related hepato and nephrotoxicity. We could conclude that the combination of Sitagliptin with tofacitinib can offer synergistic anti-inflammatory effect and more protective action against side effects of tofacitinib.


Assuntos
Artrite Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfato de Sitagliptina/administração & dosagem , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Glicemia/análise , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hipoglicemiantes , Interleucina-6/sangue , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
6.
Environ Toxicol ; 35(12): 1352-1363, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677756

RESUMO

Although pipoxolan (PIPO) is a smooth muscle relaxant, its anti-inflammatory capability has not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory molecular mechanisms of PIPO in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. In this study, we used the MTT assay to evaluate the cytotoxicity, applied the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to determine the inflammatory cytokines, and performed Western blotting to assess protein expression. The results showed that PIPO significantly inhibited cytokine production, including nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 , tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6. PIPO also suppressed the pro-inflammatory mediator expression with inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2. Moreover, PIPO prohibited the multiple inflammatory transcription factor pathways, including inhibitor kappa B/nuclear factor of the κ light chain enhancer of B cells (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase/activator protein-1 (AP-1), Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/serine/threonine kinase (AKT). Besides, PIPO effectively activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 antioxidative pathway. Collectively, PIPO may attenuate the inflammatory effects via influencing the LPS/TLR4 receptor binding; suppress the expression of anti-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB, AP-1, and STAT; and activating the antioxidative transcription factor Nrf2 in LPS-stimulated mouse RAW 264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Dioxolanos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Células RAW 264.7
7.
Trends Pharmacol Sci ; 41(8): 531-543, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580895

RESUMO

Recent advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has indicated that patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might experience cytokine release syndrome (CRS), characterized by increased interleukin (IL)-6, IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, etc. Therefore, the treatment of cytokine storm has been proposed as a critical part of rescuing severe COVID-19. Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for CRS, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Below, we review the possibilities and challenges of targeting the pathway in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(24): 13670-13679, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471953

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a deadly hematologic malignancy with poor prognosis, particularly in the elderly. Even among individuals with favorable-risk disease, approximately half will relapse with conventional therapy. In this clinical circumstance, the determinants of relapse are unclear, and there are no therapeutic interventions that can prevent recurrent disease. Mutations in the transcription factor CEBPA are associated with favorable risk in AML. However, mutations in the growth factor receptor CSF3R are commonly co-occurrent in CEBPA mutant AML and are associated with an increased risk of relapse. To develop therapeutic strategies for this disease subset, we performed medium-throughput drug screening on CEBPA/CSF3R mutant leukemia cells and identified sensitivity to inhibitors of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1). Treatment of CSF3R/CEBPA mutant leukemia cells with LSD1 inhibitors reactivates differentiation-associated enhancers driving immunophenotypic and morphologic differentiation. LSD1 inhibition is ineffective as monotherapy but demonstrates synergy with inhibitors of JAK/STAT signaling, doubling median survival in vivo. These results demonstrate that combined inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling and LSD1 is a promising therapeutic strategy for CEBPA/CSF3R mutant AML.


Assuntos
Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinase 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas Estimuladoras de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Feminino , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Receptores de Fator Estimulador de Colônias/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Surg Res ; 254: 183-190, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperplastic polyposis protein 1 (HPP1) encodes a tumor-suppressive transmembrane cleavable epidermal growth factor-like ligand. It is unclear as to whether cleavage and shedding of HPP1 are essential steps in achieving its tumor suppressive properties. ADAM proteins are key players in cellular ectodomain shedding processes with ADAM17 being well characterized and representing the most likely sheddase for HPP1. In this study, we explore the mechanisms and importance of ectodomain shedding in contributing to HPP1-mediated tumor suppression. METHODS: Baseline characterization of HPP1 ectodomain shedding and ADAM family member expression was performed in HCT116 colon cancer cells with forced overexpression of HPP1 and controls. Subsequent impact of attenuation of ADAM expression by short interfering RNA on HPP1 shedding was evaluated. Furthermore, we examined the functional impact of an uncleavable HPP1 mutant construct (HPP1-Δstalk) generated by site-directed mutagenesis. Cellular growth potential functions were analyzed by MTT and soft agar assays. RESULTS: Select proinflammatory cytokines enhanced HPP1 ectodomain shedding, whereas short interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of ADAM17 resulted in abrogation of HPP1 ectodomain shedding. ADAM17 knockdown concomitantly resulted in increased cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. HPP1-Δstalk-transfected cells exhibited significantly higher proliferation and reduced STAT1 activation relative to full-length HPP1, further suggesting a critical role for ectodomain shedding in HPP1-mediated tumor suppression. CONCLUSION: The tumor-suppressive properties of HPP1 in colorectal cancer require cleavage and shedding of its ectodomain which in turn are mediated by ADAM17. Further investigations into the regulation of HPP1 may lead to a greater understanding of epidermal growth factor-like ligand family biology and potential novel therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Proteína ADAM17/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo
10.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104445, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Since microRNAs (miRNAs) represent as effective therapeutic targets for diabetic retinopathy (DR), we identified aberrantly expressed miRNAs related to cellular dysfunction in DR and further detected their potential targets. This study aimed to explore the synergistic effect of miR-216a, inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) and the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway on human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) injury in DR. METHODS: The differentially expressed genes in DR were obtained by GEO database, and the downstream signaling pathways and upstream targeted miRNAs were obtained through bioinformatics analysis. Subsequently, a DR model rat was established, and the target miR-216a was overexpressed to observe the pathological and morphological changes of the rat retina and the levels of inflammatory factors. Then, HRMECs were extracted and added with d-Glucose, and then transfected with miR-216a, NOS2 or adding JAK/STAT signaling pathway specific inhibitor to observe changes in cell activity and inflammatory damage. RESULTS: NOS2 was significantly upregulated, and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was significantly activated in DR. miR-216a targeted NOS2, which played a protective role in the retina of DR rats. Moreover, in cell experiments, overexpression of miR-216a promoted the viability of HRMECs under d-glucose treatment, and inhibited NOS2 expression and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway activation. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that miR-216a protects against HRMECs injury in DR by suppressing the NOS2/JAK/STAT axis.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Microvasos/patologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Retina/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/toxicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Sci Adv ; 6(13): eaay9789, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232155

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) is routinely used in cancer treatment, but expansion of its clinical indications remains challenging. The mechanism underlying the radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) is not understood and not therapeutically exploited. We suggest that the RIBE is predominantly mediated by irradiated tumor cell-released microparticles (RT-MPs), which induce broad antitumor effects and cause immunogenic death mainly through ferroptosis. Using a mouse model of malignant pleural effusion (MPE), we demonstrated that RT-MPs polarized microenvironmental M2 tumor-associated macrophages (M2-TAMs) to M1-TAMs and modulated antitumor interactions between TAMs and tumor cells. Following internalization of RT-MPs, TAMs displayed increased programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, enhancing follow-up combined anti-PD-1 therapy that confers an ablative effect against MPE and cisplatin-resistant MPE mouse models. Immunological memory effects were induced.


Assuntos
Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Animais , Biomarcadores , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Efeito Espectador/imunologia , Efeito Espectador/efeitos da radiação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Reprogramação Celular/efeitos da radiação , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Ativação de Macrófagos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(9): 4780-4796, 2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232334

RESUMO

Previously, we have shown that human sperm Prohibitin (PHB) expression is significantly negatively correlated with mitochondrial ROS levels but positively correlated with mitochondrial membrane potential and motility. However, the possible role of PHB in mammalian spermatogenesis has not been investigated. Here we document the presence of PHB in spermatocytes and its functional roles in meiosis by generating the first male germ cell-specific Phb-cKO mouse. Loss of PHB in spermatocytes resulted in complete male infertility, associated with not only meiotic pachytene arrest with accompanying apoptosis, but also apoptosis resulting from mitochondrial morphology and function impairment. Our mechanistic studies show that PHB in spermatocytes regulates the expression of STAG3, a key component of the meiotic cohesin complex, via a non-canonical JAK/STAT pathway, and consequently promotes meiotic DSB repair and homologous recombination. Furthermore, the PHB/JAK2 axis was found as a novel mechanism in the maintenance of stabilization of meiotic STAG3 cohesin complex and the modulation of heterochromatin formation in spermatocytes during meiosis. The observed JAK2-mediated epigenetic changes in histone modifications, reflected in a reduction of histone 3 tyrosine 41 phosphorylation (H3Y41ph) and a retention of H3K9me3 at the Stag3 locus, could be responsible for Stag3 dysregulation in spermatocytes with the loss of PHB.


Assuntos
Código das Histonas , Meiose/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Espermatócitos/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Pareamento Cromossômico , Epigenoma , Histonas/metabolismo , Recombinação Homóloga , Infertilidade/genética , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Estágio Paquíteno , Fosforilação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Espermatócitos/enzimologia , Espermatócitos/ultraestrutura , Testículo/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 252: 117663, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302624

RESUMO

AIMS: Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a new member of the interleukin-12 family and is composed of the P35 and EB virus-inducible gene 3 subunits. The aims of this study were to examine the roles of IL-35 in the exhaustion of HBV-specific CTLs, as little as known on the subject. MAIN METHODS: The relative levels of serum HBV markers were detected using automated biochemical techniques. The HBV DNA copies were measured by RT-qPCR. The expression of inhibitory receptors and the cell cytokines on the surface of CTLs were determined by flow cytometry. The pSTAT1-pSTAT4 protein levels expression was determined by flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and Western blot. KEY FINDINGS: Our results showed that IL-35 can activate the Janus kinase 1 (JAK1)/tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)/STAT4 pathway in CTLs in vitro. Interferon-γ and tumor necrosis alpha-α expression increased in CTLs in the presence of a JAK/STAT-pathway blocker. In addition, we evaluated the expression of the exhaustion-associated molecules programmed death-1, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein-4, and lymphocyte activation gene-3 in CTLs after adding the JAK-STAT inhibitor The results showed that the expression of exhaustion-associated molecules on the CTL surface decreased after blocking the JAK-STAT pathway. IL-35 inhibited the function of HBV-specific CTLs through the JAK1/TYK2/STAT1/STAT4 pathway, and the function of CTLs was recovered after blocking the JAK/STAT pathway. SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide a new experimental basis for immunotherapy for chronic hepatitis B.


Assuntos
Antígenos E da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B Crônica/imunologia , Interleucinas/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/virologia , Adulto , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Vírus da Hepatite B/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia
14.
Phytomedicine ; 69: 153194, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32146299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency of allergic diseases is constantly rising. Dysregulated production of isotype E immunoglobulins is one of the key factors behind allergic reactions and its modulation is therefore an important target for pharmacological intervention. Natural products of the pseurotin family were reported to be inhibitors of IgE production in B-cells. Mechanistic details underlying these effects are however not well understood. PURPOSE: In the present study, we synthesized new analogs of natural pseurotins and extensively investigated their inhibitory effects on activation, proliferation and differentiation of B-cells, as well as on the production of IgE. STUDY DESIGN: Effects of two natural pseurotins (pseurotins A and D) and a collection of fully synthetic pseurotin analogs were studied on mouse B-cells stimulated by the combination of IL-4 and E. coli lipopolysaccharide. The IgE production was determined along with cell viability and cell proliferation. The phosphorylation of selected members of the STAT transcription factor family was subsequently investigated. Finally, the in vivo effect of pseurotin D on the ovalbumin-induced delayed type hypersensitivity response was tested in mice. RESULTS: We discovered that several fully synthetic pseurotin analogs were able to decrease the production of IgE in stimulated B-cells with potency comparable to that of pseurotins A and D. We found that the two natural pseurotins and the active synthetic analogs inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3, STAT5 and STAT6 proteins in stimulated B-cells, resulting in the inhibition of B-cell proliferation and differentiation into the plasma cells. In vivo, pseurotin D decreased ovalbumin-induced foot pad edema. CONCLUSION: Our results advance the current mechanistic understanding of the pseurotin-induced inhibition of IgE production in B-cells by linking the effect to STAT signaling, and associated modulation of B-cell proliferation and differentiation. Together with our finding that structurally simpler pseurotin analogs were able to reproduce the effects of natural pseurotins, the presented work has implications for the future research on these secondary metabolites in the context of allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Plasmócitos/citologia , Pirrolidinonas/química , Pirrolidinonas/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/citologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Escherichia coli/química , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/toxicidade , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmócitos/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(5)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121587

RESUMO

: Autophagy is a cellular process by which mammalian cells degrade and assist in recycling damaged organelles and proteins. This study aimed to ascertain the role of autophagy in remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC)-induced cardioprotection. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to RIPC at the hindlimb followed by a 30-min transient blockade of the left coronary artery to simulate ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hindlimb muscle and the heart were excised 24 h post reperfusion. RIPC prior to I/R upregulated autophagy in the rat heart at 24 h post reperfusion. In vitro, autophagy inhibition or stimulation prior to RIPC, respectively, either ameliorated or stimulated the cardioprotective effect, measured as improved cell viability to mimic the preconditioning effect. Recombinant interleukin-6 (IL-6) treatment prior to I/R increased in vitro autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, activating the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway without affecting the other kinase pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 Beta (GSK-3ß) pathways. Prior to I/R, in vitro inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway reduced autophagy upregulation despite recombinant IL-6 pre-treatment. Autophagy is an essential component of RIPC-induced cardioprotection that may upregulate autophagy through an IL-6/JAK-STAT-dependent mechanism, thus identifying a potentially new therapeutic option for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Cardiotônicos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Ratos , Regulação para Cima
16.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 1745-1760, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157749

RESUMO

Curcumin is a naturally occurring nutraceutical compound with a number of therapeutic and biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antitumor, and cardioprotective. This plant-derived chemical has demonstrated great potential in targeting various signaling pathways to exert its protective effects. Signal transducers and activator of transcription (STAT) is one of the molecular pathways involved in a variety of biological processes such as cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Accumulating data demonstrates that the STAT pathway is an important target in treatment of a number of disorders, particularly cancer. Curcumin is capable of affecting STAT signaling pathway in induction of its therapeutic impacts. Curcumin is able to enhance the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines and improve inflammatory disorders such as colitis by targeting STAT signaling pathway. Furthermore, studies show that inhibition of JAK/STAT pathway by curcumin is involved in reduced migration and invasion of cancer cells. Curcumin normalizes the expression of JAK/STAT signaling pathway to exert anti-diabetic, renoprotective, and neuroprotective impacts. At the present review, we provide a comprehensive discussion about the effect of curcumin on JAK/STAT signaling pathway to direct further studies in this field.


Assuntos
Curcumina/uso terapêutico , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Biológicos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Humanos
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110364, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114243

RESUMO

Silicosis is a fatal fibrotic lung disease caused by long-term silica particle exposure, in which pulmonary macrophages play an important role. However, the relationship between macrophage polarization and silicosis remains unclear. We established an experimental silicosis mouse model to investigate macrophage polarization during silicosis development. C57BL/c mice were exposed to silica by intra-tracheal instillation and sacrificed at different time points. Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were collected for flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, western blotting, and histology examinations. The polarization of pulmonary macrophages was dysregulated during silicosis development. In the early stage of silicosis, M1 macrophages were induced and played a leading role in eliciting inflammatory; in the late stage, M2 macrophages were induced to promote tissue repair. Levels of several cytokines in lung tissue microenvironment changed with macrophage polarization. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 were upregulated in the inflammation stage, while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was upregulated in the fibrosis stage. Furthermore, we found that STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) and IRF (interferon regulatory factor) signaling pathway were involved in the regulation of macrophage polarization in silicosis. In summary, macrophage polarization is closely related to the occurrence and development of silicosis and may be a key point for further elucidating silicosis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Silicose/imunologia , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Citocinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/metabolismo , Silicose/patologia
18.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 951-959, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) is a large vessel vasculitis with important infiltration of proinflammatory T cells in the aorta and its main branches, but its aetiology is still unknown. Our work aims to explore the involvement of Janus Kinase/Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling pathway in proinflammatory T cells differentiation and disease activity of TAK. METHODS: We analysed transcriptome and interferons gene signatures of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS-sorted) CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from healthy donors (HD) and in 25 TAK (median age of 37.6 years including 21 active TAK with National Institutes of Health (NIH) score >1). Then we tested, in vitro and in vivo, the effects of JAK inhibitors (JAKinibs) in TAK. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis showed 248 and 432 significantly dysregulated genes for CD4+ and CD8+ samples between HD and TAK, respectively. Among dysregulated genes, we highlighted a great enrichment for pathways linked to type I and type II interferons, JAK/STAT and cytokines/chemokines-related signalling in TAK. We confirmed by Real Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) the upregulation of type I interferons gene signature in TAK as compared with HD. JAKinibs induced both in vitro and in vivo a significant reduction of CD25 expression by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, a significant decrease of type 1 helper T cells (Th1) and Th17 cells and an increase of Tregs cells in TAK. JAKinibs also decreased C reactive protein level, NIH score and corticosteroid dose in TAK patients. CONCLUSIONS: JAK/STAT signalling pathway is critical in the pathogenesis of TAK and JAKinibs may be a promising therapy.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Arterite de Takayasu/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Interferons , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arterite de Takayasu/tratamento farmacológico , Células Th1 , Células Th17
19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(6): 629-639, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219346

RESUMO

Adipocytes and adipose tissue are not inert and make substantial contributions to systemic metabolism by influencing energy homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and lipid storage. In addition to well-studied hormones such as insulin, there are numerous hormones, cytokines, and growth factors that modulate adipose tissue function. Many endocrine mediators utilize the JAK-STAT pathway to mediate dozens of biological processes, including inflammation and immune responses. JAKs and STATs can modulate both adipocyte development and mature adipocyte function. Of the seven STAT family members, four STATs are expressed in adipocytes and regulated during adipogenesis (STATs 1, 3, 5A, and 5B). These STATs have been shown to play influential roles in adipose tissue development and function. STAT6, in contrast, is highly expressed in both preadipocytes and mature adipocytes, but is not considered to play a major role in regulating adipose tissue function. This review will summarize the latest research that pertains to the functions of STATs in adipocytes and adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Adipócitos/citologia , Adipogenia , Animais , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/genética , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 80: 106239, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007709

RESUMO

Previous research has recently indicated that TLR7 is able to induce CD4+T cell anergy, which is the opposite of the role it plays in innate immune cells. Therefore, TLR7 ligands may be used as a manner in which to induce CD4+T cells "tolerance" in autoimmune diseases. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells were demonstrated to be a subset of CD4+T cells that help B cells produce antibodies. The abnormal activity of Tfh cells, though, is their function as a primary pathogenic factor in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the role of TLR7 in Tfh cells is not clear. Our study was aimed at determining the influence of TLR7 on Tfh cells in a murine model of SLE (MRL/lpr mice). We were surprised to find that the frequency of Tfh cells and germinal center (GC) B cells was significantly reduced after treatment with the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. Imiquimod also significantly reduced the expression of inducible costimulatory molecule (ICOS) and programmed death 1(PD-1) in Tfh cells and decreased IL-21 secretion. Moreover, imiquimod significantly reduced the mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including Bcl-6, c-Maf, Batf3, Nfatc2 and Stat3, and enhanced the expression of Prdm1 and Stat5b in CD4+T cells. Imiquimod also ameliorated the progression of SLE in MRL/lpr mice by inhibiting anti-dsDNA antibodies and antinuclear antibody (ANA) secretion in the serum. Our findings indicated that TLR7 inhibited the development of Tfh cells both in vivo and ex vivo, which depended on many transcription factors aside from Bcl-6. Our results demonstrated that a TLR7 agonist has the potential to be used to inhibit Tfh cell responses during SLE.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imiquimode/farmacologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/tratamento farmacológico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/agonistas , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/agonistas , Animais , Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Anticorpos Antinucleares/metabolismo , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imiquimode/uso terapêutico , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos MRL lpr , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Domínio I Regulador Positivo/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição STAT/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo
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