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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110248, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148314

RESUMO

Agroforestry is hypothesised to increase ecological and economic functions of farms. Yet it is unclear if and how much agroforestry should be embedded in diversified farming systems to satisfy farmers' needs while potentially enhancing environmental services. To address this research gap we use a mathematical programming model to investigate the role of different agroforestry systems in hypothetical farm portfolios that reduce trade-offs between farmers' goals. Our approach is innovative because it simultaneously considers multiple objectives and the effect of land-use diversification within a farm, is based on knowledge and perceptions of local farmers, and accounts for heterogeneity in farmer judgement. We test the model in a forest frontier region in Eastern Panama, using data from farmer interviews. Farmers evaluated conventional land uses and two agroforestry systems (silvopasture and alley cropping) against 10 pre-defined socio-economic and ecological objectives. First we determined the optimal farm land-use composition that reduces trade-offs between the 10 objectives. The model selects the mix of land uses that secures the best worst-case performance across all objectives, when considering uncertainty in the ability of each land use to achieve each objective (which we quantify by the variability in farmer opinion). Agroforestry dominates the optimised farm portfolio, which comprises 60% silvopasture, 39% forest and 1% plantation. This land-use portfolio, however, deviates strongly from the current land use of farmers, which is 59% pasture, 26% crops, 14% forest and 1% plantation. In a second step we explore the implicit objectives driving farmers' current land-use decisions. We find that immediate-term needs related to food security and liquidity best explain farmers' current land-use portfolio; optimising for these objectives produces a land-use portfolio comprising 60% pasture and 40% crops, which is similar to the current land use. This suggests that increasing agroforestry adoption in the study area will require systems that provide early and frequent returns and allow for ongoing crop production, to better satisfy farmers' cash flow and household consumption needs.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Metas , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Panamá
2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(4): 209, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128626

RESUMO

A comprehensive study on various pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) under different rice-based cropping systems is necessary for predicting their effect on soil quality through carbon build-up in soil and their impact on global climate change. The present investigation was undertaken to study the long-term effect of six different rice-based cropping systems (continuously followed by farmers > 10 years) on various SOC pools viz., total organic carbon (TOC), oxidizable organic carbon (Coc) and its different fractions [Cfrac1 (very labile), Cfrac2 (labile), Cfrac3 (less labile) and Cfrac4 (non-labile)], soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and lability index (LI) and SOC stock at the farmer's field of Kakching district under hilly ecosystems of Manipur, India. In every cropping system, all the fractions of Coc were significantly decreased with increasing soil depth. Among all the fractions, Cfrac4 (non-labile) constituted the largest percentage of TOC for both surface (0-20 cm) and sub-surface (20-40 cm) soil varying from 47.95-58.45% and 55.76-64.83% with average values of 51.87 and 59.73% respectively. Results also revealed that the Cfrac1 (very labile) of Coc constituted highest (42.79%) percentage of Coc and that of Cfract4 constituted highest percentage (55.80%) of TOC. In both soil depths, rice-pea cropping system recorded highest TOC, Coc and SMBC followed by rice-French bean and rice-potato. In surface soil, the lowest TOC, Coc and SMBC were recorded in rice-mustard which was statistically at par with rice-cabbage. The SOC stock of both soil layers was also recorded highest in rice-pea. The highest LI of surface soil was recorded in rice-potato which was statistically equal with rice-pea and rice-French bean. Significant correlations among different pools/fractions of C and with available nutrients indicate their importance in improving soil quality. Long-term combination of rice with the leguminous crops and/or potato enhanced Coc, TOC, SMBC, LI and active pools (Cfrac1 + Cfrac2) of rapid turnover rate that may influence the quality and productivity of soil. Long-term cultivation of rice-French bean with high passive C along with good active C and LI is proved to be a good cropping system for sustaining soil and environment by enhancing quality and C reserve of degraded soils of hilly agroecosystem.


Assuntos
Carbono , Oryza , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Índia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19488, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176086

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dyspnea due to tracheal invasion by malignant tumors is a common oncological emergency that is difficult to manage, and a common cause of death among patients with advanced cancer. Bronchoscopy-guided intervention therapy under conventional ventilation is very risky for patients with severe central airway stenosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides strong cardiopulmonary support, but is rarely used in bronchoscopy-guided interventional therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient had advanced esophageal cancer with metastases to the trachea and left and right main bronchi. Despite several sessions of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and bronchoscopy-guided intervention therapy, the tumor in the airway became enlarged, the lumen was severely narrow, and the patient experienced respiratory distress. DIAGNOSIS: A thoracic computed tomography scan performed at our hospital revealed invasion of the trachea and opening of the left and right main bronchi by the esophageal cancer, blockage of the stent by the tumor, and severe luminal narrowing. An emergency bronchoscopy showed slit-like stenosis of the middle and lower part of the trachea and the left and right main bronchi, and the tumor was highly vascular. INTERVENTIONS: To reduce the risk of major airway bleeding and asphyxia during bronchoscopy under conventional ventilation, we finally performed argon plasma coagulation with a high frequency electric knife and cryotherapy with ECMO support. OUTCOMES: We successfully cleared the tumor tissue in the airway under ECMO support. The trachea and left and right main bronchi recovered smoothly, and the patient was soon discharged. CONCLUSION: ECMO can meet the oxygenation needs during bronchoscopy-guided intervention therapy. For patients with severe central airway obstruction due to malignant tumors, ECMO should be considered if conventional respiratory support cannot guarantee the safety of surgery.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Traqueia/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Broncoscopia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/complicações , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/secundário , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Neoplasias Esofágicas/complicações , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/cirurgia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Neoplasias da Traqueia/complicações , Neoplasias da Traqueia/secundário , Neoplasias da Traqueia/cirurgia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(6): e18795, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028391

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a phenomenon of cutaneous ulceration with unknown etiology. About half the cases have associated extracutaneous manifestations or associated systemic diseases. The most commonly associated systemic disorders include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), hematologic malignancies, autoimmune arthritis, and vasculitis. This is a case report about giant PG with ulcerative colitis (UC), which is extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old female farmer with UC for the past 3 years presented with multiple painful ulcers, erosion, exudation, and crusting on the right leg for 1 month. A cutaneous examination showed diffusely distributed, multiple, well-defined, deep purulent ulcers on the right medial shank measuring 6 to 20 cm and sporadic worm-eaten ulceration on the right ectocnemial, with severe oozing and erosions. The ulcerations exhibited deep undermined borders, granulated tissue and a black eschar at the base. The right shank and feet were severely swollen, restricting movement. The arteria dorsalis pedis pulse was good, with normal sensation on the skin of the right shank and feet. Laboratory examinations showed a white cell count of 11.8 × 109/L, hemoglobin was 91 g/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 82 mm/h, unelevated procalcitonin, serum C-reactive protein was 131.29 mg/L, and a negative tuberculin skin test. Enteroscopy demonstrated endoscopic evidence of UC. A skin lesion biopsy showed superficial erosion and scarring. Partial epidermal hyperplasia, partial epidermal atrophy and thinning, mild edema of the dermal papill. Most of the middle and lower part of the dermis, showed dense lymphocytes, histiocytes, multinucleated giant cells, and neutrophil infiltration. PG with UC was diagnosed based on clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and enteroscopy results. INTERVENTIONS: She was treated with topical applications of povidone iodine and kangfuxin solution twice daily, methylprednisolone sodium succinate 40 mg and compound glycyrrhizin 60 mg via intravenous drip once a day, along with thalidomide 50 mg twice daily. The UC was controlled with mesalazine. OUTCOMES: She required multiple therapies to achieve PG healing 3 months later. No PG recurrence was observed during the 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSION: Recognizing the clinical features of PG and its pathogenic nature, ensuring timely management fundamental for preventing severe destruction and deformity, and control of associated diseases are important aspects of treatment. Combination therapy is essential for PG patients with IBD.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Fazendeiros , Pioderma Gangrenoso/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Ácido Glicirrízico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Perna (Membro) , Mesalamina/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Pioderma Gangrenoso/complicações , Pioderma Gangrenoso/tratamento farmacológico , Pioderma Gangrenoso/patologia
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 180, 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065288

RESUMO

This paper presents results of questionnaire surveys regarding the state of the natural environment in rural areas. The research was conducted on a sample of 1101 agricultural holdings in Poland. According to the analyses, agricultural producers are aware of environmental threats posed by irrational agricultural economy. Most respondents indicated the responsibility of farmers and other residents of rural areas as a basic condition for broadly understood environmental safety in rural areas in Poland. In the opinion of respondents, systems and programs for funding the replacement of heating boilers, thermomodernization of buildings, etc., are also important. There were significant differences in farmers' declarations, taking into account the age and level of education of the respondents, as well as features of agricultural holdings (area and economic size of the agricultural holding).


Assuntos
Atitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Environ Manage ; 259: 109702, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072948

RESUMO

Experts expect that climate change will soon have a severe impact on the lives of farmers in the region surrounding Kerala, India. This region, which is known for its monsoon climate (which involves a distinct temporal and spatial variation in rainfall), has experienced a decrease in annual rainfall over the last century. This study is aimed at investigating how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and at identifying the methods that these smallholders use to adapt to climate change. We use data collected from a survey of 215 households to compare the climate vulnerability of three watershed communities in Kerala. We find that the farmers perceive substantial increases in both temperature and the unpredictability of monsoons; this is in accordance with actual observed weather trends. The selection of effective adaptation strategies is one of the key challenges that smallholders face as they seek to reduce their vulnerability. The surveyed households simultaneously use various adaptation methods, including information and communication technology, crop and farm diversification, social networking through cooperatives, and soil and water conservation measures. The results of a binary regression model reveal that the household head's age, education and gender, as well as the farm's size and the household's size, assets, livestock ownership, poverty status and use of extension services, are all significantly correlated with the households' choices regarding adaptations to cope with climate change.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Animais , Mudança Climática , Fazendas , Humanos , Índia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0220274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978098

RESUMO

The nutritional and economic potentials of livestock systems are compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. A major driver of resistance is the misuse and abuse of antimicrobial drugs. The likelihood of misuse may be elevated in low- and middle-income countries where limited professional veterinary services and inadequately controlled access to drugs are assumed to promote non-prudent practices (e.g., self-administration of drugs). The extent of these practices, as well as the knowledge and attitudes motivating them, are largely unknown within most agricultural communities in low- and middle-income countries. The main objective of this study was to document dimensions of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance in livestock systems and identify the livelihood factors associated with these dimensions. A mixed-methods ethnographic approach was used to survey households keeping layers in Ghana (N = 110) and Kenya (N = 76), pastoralists keeping cattle, sheep, and goats in Tanzania (N = 195), and broiler farmers in Zambia (N = 198), and Zimbabwe (N = 298). Across countries, we find that it is individuals who live or work at the farm who draw upon their knowledge and experiences to make decisions regarding antimicrobial use and related practices. Input from animal health professionals is rare and antimicrobials are sourced at local, privately owned agrovet drug shops. We also find that knowledge, attitudes, and particularly practices significantly varied across countries, with poultry farmers holding more knowledge, desirable attitudes, and prudent practices compared to pastoralist households. Multivariate models showed that variation in knowledge, attitudes and practices is related to several factors, including gender, disease dynamics on the farm, and source of animal health information. Study results emphasize that interventions to limit antimicrobial resistance should be founded upon a bottom-up understanding of antimicrobial use at the farm-level given limited input from animal health professionals and under-resourced regulatory capacities within most low- and middle-income countries. Establishing this bottom-up understanding across cultures and production systems will inform the development and implementation of the behavioral change interventions to combat antimicrobial resistance globally.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Fazendas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Gana , Humanos , Quênia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tanzânia , Zâmbia , Zimbábue
8.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0209306, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923186

RESUMO

Food poisoning and environmental pollution are products of excessive chemical usage in Agriculture. In Nigeria, cocoa farmers apply fungicides frequently to control black pod disease (BPD), this practice is life threatening and lethal to the environment. The development of a warning system to detect BPD outbreak can help minimize excessive usage of fungicide by farmers. 8 models (MRM1-MRM8) were developed and 5 (MRM1-MRM5) selected for optimization and performance check. MRM5 (ETAPOD) performed better than the other forecast models. ETAPOD had 100% performance rating for BPD prediction in Ekiti (2009, 2010, 2011 and 2015) with model efficiency of 95-100%. The performance of the model was rated 80% in 2010 and 2015 (Ondo) with model efficiency of 85-90%, 70% in 2011 (Osun) with model efficiency of 81-84%, 60% in 2010 (Ondo and Osun) and 2015 (Osun) with model efficiency of 75-80%, 40% in 2009 (Osun) with model efficiency of 65-69% and 0% 1n 2011 (Ondo) with model efficiency between 0 and 49%. ETAPOD is a simplified BPD detection device for the past, present and future.


Assuntos
Cacau/microbiologia , Epidemiologia , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Cacau/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tomada de Decisões , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Umidade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1118-1123, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dairy farming feed can be contaminated with mycotoxins, affecting animals' health and milk quality. Dairy farming is also prone to occupational exposure to mycotoxins, and feed is recognized as a source of contamination in the workplace. An exploratory study was developed in a dairy farm located in Portugal intending to assess the mycotoxins present in the feed. RESULTS: All the samples analyzed presented contamination by at least two mycotoxins and up to a maximum of 13 mycotoxins in the same sample. Zearalenone (ZEA) was detected in all the samples (n = 10) followed by deoxynivalenol (DON), which was reported in eight samples, and ochratoxin A (OTA), reported in five samples. CONCLUSION: The results point to the possible contamination of milk by several mycotoxins and raise the possibility of occupational exposure to mycotoxins due to feed contamination. An adequate One Health approach for dairy production should address these issues through effective preventive actions such as avoiding the use of feed contaminated with mycotoxins. This represents an important challenge due to climate change. It requires proper attention and accurate management measures. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/etiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Leite/química , Micotoxinas/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Ocratoxinas/análise , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Portugal , Zearalenona/análise , Zearalenona/toxicidade
10.
N Z Vet J ; 68(2): 92-100, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722187

RESUMO

Aims: To investigate the seroprevalence of infection with bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus among 75 beef herds and seroconversion in cattle during early pregnancy, and to determine the practices and opinions of farmers towards BVD control and their association with real and perceived herd serological status.Methods: Blood samples were collected before mating in 75 beef herds across New Zealand from 15 unvaccinated heifers that had delivered their first calf that season. Serum samples were tested for BVD antibodies using ELISA individually, and after pooling samples for each farm. Animals that were antibody-negative were retested at either pregnancy diagnosis or weaning. Farmers were asked to complete a detailed survey about herd demographics, BVD testing and vaccination practices, and opinions towards national BVD control.Results: Based on the pooled serum antibody ELISA results, there were 28/75 (37%) negative herds, 15/75 (20%) suspect herds, and 32/75 (43%) positive herds. Of 1,117 animals sampled 729 (65.3%) tested negative for BVD virus antibodies; when retested, 47/589 (8.0%) animals from 13/55 (24%) herds had seroconverted. Among 71 famers providing survey responses 11 (15%) believed their herd was infected with BVD, 24 (34%) were unsure and 36 (51%) did not think their herd was infected. Only 19/71 (18%) farmers had performed any BVD testing within the past 5 years and 50/70 (71%) had not vaccinated any cattle for BVD. Support for national BVD eradication programme was strong in 51/71 (56%) respondents, but the biggest challenge to BVD control was considered to be famer compliance. Compared to farmers who did not think their herd was infected, more farmers who thought BVD was present in their herds had previously tested for BVD, would consider testing all replacement calves, and would support establishing a national BVD database; fewer would consider purchasing BVD tested or vaccinated cattle only.Conclusions and clinical relevance: Only 15% of the beef farmers in this study believed their herds were infected with BVD virus and few of them had undertaken BVD screening. Nevertheless many were supportive of implementing a national BVD control programme. It is likely that the lack of farmer awareness around BVD and the failure of farmers to recognise the potential impacts in their herds are hindering progress in controlling the disease in New Zealand. There are opportunities for New Zealand veterinarians to be more proactive in helping beef farmers explore BVD management options.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina , Fazendeiros , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/virologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Testes Sorológicos , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem
11.
Waste Manag Res ; 38(3): 291-299, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763957

RESUMO

The study was conducted in Ludhiana District of Punjab (India) to understand the organic waste management practices followed by dairy farmers of the area. To investigate the practices pertaining to organic waste management, an ex-post facto research design was used and a total of 80 dairy farmers were selected randomly for the study, grouped as small and large dairy farmers. Results revealed that the majority of the farmers were using paddy straw as animal bedding followed by in situ burning. As far as paddy stubbles were concerned, most of the farmers were mulching them followed by in situ burning. All farmers were found to be using wheat straw as livestock feed and mulching wheat stubbles. For household waste, the majority of the farmers were found to be feeding kitchen waste to their livestock, preparing farmyard manure from garden waste and paper waste. For dairy waste management, all the farmers were preparing farmyard manure from dung and discarding livestock urine in drains. A little more than half of the farmers were producing biogas from the dairy waste. The majority of the dairy farmers of the research area were found to have low organic waste utilization scores. Relational analysis was carried out and social participation and knowledge level were found to be highly significant (p < 0.01) with a positive effect on the organic waste utilization score. Therefore, the study was concluded with the impression that the knowledge level of the farmers needs to be enhanced for better and effective utilization of organic waste.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Indústria de Laticínios , Humanos , Índia , Esterco
12.
Ambio ; 49(4): 962-985, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482377

RESUMO

In spite of positive expectations for environmental protection, payments for ecosystem services (PES) can bring about unintended disturbances to rural livelihoods. Based on resilience thinking, this article investigates livelihood resilience building at farm level through the interaction between farm adaptation and disturbances induced by China's Grain for Green project (GGP). Cluster analysis was conducted to investigate the complexity and diversity of farm adaptation; the crafting of composite indexes was designed to value resilience through disturbance, sensitivity, and adaptability; regression analyses linked the resilience indexes and farm adaptation with access to resources. The results show three adaptation typologies (i.e. reclamation of retired lands, contractive farming, and expansive farming) with distinct land use structures and resilience scores, and highlight the need to improving farmers' access and endowment of tangible (e.g. farming facilities) and intangible resources (e.g. skill training) for resilience-building practices in light of the GGP. The findings imply that policy interventions combining environmental restrictions with widening resource access to support alternative livelihoods can offset the unintended effects and amplify the success of PES programmes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , China , Fazendeiros , Humanos
13.
Ambio ; 49(2): 593-604, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292911

RESUMO

Transforming Latin America's extensive grazing systems is critical for forest landscape restoration (FLR) but conservation initiatives rarely make efforts to include cattle ranchers. Engaging ranchers requires understanding their perceptions about how improved management and conservation practices fit into their overall production strategy. To assess ranchers' motivations and limitations for adopting conservation-friendly practices, I surveyed 191 ranchers and extension agents participating in a silvopastoral project in Colombia. I found that ranchers are integrating multiple practices they perceive as complementary for achieving their goals: practices aimed at improving productivity are motivated by utilitarian values, while practices targeting environmental degradation and climate change are driven by stewardship and identity values. Input costs and labor shortages currently limit the expansion of conservation-friendly practices, but in-kind support and small cash payments could potentially alleviate these barriers. Silvopastoral ranchers can be instrumental partners in FLR provided that initiatives are designed with their perspectives in mind.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Florestas , Humanos
14.
J Environ Manage ; 253: 109705, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654927

RESUMO

In this paper, we try to understand pesticide input decisions among Vietnamese rice producers by examining the production risk effects of pesticide use, applying both a lottery game and a more traditional production function approach. Production function estimates show that excessive pesticide use makes production riskier. This result is supported by the lottery approach, which signals that more risk averse farmers use less pesticide, implying that pesticide is a risk-increasing input. We also show, that higher uncertainty regarding drought relative to pest is likely driving the increasing risk effect of pesticides. Therefore, we claim that the relative importance of multiple uncertainties on pest and water is relevant to determine the risk property of pesticide.


Assuntos
Oryza , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Vietnã
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134154, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505342

RESUMO

Water scarcity, nutrient-depleted soils and pollution continue to be a major challenge worldwide and these are likely to worsen with increasing global populations particularly, in urban areas. As a result, environmental and public health problems may arise from the insufficient provision of sanitation and wastewater disposal facilities. Because of this, a paradigm shifts with regard to the sustainable management of waste disposal in a manner that could protect the environment at the same time benefits society by allowing nutrient recovery and reuse for food production is required. Hence, the use of urban wastewater for agricultural irrigation has more potential, especially when incorporating the reuse of nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous, which are essential for crop production. Among the current treatment technologies applied in urban wastewater reuse for agriculture, hydroponic system is identified as one of the alternative technology that can be integrated with wastewater treatment. The integration of hydroponic system with municipal wastewater treatment has the advantage of reducing costs in terms of pollutants removal while reducing maintenance and energy costs required for conventional wastewater treatment. The efficiency of a hydroponic system with regard to municipal wastewater reuse is mainly linked to its capacity to allow continuous use of wastewater through the production of agricultural crops and the removal of pollutants/nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), resulting to increased food security and environmental protection. Moreover, the suitability of hydroponic system for wastewater treatment is derived from its capacity to minimize associated health risks to farmers, harvested crop and consumers, that may arise through contact with wastewater.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Hidroponia , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Irrigação Agrícola , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendeiros , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Saneamento , Tecnologia , Águas Residuárias , Água , Purificação da Água
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 702-713, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629510

RESUMO

Little is known about the combination of factors that motivate changes in calf management on dairy farms. Providing information to farmers may help promote change, but it is unclear how this approach affects and is affected by the farmer's relationship with the advisors such as the herd veterinarian. The goal of this study was to understand how benchmarking measures related to calf immune development and growth affected farmer and veterinarian cooperation and influenced the farmer's view of the veterinarian as an advisor for calf management. Veterinarians provided their clients (n = 18 dairy farms in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia) with 2 benchmark reports providing information on transfer of passive immunity and calf growth. Farmers were interviewed before and after receiving these reports to understand how they perceived their veterinarian as a calf advisor. Qualitative analysis identified 2 major themes indicating that benchmarking (1) improved farmer perception of their veterinarian's capacities to advise on calves and (2) strengthened the social influence of the veterinarian. We conclude that benchmarking can help promote stronger relationships between farmers and veterinarians.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Benchmarking , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Fazendeiros , Médicos Veterinários , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Feminino , Humanos
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 583-596, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677834

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to infer phenotypic and genetic effects of health disorders on longevity traits, considering Holstein dairy cow records from large-scale co-operator herds. In this regard, we focused on 13 different disease traits and on 2 longevity definitions: length of productive life (LPL) and stayability (STAY). The LPL was defined as the interval in days from first calving to culling. For LPL, we considered 90,215 cows with known culling dates. For binary STAY, we defined 3 survival stages in the first 3 lactations: from calving to DIM 59, from DIM 60 to DIM 299, and from DIM 300 to the next calving date. Due to the earlier trait recording possibilities, 129,386 cows were considered for the STAY analysis. Accordingly, the presence or absence of diseases in lactation stages were defined as binary traits. A further data set for the 90,215 cows with a culling date included the subjective culling reasons defined by farmers. Comparison of culling reasons, as defined by farmers, with diagnoses from the disease data set indicated some disagreements. For example, only 18.71% of the cows with the farmer culling reason "metabolic diseases" were diagnosed with a metabolic disorder. Better agreements were identified for mastitis (84.09%). Phenotypically, in most cases, occurrence of diseases at different lactation stages had negative influence on LPL and STAY. In this regard, we identified strong detrimental effects of clinical mastitis and of metabolic disorders from early lactation stages on longevity traits. For example, the presence of clinical mastitis in the first stage of first lactation was associated with LPL decrease of 95.35 d. Using generalized linear mixed models for binary health disorders, heritabilities ranged from <0.01 (±0.079 standard error) for ruminal acidosis early in first, second, and third lactation to 0.24 (±0.039) for interdigital hyperplasia from the last stage in third lactation. Heritabilities from single-trait and bivariate animal models ranged from 0.03 (±0.003) to 0.10 (±0.007) for LPL, and from 0.01 (±0.002) to 0.06 (±0.007) for STAY. Genetic correlations between longevity traits and health disorders were mostly negative (i.e., favorable in a breeding sense). For improvements to longevity genetic evaluations for young bulls with a limited number of daughter culling dates, we suggest consideration of health traits from a well-organized co-operator herd monitoring system as early longevity predictors, especially for censored data. Genetic correlations between mastitis from different lactation stages with LPL and STAY ranged from -0.28 (±0.07) to -0.69 (±0.05), and from -0.26 (±0.08) to -0.77 (±0.08), respectively. Interestingly, only diagnoses for dermatitis digitalis showed opposite results phenotypically and genetically. Strong genetic associations between ruminal acidosis and STAY were observed (genetic correlations: -0.48 ± 0.18 to -0.98 ± 0.31), supporting the inferred phenotypic associations. Genetic correlations between longevity traits LPL and STAY were quite large, between 0.77 (±0.11) and 0.94 (±0.02) for the different lactation stages, suggesting utility of early STAY information when attempting genetic improvements for longevity.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/fisiopatologia , Longevidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Lactação , Longevidade/genética , Fenótipo
18.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112184, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465817

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the pre-antibiotic era, a broad spectrum of medicinal plants was used to treat livestock. This knowledge was neglected in European veterinary medicine for decades but kept alive by farmers. Emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial strains requires a severely restricted use of antibiotics in veterinary medicine. We conducted a survey on the ethnoveterinary knowledge of farmers in the bilingual (French and German speaking) Western region of Switzerland, namely the cantons of Fribourg, Neuchâtel and Jura, and in the French speaking part of the canton of Bern. AIM OF THE STUDY: To find out whether differences exist in plants used by farmers in French speaking and bilingual regions of Switzerland as compared to our earlier studies conducted in Switzerland. Additional focus was on plants that are used in diseases which commonly are treated with antimicrobials, on plants used in skin afflictions, and on plants used in animal species such as horses, for which the range of veterinary medicinal products is limited. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted in 2015 semistructured interviews with 62 dialog partners, mainly cattle keeping farmers but also 18 horse keeping farmers. Of these, 41 were native French (FNS) and 21 native German speakers (GNS). Detailed information about homemade herbal remedies (plant species, plant part, manufacturing process) and the corresponding use reports (target animal species, category of use, route of administration, dosage, source of knowledge, frequency of use, last time of use and farmers satisfaction) were collected. RESULTS: A total of 345 homemade remedies were reported, of which 240 contained only one plant species (Homemade Single Species Herbal Remedy Reports; HSHR). A total of 289 use reports (UR) were mentioned for the 240 HSHR, and they comprised 77 plant species belonging to 41 botanical families. Of these, 35 plant species were solely reported from FNS, 20 from GNS, and 22 from both. Taking into account earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland only 10 (FNS) and 6 (GNS) plant species connected with 7% of FNS and GNS UR respectively were "unique" to the respective language group. The majority of the UR (219) was for treatment of cattle, while 38 UR were intended to treat horses. The most UR were for treatment of gastrointestinal and skin diseases. The most frequently mentioned plants were Linum usitatissimum L., Coffea L., Matricaria chamomilla L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, and Quercus robur L. for gastrointestinal diseases, and Calendula officinalis L., Hypericum perforatum L. and Sanicula europaea L. for skin afflictions. CONCLUSION: No clear differences were found between the medicinal plants used by French native speakers and German native speakers. Several of the reported plants seem to be justified to widen the spectrum of veterinary therapeutic options in gastrointestinal and dermatological disorders in cattle and horses, and to reduce, at least to a certain degree, the need for antibiotic treatments. Our findings may help to strengthen the role of medicinal plants in veterinary research and practice, and to consider them as a further measure in official strategies for lowering the use of antibiotics.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Doenças dos Cavalos/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional , Fitoterapia/veterinária , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Etnobotânica , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Cavalos , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Medicinais , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Suíça
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1038, 2019 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the risk factors for brucellosis in suspected cases of the disease. METHODS: A self-designed questionnaire was developed to collect data from 3557 people whose initial visit site was the Songyuan Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2012. After collecting blood samples, a plate agglutination test (PAT) and serum agglutination test (SAT) were used to distinguish the patients with brucellosis from the suspected cases. RESULTS: Sex, occupation (farmers and herdsmen), contact with abortion products, and contact with feces were the main risk factors for brucellosis in the suspected cases (all P < 0.05). No difference existed between the confirmed cases and suspected cases in the demographic characteristics, contact with animals (except swine), contact with substances, or clinical symptoms (except fever). However, the confirmed cases showed significant differences from people without brucellosis in demographic characteristics, contact with animals (except cattle and swine), contact with substances, and clinical symptoms. Suspected cases exhibited significant differences from people without brucellosis in the demographic characteristics (except education), contact with animals (except swine), contact with substances (except dust), and clinical symptoms (except chills and acratia). Brucella was cultured from the blood samples of three of 30 suspected cases with fever. Using AMOS-PCR and agarose electrophoresis, the detailed species of Brucella strain was identified as Brucella melitensis. CONCLUSIONS: Abortion products and feces are the main risk factors for brucellosis in suspected cases of the disease. Pyrexia in suspected cases with a history of contact with abortion products or feces should raise suspicion for the disease.


Assuntos
Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/transmissão , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Testes de Aglutinação/métodos , Animais , Brucella melitensis/genética , Brucella melitensis/isolamento & purificação , Brucella melitensis/patogenicidade , Brucelose/etiologia , Bovinos , China , Fazendeiros , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Febre/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Suínos , Adulto Jovem
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