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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 141709, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889461

RESUMO

Inappropriate handling of pesticides in agriculture poses a major risk to the environment and human health, but factors affecting farmers' behavior are diverse and often unclear. The present study examined farmers' behavior in safe pesticide use (disposal of spray solution leftovers, places for washing sprayers, disposal of rinsates, and use of personal protective equipment) in Ardabil Province, Iran by applying the well-known theory of planned behavior, which states that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of individuals shape intention and engagement in a specific behavior. Almost 30% of the farmers threw pesticide spray solution leftovers away, while the remaining farmers kept it for next spraying. Concerning place for washing sprayers, 55.3% of the farmers washed sprayers in their home yard, 21.0% washed them in the river or the canal flow, and 14.7% washed them in the water source of the farm. Just less than two-thirds (64.3%) of the farmers said that they leave the rinsates onto the farm, while almost one-third (34.0%) said that they pour the rinsates into the river or the canal flow. Most farmers used trousers and blouse and to a lesser extent mask, gloves, and hat when handling pesticides. Attitudes towards safe pesticide use showed the highest mean score (2.91), illustrating neutral to relatively negative attitudes of farmers towards safe pesticide use. Intention showed the lowest mean score (2.28), indicating poor motive to use pesticides safely. Attitudes showed positive impact, while perceived behavioral control showed negative impact on intention. Subjective norms had no significant impact on intention. These three constructs totally explained 78.1% of the variance in farmers' intention towards safe pesticide use. Improving attitudes and perceived behavioral control of farmers towards safe pesticide use through extension education should be targeted for improving farmers' intention and behavior towards safe pesticide handling.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241167, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095814

RESUMO

Understanding the influence of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy and the Chinese government's emergency measures to ease the economic impacts of viral spread can offer urgently-needed lessons while this virus continues to spread across the globe. Thus, this study collected over 750,000 words upon the topic of COVID-19 and agriculture from the largest two media channels in China: WeChat and Sina Weibo, and employed web crawler technology and text mining method to explore the influence of COVID-19 on agricultural economy and mitigation measures in China. The results show that: (1) the impact of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy at the very first phase is mainly reflected in eight aspects as crop production, agricultural products supply, livestock production, farmers' income and employment, economic crop development, agricultural products sales model, leisure agriculture development, and agricultural products trade. (2) The government's immediate countermeasures include resuming agricultural production and farmers' work, providing financial support, stabilizing agricultural production and products supply, promoting agricultural products sale, providing subsidies, providing agricultural technology guidance and field management, and providing assistance to poor farmers to reduce poverty. (3) The order of government's immediate countermeasures is not all in line with the order of impact aspects, which indicates that more-tailored policies should be implemented to mitigate the strikes of COVID-19 on China's agricultural economy in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Produção Agrícola/economia , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Fazendas/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Produção Agrícola/legislação & jurisprudência , Desenvolvimento Econômico/legislação & jurisprudência , Emprego/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Fazendas/legislação & jurisprudência , Apoio Financeiro , Humanos , Gado , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Mídias Sociais
5.
J Dent Hyg ; 94(5): 14-21, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008945

RESUMO

Purpose: Children of Hispanic seasonal or migrant farmworkers in the United States (US) experience high rates of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and have high rates of untreated dental caries. The purpose of this study was to explore Hispanic seasonal farmworker caregivers' beliefs and/or perceptions regarding ECC their children's oral health.Methods: A qualitative explanatory model interview approach was used with a purposive sample of Hispanic parents/caregivers, working and residing in Orange and Ulster Counties, New York. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) was used as a guide to the semi-structured, recorded interviews conducted in locations selected by the participants. The texts were independently read and thematically analyzed by two researchers.Results: A total of 20 parents/caregivers consented to participate. Six themes were identified for the components of the EMIC and included: etiology: eating candy/sweets (65%); sign/symptoms of decay: tooth color change (50%); pathophysiology: not brushing daily (75%); course of disease/impact on daily life: appearance (40%); impact of caries on child's future health: affects child until adult teeth erupt (25%); treatment for pain: tooth brushing (55%). Over half of the respondents (55%) indicated that getting dental care for their children was a priority.Conclusion: Results from this study showed that Hispanic seasonal farmworkers have a desire to maintain their children's oral health. However, they lacked knowledge in some key concepts related to the disease process and prevention of ECC. Caregivers need additional oral health education with consideration for oral health literacy.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Cárie Dentária , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fazendeiros , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , New York , Estações do Ano
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240151, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052932

RESUMO

As of August 2020, the United States is the global epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic. Emerging data suggests that "essential" workers, who are disproportionately more likely to be racial/ethnic minorities and immigrants, bear a disproportionate degree of risk. We used publicly available data to build a series of spatial autoregressive models assessing county level associations between COVID-19 mortality and (1) percentage of individuals engaged in farm work, (2) percentage of households without a fluent, adult English-speaker, (3) percentage of uninsured individuals under the age of 65, and (4) percentage of individuals living at or below the federal poverty line. We further adjusted these models for total population, population density, and number of days since the first reported case in a given county. We found that across all counties that had reported a case of COVID-19 as of July 12, 2020 (n = 3024), a higher percentage of farmworkers, a higher percentage of residents living in poverty, higher density, higher population, and a higher percentage of residents over the age of 65 were all independently and significantly associated with a higher number of deaths in a county. In urban counties (n = 115), a higher percentage of farmworkers, higher density, and larger population were all associated with a higher number of deaths, while lower rates of insurance coverage in a county was independently associated with fewer deaths. In non-urban counties (n = 2909), these same patterns held true, with higher percentages of residents living in poverty and senior residents also significantly associated with more deaths. Taken together, our findings suggest that farm workers may face unique risks of contracting and dying from COVID-19, and that these risks are independent of poverty, insurance, or linguistic accessibility of COVID-19 health campaigns.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Demografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Estados Unidos
7.
Nature ; 586(7829): 336, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046881
8.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 108(4): 651-655, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013227

RESUMO

Migrant and seasonal farmworkers, who are essential workers in the coronavirus global public health emergency, face unique risks to their health as well as longstanding health inequities. This commentary highlights these risks and argues that Internet access represents an underappreciated but critical part of the public health response. The authors first discuss the unique risks farmworkers face. We note the importance of Internet access in the time of physical distancing, the fact that many health outreach workers are no longer visiting camps, the need for telemedicine infrastructure, and the role of Internet access in providing connections to families in communities of origin. We describe existing efforts that have been implemented in North Carolina to raise awareness among public health and health promotion practitioners and researchers. The current coronavirus pandemic demands the attention of medical libraries, public health practitioners, and policy makers to address the digital divide for farmworkers and their families.


Assuntos
Relações Comunidade-Instituição , Fazendeiros , Acesso à Internet , Bibliotecas Médicas , População Rural , Migrantes , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , North Carolina , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967082

RESUMO

Prevalence studies on Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) need stringent reporting on outcomes following existing guidelines. Only by doing so, the much-needed comparisons between occupations, regions and climates for the elucidation of the etiology/etiologies of CKDu, and subsequently for its prevention, are possible. We, here, comment on methodological issues in a recently published study on rice farmers from West Java, Indonesia.


Assuntos
Oryza , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111275, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896822

RESUMO

Weighting scheme definition represents an important step in assessment of adaptive capacity to climate change with indicator approach since it defines the trade-offs among indicators or components and can be source of uncertainty. This study aims to assess smallholder farmers' adaptive capacity to climate change by using a mixed weighting scheme that reflect farmers' perceived importance of adaptive capacity components to inform policy makers. To achieve that objective, the sustainable livelihood framework was adopted and indicator approach was used for the assessment. The mixed weighting scheme were defined by using both equal weights and experts judgement methods during the assessment process. The mixed weighting scheme index is compared to the case where equal weights are applied in the assessment process and an uncertainty analysis was performed on relative standard deviation through a Monte Carlo simulation. Primary Data were collected from 450 farmers in two communities in northern Benin with a structured questionnaire and through focus groups discussion. The results show that smallholder farmers in both communities do not have the same perceived importance of adaptive capacity components. The index scores show that farmers have in majority low adaptive capacity. When weighted product aggregation method is used, there is more uncertainty related to the index computed with the mixed weighting scheme, but it leads to the same characterisation when compared with the index computed with the equal weights. It is recommended that mixed weighting scheme should be preferred for the assessment of adaptive capacity and weighted product aggregation method should be used.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Benin , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111074, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906068

RESUMO

This paper analyses two strategies to reduce the use of pesticides in grain production. We study Norwegian farmers' willingness to voluntarily forego income by reducing pesticide use as well as their responses to a doubling of the pesticide price (through increased pesticide taxes). We use mixed methods including an experiment, a survey and focus group discussions. The experiment shows that most farmers are willing to sacrifice some income to reduce environmental risks by using less pesticide. According to the survey, they are, at the same time, relatively insensitive to a 100% price increase on herbicides and fungicides. While the response to the price increase probably would have been stronger if differentiated between chemicals, our research indicates potential benefits from supporting voluntary action. Value orientations and agronomic conditions influence the stated responses in both circumstances. Respondents emphasizing environmental values are more willing to voluntarily reduce pesticide use and show a greater response to the economic incentive than farmers emphasizing economic outcome and issues such as clean fields. A hypothesized willingness to reduce pesticide use voluntarily to strengthen the reputation of the sector was, however, rejected. Farmers appear to have few alternatives to pesticides, but increased knowledge about the alternatives that do exist, seems able to promote some change. Our findings suggest that the extension service should put greater emphasis on these options, even if they may have negative effects on income.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Animais , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Noruega , Impostos
12.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111304, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906074

RESUMO

Successful adaptation to global climate change and enhancement of agricultural watersheds' resilience requires widespread use of Nutrient Best Management Practices (NBMPs) by farms of all sizes. In the US, adoption of many NBMP practices is voluntary and insufficient to achieve local and downstream conservation objectives. Despite evidence that both social-psychological factors and socio-economic factors influence farmer decision-making, very few studies of farmers' decision-making related to NBMP adoption combine these two factor groups in a theoretically rigorous way. To better understand farmers' management decisions, we test the social-psychological Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to determine the relative influence of attitudes, perceived social norms, and perceived behavioral control on adoption of nine NBMPs. A survey was designed by the research team and implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture-National Agricultural Statistics Service (USDA-NASS) in 2013, and replicated in 2016, on a stratified sample of 129 farmers (including panel data on 56 farmers). Farmers were located in the Missisquoi, and Lamoille River watersheds of the Lake Champlain Basin in the Northeast region of the United States. Survey responses revealed variation in past adoption of NBMPs was sensitive to practice type and farm size. We developed nine weighted structural equation models to test endogenous (social-psychological) and exogenous (policy, economic and demographic) predictors of farmer intention to adopt NBMPs. We found that perceived behavioral control had the largest effect size and strongest statistical significance on the farmers' expressed intentions to adopt NBMPs in the future. For a subset of NBMPs, perceived social norms and farmer attitudes toward these NBMPs were each also significant drivers of intention to adopt individual practices. Among the exogenous variables, we found that large farm size, college education, and having a conservation easement all had a positive influence on farmers' intention to adopt NBMPs. This study suggests that for widespread adoption of NBMPs, environmental managers, policy makers, and program developers should be attentive to farmers' perceived behavioral control, and support the design and execution of outreach and technical assistance programs that build on drivers of farmers' decision making.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Intenção , Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111315, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911388

RESUMO

Climate change brings uncertainty and challenges to achieving sustainable development goals. The dually vulnerable regions in terms of the environment and economy are facing substantial threats from climate change; particularly, smallholder farmers who heavily rely on natural ecosystems in these regions are being the most affected. Paying attention to the vulnerability assessment of these regions is conducive to precisely improving the ability of their people to cope with climate change. This study aimed to construct an extended framework of climate change vulnerability assessment at the household level by combining the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change vulnerability assessment framework with the sustainable livelihood framework. Four typical regions with different climatic and geographical conditions in China, including the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (marked as AOHAN, representing the type of grassland, similarly hereinafter), Qinghai Province (HYMH, plateau), Yunnan Province (YLNL, mountain), and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (NNQZ, coastal zone), were selected to apply the framework. In total, 29 villages from these four regions were selected at random, and 360 face-to-face interviews were conducted in selected villages based on a pretested questionnaire. The results show that AOHAN had the greatest vulnerability, as well as the highest exposure level among the four regions, which was also the major source of differences in vulnerability. Further analysis shows that although the sensitivity and adaptive capacity showed relatively small differences, the sources of sensitivity and adaptation strategies were quite different among the four regions. In terms of sensitivity, YLNL had the highest level of sensitivity in housing, water, and livestock, and AOHAN assumed the highest sensitivity in land. The advantages and disadvantages in terms of adaptive capacity also varied widely among the four regions. More specifically, AOHAN had a balanced adaptive capacity; YLNL largely relied on the advantages in social and human capitals to compensate for the disadvantage in physical capital; and the strengths in physical and financial capitals are the main sources of adaptive capacities for NNQZ and HYMH, respectively. In general, the vulnerability assessment framework proposed in this study provides guidelines for vulnerability assessments at the household level in the face of climate change. In addition, heterogeneous measures to cope with the threats of climate change should be put forward precisely, based on the climatic, geographical and socioeconomic characteristics of each region.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , China , Ecossistema , Geografia , Humanos
14.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 296-305, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational pesticide poisoning is an important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) among the vegetable and fruit farmers in Karacabey District in northwest Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 565 farmers. The dependent variable of the study is APP defined according to the World Health Organization's APP case definition matrix. The study's independent variables are the farmers' sociodemographic characteristics and the preventive measures they use when they are applying pesticides. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis analyzed the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 64 (11.3%) farmers reported APP and 75% of them presented to a health institution due to symptoms. The factors associated with increased risk of APP were: illiteracy (odds ratio (OR)=2.5), 14 years and less farming experience (OR=3.3), not reading the pesticide labels (OR=6.4), and contact with liquid pesticides (OR=2.3). -Conclusions: The study shows that approximately one out of ten farmers experience APP. Training programs should be planned and monitored to improve farmers' awareness of the dangers of pesticides, and they should be encouraged to adopt and implement protective measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Frutas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Autorrelato , Turquia , Verduras
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22248, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957372

RESUMO

With the advance of medical care, the duration of dependency on nursing care in later life has increased worldwide. There is a question of whether farm work could extend or shorten the dependency duration. We investigated the association between farm work experience and the duration of dependency on nursing support or care in late life.We randomly selected 600 adults aged ≥65 years, who were independent and not hospitalized, as part of the Yamanashi Healthy-Active Life Expectancy cohort and followed them for 13 years. We defined the duration of dependency as the time from reception of long-term care insurance benefits to death, and we adjusted for multiple covariates.We analyzed data from 225 adults (139 men and 86 women) who died during the follow-up period. Ninety four had received long-term care benefits. Mean age was 79.6 years (standard deviation [SD]: 6.3) in individuals with farm work experience and 80.1 years (SD: 7.2) in individuals without farm work experience. The estimated duration of dependency on long-term care was 1.3 years (standard error [SE]: 0.4) in individuals with farm work experience vs 2.1 years (SE: 0.5) in individuals without farm work experience (P = .01). The estimated duration of dependency in individuals with farm work experience and without farm work experience was 0.4 years (SE: 0.5) vs 1.3 years (SE: 0.6) in men respectively (P = .03) and 1.6 years (SE: 0.9) vs 2.4 years (SE: 0.9) in women, respectively (P = .16). The sensitivity analysis yielded an estimated duration of 1.2 years (SE: 0.5) in those with farm work experience and 2.3 years (SE: 0.5) in those without farm work experience (P = .004).Individuals with farm work experience required less long-term care prior to death, suggesting that agricultural and physical activities promote health. Policymakers focusing on preventing the need for nursing care in older populations could consider promoting farming or gardening.


Assuntos
Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Vida Independente , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237902, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970707

RESUMO

Improvements to smallholder farming are essential to improvements in rural prosperity. Small farmers in the Kaziranga region of Assam operate mixed farming enterprises in a resource limited environment, which is subject to seasonal flooding. Participatory techniques, were used to elucidate the animal health challenges experienced in this landscape in order to inform and guide future animal health education and interventions. The flooding is essential for agricultural activities, but is a source of major losses and disruption. Farmers experience significant losses to their crops due to raiding by wild species such as elephants; predation of livestock by wild carnivores is also of concern. Access to veterinary services and medicines is limited by both financial and geographic constraints. Interviewees discussed nutritional and management issues such as poor availability of fodder and grazing land, while meeting attendees preferred to concentrate discussions on animal health issues. Livestock keepers were adept and consistent at describing disease syndromes. The key challenges identified by farmers were: foot-and-mouth disease; Newcastle disease; haemorrhagic septicaemia; chronic fasciolosis; diarrhoea; bloating diseases; goat pox; and sarcoptic mange. Improvements in the efficiency of farming in this region is a prerequisite for the local achievement of United Nations Sustainable development goals. There exist clear opportunities to increase productivity and prosperity among farmers in this region through a combination of vaccination programmes and planned animal management schemes, driven by a programme of participatory farmer education.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Fazendeiros , Adolescente , Adulto , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Inundações , Geografia , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parques Recreativos , Estações do Ano
17.
N C Med J ; 81(5): 311-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900892

RESUMO

Increasingly hotter temperatures threaten the environment and pose serious risks to human health. From contending with damaged crops and loss of work due to extreme weather to working in life-threateningly hot and humid temperatures, agricultural farmworkers are on the front lines of this harsh reality.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Clima Quente Extremo , Humanos , North Carolina
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911506

RESUMO

Infection of wheat by Fusarium species can lead to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination, thereby reducing food quality and food safety, and leading to economic losses. Agronomic management through the implementation of various pre-harvest measures can reduce the probability of Fusarium spp. infection in the wheat field. To design interventions that could stimulate wheat farmers to (further) improve their agronomic management to reduce FHB, it is key to understand farmers' behaviour towards adapting their management. The aim of this paper was to understand the intention, underlying behavioural constructs, and beliefs of Dutch wheat farmers to adapt their agronomic management to reduce FHB and mycotoxin contamination in wheat, applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data were collected from 100 Dutch wheat farmers via a questionnaire. The standard TPB analysis was extended with an assessment of the robustness of the belief results to account for the statistical validity of the analysis on TPB beliefs (i.e. to address the so-called expectancy-value muddle). Forty-six percent of the farmers had a positive intention to change their management in the next 5 years. The two behavioural constructs significantly related to this intention were attitude and social norm, whereas association with the perceived behavioural control construct was insignificant indicating that farmers did not perceive any barriers to change their behaviour. Relevant attitudinal beliefs indicated specific attributes of wheat, namely yield, quality and safety (lower mycotoxin contamination). This indicates that strengthening these beliefs-by demonstrating that a change in management will result in a higher yield and quality and lower mycotoxin levels-will result in a stronger attitude and, subsequently, a higher intention to change management. Interventions to strengthen these beliefs should preferably go by the most important referents for social norms, which were the buyers and the farmer cooperatives in this study.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/microbiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Controle Comportamental , Fazendeiros , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931511

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious zoonotic pathogen infecting wide range of mammals, including humans. In the present study, a total of 711 blood samples from bovines [cattle (n = 543) and buffaloes (n = 168)] from eight farms at different geographical locations in India were screened for C. burnetii targeting the IS1111 and the com1 genes. The anti-C. burnetii antibodies in serum samples were detected using indirect-ELISA kits. Also, a total of 21 parameters pertaining to animal health and farm management were identified to assess their role as possible risk factors for coxiellosis among the targeted farms. The apparent prevalence (positive for PCR and/or ELISA) for coxiellosis was reported to be 24.5% in cattle and 8.9% in buffaloes. In cattle, the detection rate of C. burnetii employing the IS1111 gene (8.5%) was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the com1 (6.5%) gene. The seropositivity by ELISA was higher among cattle (17.7%) than in buffaloes (8.3%). Further, on univariable analysis of risk factors, species (cattle) (OR:3.31; 95%CI:1.88-5.82), inadequate floor spacing (OR:1.64; 95%CI:1.10-2.43), mastitis (OR:2.35, 95%CI:1.45-3.81) and reproductive disorders (OR:2.54; 95%CI:1.67-3.85) were significantly (p<0.05) having high odds for coxiellosis. The multivariable logistic regression analysis of the animal level risk factors revealed that species and age were found to be significantly associated with coxiellosis. However, since the number of screened farms is limited; further research is needed with a higher number of animals to confirm the farm level odds ratio of risk factors. Quarantine and biosecurity measures including farm hygiene operations were observed to be inadequate and also the lack of awareness about coxiellosis among the farm workers. In absence of vaccination program for coxiellosis in India, robust surveillance, farm biosecurity measures and the awareness for the disease among risk groups can play an important role in the disease prevention and subsequent transmission of the pathogen.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Febre Q/sangue , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/patogenicidade , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Febre Q/genética , Febre Q/microbiologia , Zoonoses/sangue , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986745

RESUMO

The increasing number of fraudulent pesticides on the market not only constitutes a major threat to sustainable agriculture but can also have adverse consequences for the environment and human health. The purpose of this study is to assess farmers' risk perception with regard to fraudulent pesticides and to establish the determinants of their perception. Data were collected through structured questionnaires from 370 farmers from the eastern region in Saudi Arabia. The findings showed that farmers had a high perception of physical, legal, social, and physiological risks of counterfeit pesticides, while they had a moderate perception of agri-environmental risks (M = 3.47, SD = 0.72) and economic risks (M = 3.52, SD = 1.11). Moreover, 73.5% of farmers reported that they had purchased fraudulent pesticides in the last three years. The results of the t-test revealed that the number of farmers who had purchased fraudulent pesticides was significantly higher than the number of farmers who had not purchased such pesticides regarding the perception of the majority of risks, except for physical risk. Multivariate regression analyses showed that age, farm size, farming experience, extension contact, and purchased fraudulent pesticides were significantly associated with risk perception. The findings suggest that awareness campaigns on recognizing fraudulent pesticides among farmers are needed, as well as policy measures, to combat counterfeiting in the agricultural sector in cooperation with other stakeholders.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Praguicidas/química , Idoso , Agricultura , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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