Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.053
Filtrar
1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113858, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607139

RESUMO

The agricultural cooperative may significantly impact the adoption of environmentally friendly production technologies, which eventually help the farmers with better living standards and productivity. However, critical evaluation of how and to what extent the cooperative organization's participation leads the farmer's adoption of environmentally friendly technology (EFT) is relatively unclear. Thus, to critically explore the knowledge gap, the study evaluates the effects of cooperative participation towards adopting environmentally friendly production technologies based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). The key variables used in the study have been extracted from an extensive literature investigation, while the empirical data has been collected from October to December 2020 from 292 kiwi-fruit farmers within the Shaanxi province of China. Simultaneously, the partial least square of structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) tools has been utilized to craft the final assessment. The factor loadings of all three latent variables have been statistically significant and interrelated for quantifying the proposed model. The statistically proven framework portrayed that cooperative organizations' participation positively impacts and shapes behavioral factors and facilitates the adoption of environmentally friendly production technologies. The study found the social structure like China, the impacts of cooperation could be crucial. As cooperative participation is an ample predictor for facilitating environmentally friendly technologies, the government should broaden the technical supports, and agricultural extension should also provide extended training for a smooth transition of the cooperatives.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Frutas , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Tecnologia
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 149959, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487907

RESUMO

Small-scale irrigation has gained momentum in recent years as one of the development priorities in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, farmer-led irrigation is often informal with little support from extension services and a paucity of data on land suitability for irrigation. To map the spatial explicit suitability for dry season small-scale irrigation, we developed a method using an ensemble of boosted regression trees, random forest, and maximum entropy machine learning models for the Upper East Region of Ghana. Both biophysical predictors including surface and groundwater availability, climate, topography and soil properties, and socio-economic predictors which represent demography and infrastructure development such as accessibility to cities and proximity to roads were considered. We assessed that 179,584 ± 49,853 ha is suitable for dry-season small-scale irrigation development when only biophysical variables are considered, and 158,470 ± 27,222 ha when socio-economic variables are included alongside the biophysical predictors, representing 77-89% of the current rainfed-croplands. Travel time to cities, accessibility to small reservoirs, exchangeable sodium percentage, surface runoff that can be potentially stored in reservoirs, population density, proximity to roads, and elevation percentile were the top predictors of small-scale irrigation suitability. These results suggested that the availability of water alone is not a sufficient indicator for area suitability for small-scale irrigation. This calls for strategic road infrastructure development and an improvement in the support to farmers for market accessibility. The suitability for small-scale irrigation should be put in the local context of market availability, demographic indicators, and infrastructure development.


Assuntos
Clima , Solo , Fazendeiros , Gana , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150156, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509833

RESUMO

The farming practices adopted since the end of the Second World War, based on large areas of monocultures and chemical use, have adversely affected the health of farmers and consumers and dramatically reduced farmland biodiversity. As a consequence, many studies over more than twenty years have stated that agriculture is facing three main challenges: (1) feeding the growing world population (2) with more environmentally friendly products (3) at a reasonable return for the producer. Increasing the efficacy of biocontrol could be one lever for agriculture to meet these expectations. In this study we propose implementation of a relatively under-researched system based on the management of landscape level crop diversity that would reduce demand for pesticide use and increase conservation biocontrol. The principle of manipulating crop diversity over space and time at a landscape scale is to optimize resource continuity, such as food and shelter for natural enemies to increase biocontrol services, reduce pest outbreaks and crop losses. The feasibility of such management options is discussed in relation to environmental, social and economic aspects. The operational and institutional inputs and conditions needed to make the system work are explored, as well as the potential added values of such a system for different stakeholders.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros , Humanos
4.
Med Lav ; 112(5): 377-386, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the research is a cross sectional survey on the prevalence of symptoms related to MSDs in vegetable greenhouse farmers from Shandong rural area and on the risk factors that may influence it. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was selected 249 farmers working in vegetable greenhouse from different districts of Shandong Province, China. The Questionnaire and the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) technique were used to identify ergonomic risks. χ2 analysis was used to find the relationship between MSDs and various factors. Also, logistic regression methodology was applied to get the most influencing factor for MSDs. RESULTS: The prevalence of MSDs in farmers working in vegetable greenhouse is 87.5%, and the top 3 prevalent areas of MSDs in various parts of the body are: lower back (47.4%), neck (33.3%), and shoulder (31.7%). The results of Logistic regression analysis showed that age, years working in vegetable greenhouses, keeping their backs in the same position for a long time, and working hours greater than 10 hours per day were the risk factors for MSDs in the farmers. The outcome of the RULA grand score had been found to be higher than 5 in the overwhelming majority of the farmers. CONCLUSIONS: All findings infer that each task of greenhouse vegetable growing inflicts different levels of disorder in a farmers' musculoskeletal structure. Interventions should be increased and reduce the bad ergonomic load level as soon as possible, provided to reduce the impact of such disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
5.
J Agric Saf Health ; 27(4): 229-247, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34729971

RESUMO

HIGHLIGHTS: Women and men farmworkers reported workplace sexual harassment (WSH). WSH occurred as frequently as daily. Both coworkers and leadership were perpetrators of WSH. ABSTRACT: This study explores experiences relevant to workplace sexual harassment (WSH) in agriculture among men and women farmworkers in California (U.S.) and Michoacán (Mexico). Anecdotal evidence documents women farmworkers having to endure behavioral, verbal, and physical WSH including sexual ogling, degrading language, groping, and requests for sex in exchange for work. We include survey comparisons between men and women in California and Michoacan on WSH among farmworkers. We conducted 197 farmworker surveys (38 men and 59 women in California; 40 men and 60 women in Michoacán). Community advisory boards contributed expertise and input for study strategies, materials, and dissemination. Survey participant ages ranged from 23 to 54 years old. Half worked in Mexico, 68% were married, 80% had children, and 47% had less than 7 years of education. Most farmworkers spoke Spanish and Purhépecha, an indigenous language spoken by the Purhépecha people in Michoacán. We used two strategies to measure WSH exposure in the previous year: (1) direct inquiry-based survey items (asking "Have you ever been the victim of or bystander to workplace sexual harassment?") documenting WSH among women (49%) and men (21%) in California and among women (7%) and men (13%) in Michoacán, and (2) behavior-based WSH items (using explicit examples of WSH behaviors perpetrated against the participant or witnessed by the participant as a bystander) documenting WSH among women (as high as 53%) and men (as high as 45%) in California and among women (as high as 65%) and men (as high as 68%) in Michoacán. Women farmworkers in California reported WSH experiences exceeding those of men. Reported WSH experiences in Michoacán were similar for men and women. Farmworkers identified WSH perpetrators as coworkers more than leadership. The frequency of exposure ranged from daily, weekly, monthly, and up to multiple times a year. Of 46 direct inquiry-based WSH incidents, only one perpetrator was punished, and at least half of all victims said they were forced to change their jobs. The findings of this study inform the development of WSH prevention efforts, such as education tools, support for efforts to facilitate reporting, protections against retaliation for workers, and promoting accountability for perpetrators. This information supports the promotion of policy recommendations and preventive approaches for WSH.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Assédio Sexual , Adulto , Agricultura , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769821

RESUMO

Promoting the intention of farmers to participate in straw recycling is an effective way to alleviate the contradiction between environmental pollution, scarcity of environmental resources, and sustainable development. In this study, social trust and value perception were integrated into the theory of planned behavior to build a theoretical framework of farmers' intention to participate in straw recycling, considering the influences of three different pro-environmental publicity modes. A field investigation was used to collect research data in six sample villages. Finally, 761 valid questionnaires were collected, and partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that the influence of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavior control, value perception, and social trust on farmers' straw recycling intentions was different among different pro-environmental publicity modes. Among the three pro-environmental publicity modes, the concentrated pro-environmental publicity mode has the best effect of promoting straw recycling intentions among farmers. This study introduces some targeted suggestions on the aspects of pro-environmental publicity theory and management practice based on the above research results.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Intenção , Agricultura , Atitude , Controle Comportamental , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769705

RESUMO

The role of natural disaster adaptation is increasingly being considered in academic research. The Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goal 13 require measuring the progress made on this adaptation. This review summarizes the development stages of adaptation, the multiple attributes and analysis of adaptation definitions, the models and methods for adaptation analysis, and the research progress of natural disaster adaptation. Adaptation research methods are generally classified into two types: case analysis and mathematical models. The current adaptive research in the field of natural disasters focuses primarily on the response of the social economy, especially the adaptive decision making and risk perception at farm-level scales (farmer households). The evaluation cases of adaptation in the field of disasters exist mostly as a part of vulnerability evaluation. Adaptation and adaptive capacity should focus on four core issues: adaptation to what; who or what adapts; how does adaptation occur; what is adaptation; and how good is the adaptation. The main purpose of the "spatial scale-exposure-vulnerability" three-dimensional scales of adaptation assessment is to explore the differences in index system under different scenarios, the spatial pattern of adaptations, and the geographical explanation of its formation mechanism. The results of this study can help and guide future research on integrating climate change and disaster adaptations especially in regional sustainable development and risk reduction strategies.


Assuntos
Desastres , Desastres Naturais , Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769786

RESUMO

Reducing fertilizer use is key to curbing agricultural pollution and ensuring food safety. Land transfer enables farmers to obtain a more appropriate production scale, but its effect on the intensity of fertilizer application is not theoretically certain. On one hand, farmers with more land may adopt more scientific production methods, thus reducing the use of chemical fertilizers. On the other hand, the short-term behavior of land grantees on transferred land may increase fertilizer use intensity. This paper attempts to theoretically elucidate the specific mechanisms by which land transfer affects the intensity of fertilizer application and to verify the relationship between the two using data from fixed rural observation sites across China from 2011-2014 with the fixed-effects model and the mediating effect model. This paper concludes that (1) land transfer significantly reduces the intensity of fertilizer use; (2) land transfer increases the land size and promotes the use of machinery by farmers, but only the increase in land size further reduces the intensity of fertilizer application; (3) the effect of land transfer on fertilizer application intensity is significant only for food crops and not for cash crops, and (4) the effect of land transfer on fertilizer application intensity is most pronounced in western China, where land fragmentation is the severest and insignificant in eastern China, where agricultural modernization is more advanced.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fertilizantes , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Humanos
9.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12287, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734459

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Declining physical capacity caused by aging increases the risk of occupational falls on the same level and to lower levels. In emerging countries in Asia, the development of a program for older farmers to assess their risk of occupational falls is valuable. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between physical capacity and experience of occupational falls among middle-aged and older Thai farmers. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 419 Thai farmers aged 40 years and over during March and April, 2021. For the assessment of physical capacity, we used the Self-Check Risk Assessment of Falls and Other Accidents in the Workplace tool developed in Japan, consisting of five physical test components. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The results revealed that 25.5% of participants had experienced occupational falls in the past 12 months. For each of the five physical test components, there was no significant association between physical capacity and experience of occupational falls. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was less than 0.60 for each of the five physical test components. A similar trend was observed when the analysis was limited to participants aged 50 years and over. CONCLUSIONS: The current study did not reveal any associations between physical capacity in each test and experience of occupational falls among middle-aged and older Thai farmers. Because the mechanisms underlying occupational falls are complex, multiple intervention approaches may be important for preventing accidents.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Fazendeiros , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Prevenção de Acidentes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770086

RESUMO

There is broad consensus that successful and sustained larval source management (LSM) interventions, including bio-larviciding campaigns, require embeddedness in local community institutions. Ideally, these community structures should also be capable of mobilizing local resources to (co-)finance interventions. To date, farmer cooperatives, especially cooperatives of rice growers whose economic activity facilitates mosquito breeding, have remained under the radar in designing community-based bio-larviciding campaigns. This study explores the potential of rice farmer cooperatives in Bugesera district, Rwanda, to take up the aforementioned roles. To this purpose, we surveyed 320 randomly selected rice farmers who belonged to one of four rice cooperatives in the area and elicited their willingness-to-pay (WTP) for application of Bti, a popular bio-larvicide, in their rice paddies. Results from a (non-incentivized) bidding game procedure, which tested two alternative contribution schemes showed that financial contributions would be significantly different from zero and sufficient to carry a co-financing share of 15-25 per cent. A strong heterogeneity in mean WTP is revealed across cooperatives, in addition to variation among individual farmers, which needs to be anticipated when engaging farmer cooperatives in LSM.


Assuntos
Malária , Oryza , Animais , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Melhoramento Vegetal , Ruanda
11.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5187-5200, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787210

RESUMO

In Brazil, the growth of agribusiness to the detriment of family agriculture occurred while concealing social, environmental and human health damages. The objective was to compare living and working conditions and access to health services between agricultural and non-agricultural workers. Data from the National Health Survey (PNS) on living and working conditions, sociodemographic, economic characteristics, and access to health services from a representative sample of the employed Brazilian population were adopted. Pearson's chi-square test was used, with a significance level of 0.05, taking the complex sampling design into consideration. Agricultural workers suffered from worse living conditions, lower purchasing power, greater exposure to solar radiation and chemical agents, and a higher frequency and severity of occupational accidents compared to non-agricultural workers. The agricultural population had greater coverage of the Family Health Service and sought medical care from the Unified Health System (SUS) to treat diseases, while the non-agricultural workers sought private medical care for preventive actions. The differences found between these workers imply different patterns of illness and define specific health needs.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Brasil , Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639810

RESUMO

Exploring and analyzing the common demands and behavioral responses of different stakeholders is important for revealing the mediating mechanisms of ecosystem service (ES) and realizing the management and sustainable supply of ES. This study took Mizhi County, a poverty-stricken area on the Loess Plateau in China, as an example. First, the main stakeholders, common demands, and behavioral responses in the food provision services were identified. Second, the relationship among stakeholders was analyzed. Finally, this study summarized three types of mediating mechanisms of food provision services and analyzed the influence of the different types of mediating mechanisms. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) Five main stakeholders in the study area were identified: government, farmers, enterprises, cooperatives, and middlemen. (2) Increasing farmers' income is the common demand of most stakeholders in the study area, and this common demand has different effects on the behavioral responses of different stakeholders. (3) There are three types of mediating mechanisms in the study area: government + farmers mediating corn and mutton, government + enterprises mediating millet, and government + cooperatives mediating apples. On this basis, the effects of the different types of mediating mechanisms on variations in food yield, and trade-offs and synergies in typical townships, were analyzed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , China , Grão Comestível , Fazendeiros , Humanos
13.
Work ; 70(2): 561-569, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34633353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In agricultural farming operations, the incompatibility between operators' physical capability and labor demands in the operation of tools and equipment results in a decreased performance, productivity, and safety related measures. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to collect a biomechanical database of push/pull strengths for initiating the development of a human-centered design of equipment that is not available for the intended user group, i.e. Nagaland. METHODS: The sample consisted of 399 male and 271 female agricultural workers from the five districts of Nagaland, aged 18 to 65 years, classified into three age groups. In the process of push and pull force measurements, the elbow angle of the participants were set to 30-120°, 120-130°, and 130-180°. All tests were performed in triplicates with a resting period of two minutes between every consequent recording. RESULTS: The results showed that isometric push and pull strength values (Mean±SD) for males were 18.91±4.67 kg and 17.98±3.97 kg respectively and 13.07±4.06 kg and 11.98±3.33 kg for females respectively. The results of independent samples from student's t-test demonstrate that there was a substantial variance in the isometric push and pull strength values (p < 0.05) between the genders across the various age spectrum. CONCLUSIONS: With ageing, muscular strength for push-pull strength in males and females reduce. The study reports that the recommended value of male and female isometric push-pull strength for agricultural workers of Nagaland should be 5th percentile of female data i.e. 6.40 and 1.71 kg respectively.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Contração Isométrica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Força Muscular
14.
Work ; 70(2): 571-582, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are one of the major health hazards among farmers. Pre-adolescents are mainly associated with agricultural work due to poor socioeconomic conditions. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to implement a new ergonomics aid for the betterment of job procedures and improvement of productivity, health, and safety of the preadolescent farmers. METHODS: 100 male and 100 female preadolescent farmers were randomly selected from the villages of Tarakeswar, West Bengal, India, to evaluate and reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders, physiological stress. Modified Nordic questionnaires, Body Part Discomfort (BPD) scale, and handgrip strength were assessed before and after using the ergonomics aid. RESULTS: The results of the study show that there was a significant change (decrease) in discomfort in the lower back, wrists, shoulder, and hands among preadolescent farmers when using the newly designed ergonomic aid. Handgrip strength increased and physiological stress was decreased among preadolescent farmers in post-intervention than pre-intervention in just after work conditions. Productivity has been increased in farming by decreasing absenteeism from work with the use of ergonomic aid. CONCLUSION: This study concludes that productivity has been increased in farming by decreasing absenteeism from work as well as by using the ergonomic aid the discomfort feeling has been decreased markedly.


Assuntos
Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Doenças Profissionais , Adolescente , Ergonomia , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Postura , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682593

RESUMO

Exposure to insecticides may result in various health problems. This study investigated the association between haematological parameters and exposure to a mixture of organophosphate (OP) and neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticides among male farmworkers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. Concentrations of urinary dialkylphosphates, non-specific metabolites of OPs, and NEOs and their metabolites and haematological parameters were measured in 143 male farmworkers. The Bayesian kernel machine regression model was employed to evaluate the associations. Exposure to a mixture of insecticides was significantly associated with the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) when the concentrations of all the compounds and their metabolites were at the 60th percentile or higher compared with the 50th percentile. Furthermore, exposure to clothianidin (CLO) showed a decreasing association with MCHC when all the other insecticides were at their mean concentrations. CLO was the most likely compound to reduce MCHC, and this was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. These findings suggest that exposure to NEO insecticides, especially CLO, affects the haematological status relating to haemoglobin parameters.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Teorema de Bayes , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Masculino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Organofosfatos , Tailândia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682625

RESUMO

Pesticides play an important role in the improvement of agricultural production, but their use may result in adverse effects on the environment, consumers, and farmers' health. As there are limited data focusing on the factors influencing safety behavior toward pesticide use in Morocco, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 15 rural communities of Morocco's Fes Meknes region to assess the attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding pesticide use. A structured questionnaire was completed, containing the data of the interviewed farmers, their behavior towards safety measures, the type of active ingredient used, as well as the perception of risks to their own health following exposure to pesticides by the existence of chronic, self-perceived symptoms. Non-probability (empirical) sampling with the quota method was carried out, which consists of constructing the sample. Results showed that most respondents have not been trained in the application of pesticides, with almost half of the farmers using a category of pesticides which are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as probable human carcinogenic (i.e., Glyphosate, Malathion). In terms of pesticide storage, 40% of farmers said that they did not store pesticides in a separate room after purchasing or using them. The empty containers were buried or burnt by half of the responders, while the remainder were thrown at the edge of fields or in public dumps. Although the participants were aware of the negative effects on their own health and on the environment caused by the application of pesticides in use, the protection measures by individual equipment were insufficient. A canonical analysis indicates that these behaviors were influenced by the farming experience, the benefit of the agricultural council services, the follow-up of training, and the education level. These variables are important factors in explaining and understanding the dangers to both the environment and health caused by pesticides. The most recorded likely consequences of pesticide exposure were visual impairment (46%), followed by dizziness (44.3%), headache (39.4%), and excessive sweating (34.4%), and 30.2% of participants identified consequent respiratory problems. Extension services targeted at safety and protection measures should be developed and accompanied by educational programs to put farmers' perceptions into practice and encourage them to adopt healthy and environmentally friendly behaviors.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Agricultura , Carcinógenos , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Marrocos , Percepção , Praguicidas/toxicidade
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682690

RESUMO

Poverty seriously hinders the inclusive development of mankind and is closely related to economic growth, ecological protection, ecological restoration and sustainable use of resources. Based on the data of economic census and rural fixed observation point, a spatial econometric model is established to test the direct impact and spatial spillover effect of industrial clusters on rural poverty alleviation. The result of household-level is that the number of industrial clusters has a negative effect on poverty, namely the farmers who live in the county with more industrial clusters, may be less likely to become the poor. The number of industrial clusters in other regions also has a negative effect on poverty. By dividing farmers into the poverty and non-poverty group, the study finds that, for the poverty group, the number of industrial clusters has a positive direct and spillover effect on farmers' income. For the non-poverty group, the number of local industrial clusters has a positive direct effect on farmers' income, but the number of industrial clusters in other regions does not have any effects or has a negative direct effect on farmers' income. By classifying the industries, the study discovers that the labor-intensive industrial clusters, such as textiles, manufacture and processing of machinery parts and paper industries, have a positive effect on farmers' income.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fazendeiros , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Humanos , Renda , Indústrias
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682699

RESUMO

China has entered a "post-poverty alleviation" era, where the achievement of sustainable livelihoods by farmers has become a focus. This study used the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) database, which was constructed based on an analysis of the DFID sustainable livelihood framework, and built a sustainable livelihood index system for farmers using the entropy weight method to measure the weights of sustainable livelihood indexes and calculate a sustainable livelihood index. This study used the Tobit model to discuss the impacts of different types of risk on the achievement of a sustainable livelihood by farmers. The results showed that environmental risk, chronic disease risk, and major disease risk all had significant negative impacts on the ability of farmers to achieve a sustainable livelihood. The impacts of major disease and chronic disease risks on the achievement of a sustainable livelihood by farmers living in plain areas were stronger than those associated with environmental risk. In China, the environmental risks were complex and diverse and were the most important factors that affect the achievement of a sustainable livelihood by rural households in mountainous areas. Chronic disease risk was also an important adverse factor that affected the achievement of a sustainable livelihood by rural households in mountainous areas.


Assuntos
Características da Família , População Rural , China/epidemiologia , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Pobreza
19.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(10): 482-488, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An asynchronous online continuing education (CE) program was created to increase nurses' awareness and knowledge of occupationally related mental health issues among farmers. METHOD: The ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation) model was followed to create the CE program. Articulate Storyline 3 (Articulate 360), a software tool, was used to build an interactive, e-learning, and virtual training module. RESULTS: The course was completed by 113 nurses. Eighty-two (72.5%) of these nurses completed the course evaluation. Of these, 69 (84.1%) reported that the course met their expectations. The majority of respondents indicated that the material was presented in a clear, organized manner (80.0%, n = 80) and that all course objectives were met, including being able to identify sources of stress among farmers (86.3%, n = 80), recognize manifestations of stress among farmers (86.4%, n = 81), understand farmers' mental health status (86.3%, n = 80), and identify mental health nursing practices (87.3%, n = 79). CONCLUSION: Nurses can provide more salient care to the farming population when they are equipped with an understanding of the culture and stress associated with farming. This online educational program has the potential to improve mental health care for farmers and their families. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(10):482-488.].


Assuntos
Educação à Distância , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Educação Continuada em Enfermagem , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Saúde Mental
20.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211053519, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rural residents comprise approximately 15% of the United States population. They face challenges in accessing and using a health care system that is not structured to meet their unique needs. It is important to understand rural residents' perceptions of health and experiences interacting with the health care system to identify gaps in care. METHODS: Our team conducted focus groups with members of the Michigan Farm Bureau during their 2019 Annual Meeting. Topics explored included resources to manage health, barriers to virtual health care services, and desired changes to localized healthcare delivery. Surveys were used to capture demographic and internet access information. CONCLUSION: Analysis included data from 2 focus groups (n = 14). Participants represented a wide age range and a variety of Michigan counties. The majority were full-time farm owners with most-93% (n = 13)-reporting they had access to the internet in their homes and 86% (n = 12) reporting that their cellphones had internet capabilities. Participants identified challenges and opportunities in 4 categories: formal health care; health and well-being supports; health insurance experiences; and virtual health care. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study provide a useful framework for developing interventions to address the specific needs of rural farming residents. Despite the expressed challenges in access and use of health care services and resources, participants remained hopeful that innovative approaches, such as virtual health platforms, can address existing gaps in care. The study findings should inform the design and evaluation of interventions to address rural health disparities.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Saúde da População Rural , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Michigan , População Rural , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...