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1.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 259(9): 1047-1056, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To collect information from US state animal health officials (SAHOs) and beef feedlot managers and veterinarians regarding emergency response plans for movement of cattle in the event of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak in North America. SAMPLE: 36 SAHOs, 26 feedlot veterinarians, and 7 feedlot managers. PROCEDURES: 3 versions of an electronic questionnaire were created and distributed to SAHOs and US feedlot veterinarians and managers to gather information about planned or expected responses to an FMD outbreak that originated at 1 of 3 geographic locations (Mexico or Canada, a bordering state, or a nonbordering state). Descriptive data were reported. RESULTS: All respondents recognized that the risk of FMD transmission to livestock in their area or care increased as the outbreak got closer in proximity to their location. Most SAHOs indicated that they would immediately close their state's borders to livestock movement at the beginning of an FMD outbreak, particularly if the disease was identified in a bordering state. During an extended FMD outbreak, 29 of 36 (80.6%) SAHOs reported they would resume interstate movement of cattle under some conditions, including enhanced permitting, whereas feedlot veterinarians and managers commonly reported they would be willing to receive cattle from states where no FMD-infected animals were identified, regardless of permit requirements. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Information gained from this survey can be used to inform disease modeling and preparedness efforts to facilitate business continuity of US beef feedlots in the event of an FMD outbreak in North America.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Gado , América do Norte , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Prev Vet Med ; 196: 105494, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34656049

RESUMO

Tanzania has the second largest livestock population in Africa and livestock keeping is an integral part of most people's livelihoods. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary disease, affecting cloven-hoofed animals, that is currently endemic in Tanzania. The Tanzania Development Vision 2025 aspires to make the livestock sector more competitive. Part of this plan foresees establishing a FMD-free zone in the Rukwa region to be able to increase the export of animals and animal products. The aim of this study was to assess the economic efficiency and feasibility of establishing such an FMD-free zone and to advise policy makers on the profitability of the investment. A stochastic benefit-cost model, set-up in Palisade @Risk for Excel for a time frame of ten years, was developed to assess whether the benefits of establishing a FMD-free zone would outweigh the costs. Data were collated from reviewing literature, government statistics, and key informant interviews with farmers, traders and veterinarians in Tanzania, and complemented by informed assumptions and expert opinion. Moreover, feasibility aspects including underlying infrastructure, market structures and resource availability were discussed based on key informant interviews, literature review and historical analyses. The net present value for the establishment of a FMD-free zone was negative and the benefit-cost ratio was below one (mean 0.09, min 0.05 - max 0.15 in the scenario considering vaccination of all susceptible domestic animals, and mean 0.11, min 0.06 - max 0.20 when considering vaccinating cattle only), excluding potential benefits from trade. The sensitivity analysis showed that variables related to the cost of vaccination had the largest negative impact on the net present value. The proposed FMD-free zone in Rukwa region is unlikely to be cost-effective with the current FMD status and export trade prospects in Tanzania. Interviews with stakeholders revealed that vaccine availability, funding, farmers' willingness to participate, and lack of staff continuity in key roles were the main barriers to establish a reliable FMD control programme in the country. Recommendations towards FMD control and potential short and middle term strategies are discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Gado , Tanzânia , Vacinação/veterinária
3.
Prev Vet Med ; 195: 105453, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479032

RESUMO

Windborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) requires specific epidemiological and meteorological conditions, thus modeling the risk of windborne spread involves integrating epidemiological and meteorological models. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential risk of windborne spread of FMD from an infected US feedlot using an integrated modeling approach, and to identify factors that determine this risk. To address this objective, we integrated a within-herd epidemiological model and an advanced atmospheric dispersion model, and calculated infection risk dependent on exposed herd size. A previously developed epidemiological model was used to simulate the spread of FMD through a typical U.S. feedlot, while the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model, which has been validated for FMD modeling, was used to model virus dispersion. Infection risk for exposed herds was calculated as a binomial probability accounting for dose and exposed herd size. We modeled risk of windborne spread from a typical 4000 head feedlot in the U.S. state of Iowa (IA), and a typical 48,000 head feedlot in the U.S. state of Kansas (KS) during winter and summer seasons. The risk of windborne spread of FMD varied based on weather/season conditions, estimated average viral shedding rate per head, size of infected herd, and size of exposed herd. In the baseline Kansas scenario (KS/103/W), the median of the maximum daily risk of infecting a 1000-head exposed herd ranged from 58.16 % at 1 km to 0.78 % at 10 km (Table 4). In the baseline Iowa scenario (IA/103/W), the median of the maximum daily risk of infecting a 1000-head exposed herd ranged from 21.78 % at 1 km to 0.05 % at 10 km (Table 4). The minimum control area recommended by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in an FMD outbreak is 10 km from the infected premise. Our results indicate that significant risk of windborne spread may extend beyond 10 km in certain situations. This is particularly a concern in areas where there are large feedlots in relatively close proximity, such as in southwestern Kansas. Our model may be useful as a research tool in the absence of an outbreak and may help direct surveillance and response efforts in the event of an outbreak.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/transmissão , Abrigo para Animais , Carne Vermelha , Estados Unidos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
4.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0234286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339447

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya affecting cloven-hoofed ruminants. The epidemiology of the disease in small ruminants (SR) in Kenya is not documented. We carried out a cross-sectional study, the first in Kenya, to estimate the sero-prevalence of FMD in SR and the associated risk factors nationally. Selection of animals to be sampled used a multistage cluster sampling approach. Serum samples totaling 7564 were screened for FMD antibodies of non-structural-proteins using ID Screen® NSP Competition ELISA kit. To identify the risk factors, generalized linear mixed effects (GLMM) logistic regression analysis with county and villages as random effect variables was used. The country animal level sero-prevalence was 22.5% (95% CI: 22.3%-24.3%) while herd level sero-prevalence was 77.6% (95% CI: 73.9%-80.9%). The risk factor that was significantly positively associated with FMD sero-positivity in SR was multipurpose production type (OR = 1.307; p = 0.042). The risk factors that were significantly negatively associated with FMD sero-positivity were male sex (OR = 0.796; p = 0.007), young age (OR = 0.470; p = 0.010), and sedentary production zone (OR = 0.324; p<0.001). There were no statistically significant intra class correlations among the random effect variables but interactions between age and sex variables among the studied animals were statistically significant (p = 0.019). This study showed that there may be widespread undetected virus circulation in SR indicated by the near ubiquitous spatial distribution of significant FMD sero-positivity in the country. Strengthening of risk-based FMD surveillance in small ruminants is recommended. Adjustment of husbandry practices to control FMD in SR and in-contact species is suggested. Cross-transmission of FMD and more risk factors need to be researched.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Ruminantes/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/patogenicidade , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Ruminantes/imunologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 194: 105441, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352519

RESUMO

Following an FMD eradication program, surveillance will be required to demonstrate that the program has been successful. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) provides guidelines including waiting periods and appropriate surveillance to support regaining FMD-free status. Serological surveillance is the recommended method for demonstrating freedom but is time consuming and expensive. New technologies such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) tests and sampling techniques such as bulk milk testing (BMT) of dairy cattle, oral swabs, and saliva collection with rope tethers in piggeries could enable surveillance to be done more efficiently. Epidemiological modelling was used to simulate FMD outbreaks, with and without emergency vaccination as part of the response, in Australia. Baseline post-outbreak surveillance approaches for unvaccinated and vaccinated animals based on the European FMD directive were compared with alternative approaches in which the sampling regime, sampling approaches and/or the diagnostic tests used were varied. The approaches were compared in terms of the resources required, time taken, cost, and effectiveness i.e., ability of the surveillance regime to correctly identify the infection status of herds. In the non-vaccination scenarios, the alternative approach took less time to complete and cost less, with the greatest benefits seen with larger outbreaks. In vaccinated populations, the alternative surveillance approaches significantly reduced the number of herds sampled, the total number of tests done and costs of the post-outbreak surveillance. There was no reduction in effectiveness using the alternative approaches, with one of the benefits being a reduction in the number of false positive herds. Alternative approaches to FMD surveillance based on non-invasive sampling methods and RT-qPCR tests have the potential to enable post outbreak surveillance substantiating FMD freedom to be done more quickly and less expensively than traditional approaches based on serological surveys.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Austrália , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Vacinação/veterinária
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 195: 105468, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428641

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FDM) is a disease of cloven-hoofed animals with high costs in animal welfare and animal production. Up to now, transmission between farms in FMD-endemic areas has been given little attention. Between farm transmission can be quantified by distance independent transmission parameters and a spatial transmission kernel indicating the rate of transmission of an infected farm to susceptible farms depending on the distance. The spatial transmission kernel and distance-independent transmission parameters were estimated from data of an FMD outbreak in Lamphaya Klang subdistrict in Thailand between 2016 and 2017. The spatial between-farm transmission rate in Lamphaya Klang subdistrict was higher compared with the spatial between-farm transmission rate from FMDV in epidemic areas. The result can be explained by the larger size of the within-farm outbreak in the endemic area due to no culling. The inclusion of distance-independent transmission parameters improved the model fit, which suggests the presence of transmission sources from outside the area and spread within the area independent of the distance between farms. The remaining distance-dependent transmission was mainly local and could be due to over-the-fence transmission or other forms of contact between nearby farms. Farm size on the kernel positively affects the transmission rate, by increasing both infectivity and susceptibility with increasing farm size. The results showed that both distance-dependent transmission and distance-independent transmission were contributed to FMDV transmission in Lamphaya Klang outbreak. These transmission parameters help to gain knowledge about FMD transmission dynamic in the endemic area.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Tailândia/epidemiologia
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 268, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock worldwide. Russia is a big agricultural country with a wide geographical area where FMD outbreaks have become an obstacle for the development of the animal and animal products trade. In this study, we aimed to assess the export risk of FMD from Russia. RESULTS: After simulation by Monte Carlo, the results showed that the probability of cattle infected with FMD in the surveillance zone (Surrounding the areas where no epidemic disease has occurred within the prescribed time limit, the construction of buffer areas is called surveillance zone.) of Russia was 1.29 × 10- 6. The probability that at least one FMD positive case was exported from Russia per year in the surveillance zone was 6 %. The predicted number of positive cattle of the 39,530 - 50,576 exported from Russia per year was 0.06. A key node in the impact model was the probability of occurrence of FMD outbreaks in the Russian surveillance zone. By semi-quantitative model calculation, the risk probability of FMD defense system defects was 1.84 × 10- 5, indicating that there was a potential risk in the prevention and control measures of FMD in Russia. The spatial time scan model found that the most likely FMD cluster (P < 0.01) was in the Eastern and Siberian Central regions. CONCLUSIONS: There was a risk of FMDV among cattle exported from Russia, and the infection rate of cattle in the monitored area was the key factor. Understanding the export risk of FMD in Russia and relevant epidemic prevention measures will help policymakers to develop targeted surveillance plans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Método de Monte Carlo , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
8.
Chaos ; 31(5): 053120, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240927

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals. The historic occurrences of foot-and-mouth diseases led to huge economic losses and seriously threatened the livestock food security. In this paper, a novel age-space diffusive foot-and-mouth disease model with a Dirichlet boundary condition, coupling the virus-to-animals and animals-to-animals transmission routes, has been proposed. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined as the spectral radius of a next generation operator K, which is calculated in an explicit form, and it serves as a vital value determining whether or not the disease persists. The existence of a unique trivial nonconstant steady state and at least one nonconstant endemic steady state of the system is established by a smart Lyapunov functional and the Kronoselskii fixed point theorem. An application to a foot-and-mouth outbreak in China is presented. The findings suggest that increasing the movements and disinfection of the environment for animals apparently reduce the risk of a foot-and-mouth infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Análise Espacial
9.
Rev Prat ; 71(1): 102-105, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160957

RESUMO

Eradication of foot-and-mouth disease in France Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease that affects domestic and wild artiodactyls (mainly cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, camelids and deer). Before the 1980s, Europe, and in particular France, regularly experienced FMD epizootics with a very high number of outbreaks. A compulsory vaccination policy has been implemented at European level. Thus, every year, the French population of domestic cattle (about 20 million animals) was vaccinated. In 1991, due to the lack of detection of the circulating virus, vaccination was stopped. Since that date, France has become a country free from foot-and-mouth disease. The fight against this disease is a good example of the efficacy of vaccination to eradicate Foot-and-mouth disease virus.


Assuntos
Cervos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Europa (Continente) , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , França/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Suínos , Vacinação
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 376, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181093

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a transboundary animal disease that has negative socioeconomic consequences including impacts on food security. In South Africa, FMD outbreaks in communal farming communities cause major livestock and human livelihood concerns; they raise apprehensions about the effectiveness of FMD control measures within the FMD protection areas. This study aimed to identify high-risk areas for FMD outbreaks at the human/domestic animal/wildlife interface of South Africa. Cuzick-Edwards tests and Kulldorff scan statistics were used to detect spatial autocorrelation and spatial-temporal clusters of FMD outbreaks for the years 2005-2016.Four high-risk clusters were identified and the spatial distribution of outbreaks in cattle were closer to game reserve fences and consistent with wildlife contacts as a main contributor of FMD occurrence. Strategic allocation of resources, focused control measures, and cooperation between the affected provinces are recommended to reduce future outbreaks. Further research is necessary to design cost-effective control strategies for FMD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia
11.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062811

RESUMO

It is well known that approximately 50% of cattle infected with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus (FMDV) may become asymptomatic carrier (persistently infected) animals. Although transmission of FMDV from carrier cattle to naïve cattle has not been demonstrated experimentally, circumstantial evidence from field studies has linked FMDV-carrier cattle to cause subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the asymptomatic carrier state complicates the control and eradication of FMD. Current serological diagnosis using tests for antibodies to the viral non-structural proteins (NSP-ELISA) are not sensitive enough to detect all carrier animals, if persistently infected after vaccination and do not distinguish between carriers and non-carriers. The specificity of the NSP ELISA may also be reduced after vaccination, in particular after multiple vaccination. FMDV-specific mucosal antibodies (IgA) are not produced in vaccinated cattle but are elevated transiently during the acute phase of infection and can be detected at a high level in cattle persistently infected with FMDV, irrespective of their vaccination status. Therefore, detection of IgA by ELISA may be considered a diagnostic alternative to RT-PCR for assessing FMDV persistent infection in ruminants in both vaccinated and unvaccinated infected populations. This study reports on the development and validation of a new mucosal IgA ELISA for the detection of carrier animals using nasal, saliva, and oro-pharyngeal fluid (OPF) samples. The diagnostic performance of the IgA ELISA using nasal samples from experimentally vaccinated and infected cattle demonstrated a high level of specificity (99%) and an improved level of sensitivity (76.5%). Furthermore, the detection of carrier animals reached 96.9% when parallel testing of samples was carried out using both the IgA-ELISA and NSP-ELISA.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/imunologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/imunologia , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Imunoglobulina A Secretora/imunologia , Membrana Mucosa/imunologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Febre Aftosa/diagnóstico , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Membrana Mucosa/metabolismo , Curva ROC , Vacinas/imunologia
12.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166451

RESUMO

Human behavioral change around biosecurity in response to increased awareness of disease risks is a critical factor in modeling animal disease dynamics. Here, biosecurity is referred to as implementing control measures to decrease the chance of animal disease spreading. However, social dynamics are largely ignored in traditional livestock disease models. Not accounting for these dynamics may lead to substantial bias in the predicted epidemic trajectory. In this research, an agent-based model is developed by integrating the human decision-making process into epidemiological processes. We simulate human behavioral change on biosecurity practices following an increase in the regional disease incidence. We apply the model to beef cattle production systems in southwest Kansas, United States, to examine the impact of human behavior factors on a hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease outbreak. The simulation results indicate that heterogeneity of individuals regarding risk attitudes significantly affects the epidemic dynamics, and human-behavior factors need to be considered for improved epidemic forecasting. With the same initial biosecurity status, increasing the percentage of risk-averse producers in the total population using a targeted strategy can more effectively reduce the number of infected producer locations and cattle losses compared to a random strategy. In addition, the reduction in epidemic size caused by the shifting of producers' risk attitudes towards risk-aversion is heavily dependent on the initial biosecurity level. A comprehensive investigation of the initial biosecurity status is recommended to inform risk communication strategy design.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Simulação por Computador , Epidemias , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Gado , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Kansas/epidemiologia , Masculino
13.
Vaccine ; 39(30): 4184-4189, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127292

RESUMO

Infectious diseases can have a major impact on the profitability of the cattle industry. To determine the occurrence of bovine infectious diseases in China and the adoption of vaccination to control them, a national-wide questionnaire and focus group meeting were performed. The questionnaire was administered to 189 farmers including 93 dairy farmers, 80 beef cattle farmers and 16 yak farmers. Since it is compulsory to vaccinate cattle against foot and mouth disease, the coverage of vaccination to this disease was the highest (100% of dairy and yak farms and 92.5% of beef farms). However, the implementation of vaccination against other diseases was vastly different between cattle types with less than 50% of farms adopting vaccination (except brucellosis vaccine in yak farms). In a focus group meeting of 36 cattle experts on the key issues affecting the frequency of infectious diseases in cattle and the vaccination practices adopted on Chinese cattle farms, the lack of effective vaccines against single or multiple pathogens, a lack of tools for the early and correct diagnosis of disease, difficulties in licensing novel vaccines and diagnostic agents, low efficiency in disseminating knowledge on diseases and control products to producers were identified as key issues. In conclusion, except for FMD, the control of most infectious diseases of cattle in China requires improving. Development of improved control measures and diagnostic tests along with the development and implementation of educational material for producers on cattle diseases should be given priority.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Doenças Transmissíveis , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
14.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0252103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048436

RESUMO

Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the veterinary domain are widely implemented worldwide and can help to strengthen the capacities of Veterinary Services. Few analyses have been made of these initiatives. This study is aimed at developing an evaluation tool based on participatory approaches and focusing on the quality of PPP processes in the veterinary domain. The tool was divided into ten sections relevant to PPP process organisation and activities. The 44 evaluation criteria and six quality attributes (operationality, relevance, acceptability, inclusiveness, adaptability, and stability) were identified based on literature review and case-study application. The tool was adjusted during four regional PPP training workshops bringing together stakeholders from both public and private sectors. Finally, the tool was validated through an experts' elicitation process and applied in the field in Paraguay. The tool was developed in a non-normative perspective to help the partners adapt the PPP to their specific context, to maximize the opportunities and minimize the risks of such collaborations, and to formulate adapted recommendations to strengthen and improve the PPP collaborative process and thus the outcomes. In an ex-ante perspective, this tool would also help public and private actors to engage and develop a PPP process following the best possible practices. The aim of this tool is to help decision making in terms of PPP development and implementation in the veterinary domain to ensure the added value and relevance of such a collaborative approach in different countries worldwide.


Assuntos
Parcerias Público-Privadas , Animais , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Medicina Veterinária/métodos
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 303, 2021 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934210

RESUMO

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a high-impact, contagious transboundary animal disease that is endemic in Southeast Asia. Abattoir samples were routinely collected in six selected provinces between March and December 2019. A total of 1280 samples of abattoir animals were tested for FMD Non-Structural Protein (NSP) antibodies to indicate natural infections. Overall, 22.8% were seropositive for FMD NSP antibodies while seroprevalence of cattle (n = 469), buffalo (n = 214), and pigs (n = 597) were 44.6%, 35.0%, and 1.3%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence destination province was Xiengkhouang (35.3% of 272 samples), followed by Savannakhet (27.0% of 244 samples). Risk factors for evidence of natural infection identified by a multivariate logistic regression model included age groups (p-value = 0.02) and origin provinces (p-value = 2.8 × 10-5) of the animals. There were significant differences of FMD NSP seroprevalence between age groups and origin provinces of the animals. The odds ratio of a seropositive result in the less than 1 year old group was 2.5 (95% CI; 1.4, 4.4) when compared to the 3-4 years old group, while the odds ratios for animals that originated from Khammouane and Xiengkhouang provinces were 4.5 (95% CI; 1.1, 18.7) and 2.4 (95% CI; 1.4, 4.1), respectively, when compared to Champasak province. Serotype-specific antibody ELISA for 44 NSP antibody-positive samples revealed evidence of FMD serotypes O and A virus circulation in some provinces. Despite the passive abattoir survey providing useful information on FMD virus previous exposure and geographic locations of the animals, timely information on FMD virus circulation and distribution is also crucial to an effective control program. Alternative approaches to increase the cost-effectiveness of the surveillance network are also discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Laos/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
16.
Mol Ecol ; 30(15): 3815-3825, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34008868

RESUMO

The continued endemicity of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) in East Africa has significant implications for livestock production and poverty reduction, yet its complex epidemiology in endemic settings remains poorly understood. Identifying FMDV dispersal routes and drivers of transmission is key to improved control strategies. Environmental heterogeneity and anthropogenic drivers (e.g., demand for animal products) can impact viral spread by influencing host movements. Here, we utilized FMDV serotype O VP1 genetic sequences and corresponding spatiotemporal data in order to (i) infer the recent dispersal history, and (II) investigate the impact of external factors (cattle density, human population density, proximity to livestock markets, and drought) on dispersal velocity, location, and direction of FMDV serotype O in East Africa. We identified statistical evidence of long-distance transmission events, and we found that FMDV serotype O tends to remain circulating in areas of high cattle density, high human population density, and in close proximity to livestock markets. The latter two findings highlight the influence of anthropogenic factors on FMDV serotype O spread in this region. These findings contribute to the understanding of FMDV epidemiology in East Africa and can help guide improved control measures.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa/genética , Filogenia , Sorogrupo
17.
N Z Vet J ; 69(6): 313-326, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886430

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate an adaptive management approach to the deployment of emergency vaccination as an additional measure to stamping out (SO) during simulated outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in New Zealand. METHODS: A simulation modelling (n=6000 simulations) approach was used. The study population comprised all known farms in New Zealand with FMD-susceptible livestock. Each simulation started with infection seeded into a single randomly selected farm. Each outbreak was randomly assigned to one of four control strategies, comprising SO only; trigger-based vaccination (TRV) where SO was augmented with vaccination if an early decision indicator trigger operating between Days 11-35 of the response indicated a large outbreak was developing; SO plus vaccination started randomly on Days 11-35 of the response (VACr); and SO plus vaccination with a fixed start on Day 21 of the response (VACf). Other parameters, such as the number of personnel available were also varied randomly. Generalised additive models (GAM) were used to evaluate variables associated with the number of infected premises (IP) and epidemic duration. RESULTS: The mean number of IP was 29 (median 9, min 1, max 757), while epidemics lasted on average 26.9 (median 18, min 1, max 220) days. These excluded 303 extreme outbreaks larger than the UK 2001 FMD epidemic (2,030 cases). Univariable analysis of the pooled vaccination results vs. SO, showed that vaccination significantly reduced the number of IP (p<0.001) and outbreak duration (p<0.001). GAM of large outbreaks revealed that only the TRV strategy was significantly protective compared to SO alone, reducing the odds of a large outbreak by 22% (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.63-0.96). The number of veterinarians was non-linearly associated with large outbreaks, with low numbers increasing the odds of a large outbreak, but above 200 veterinarians, the odds reduced. Time to first detection was also non-linearly associated with large outbreaks, with detections <13 days protective and longer detection times increasing the odds of a large outbreak. GAM of long outbreaks showed similar findings, except that all three vaccination strategies significantly reduced duration. Overall, the TRV strategy resulted in the smallest and shortest epidemics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: An adaptive management approach that deployed vaccination in response to a trigger when a large outbreak was developing outperformed SO and reduced the odds of large or long outbreaks more than the other two vaccination strategies, although the differences between the three vaccination strategies were statistically small. This study provides highly relevant insights into the dynamics of disease establishment and spread that will guide New Zealand's readiness for responding to highly infectious disease incursions such as FMD.


Assuntos
Febre Aftosa , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Vacinação/veterinária
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 269, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871729

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the follicular dynamics in goats during naturally infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMD) subjected to induced ovulations, and after disease recovery, crossbred Thai native does were synchronized with CIDR for 14 days, and then PGF2α and PMSG were administered on the day following CIDR removal. The ovarian activity was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Clinical signs (fever, anorexia, lameness, and foot lesion) were observed on day 12 post-estrus (day 0, day of expected estrus). The study was carried out for 2 periods: FMD outbreak (day 0-day 21) and FMD recovery (day 63-day 84). Infected does were classified into two groups: (I) does without (n = 5) and (II) does with clinical signs (n = 5). The results showed that during FMD outbreak, the number of follicles/waves and number of follicles > 5 mm in ovulatory follicle wave of group II were lower than those of group I and those of its own group after FMD recovery (P<0.05). Higher in follicular regression rate were found in group II compared to group I in the does with 3 follicular waves during FMD outbreak (P<0.05). Moreover, during FMD outbreak, the does had lower number of follicles > 5 mm and longer day of emergence and day of largest follicles in ovulatory follicle wave than of those after FMD recovery. This observation demonstrated that FMD impaired folliculogenesis in goats, and the ovarian activity could be restored about 1 month after disease recovery.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Febre Aftosa , Doenças das Cabras , Animais , Estradiol , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Ovário/diagnóstico por imagem , Ovulação , Progesterona , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
19.
Prev Vet Med ; 189: 105311, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652349

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe infectious disease in animal, which affects regional economies and food security of many countries. A total of 109 FMD outbreaks in China (from 2010 to 2019) were assessed. To investigate whether the FMD outbreaks were significantly aggregated in China, spatio-temporal cluster analysis was performed. A MaxEnt model was established to identify high risk areas for FMD in China and to identify relevant risk factors. As a result, both the FMD serotype A and O had one cluster each. Roads density, isothermality, UV-B seasonality and railways density were identified as important factors that affect the occurrence of FMD serotype A. The minimum temperature of the coldest month contributed most to FMD serotype O outbreak, followed by railways density and markets distribution. This study may provide useful information for decision makers for the tailoring of a risk-based surveillance of FMD in China.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Febre Aftosa , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Vírus da Febre Aftosa , Análise Espaço-Temporal
20.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(4): 1263-1275, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755343

RESUMO

A serological study of 376 cattle from 198 herds and a concurrent survey of farmers were undertaken in 53 villages in Khinjan, Doshi and Puli Khumri districts of Baghlan province, Afghanistan to determine the seroprevalence of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and to identify risk factors for seropositive herds. A total of 419 cases of FMD were reported by the farmers in the year preceding the survey. The animal-level population seroprevalence was estimated at 42.0% (95% CI, 37.0-47.2). The seroprevalence increased with age in the sampled cattle (<2 years - 30.4%, 2-6 years - 40.3% and >6 years - 52.2%). Herds were more likely to be seropositive if the farmers: had purchased cattle in the year prior to the survey (OR = 2.6; 95% CI, 1.37-4.97); purchased ruminants from unknown (potentially risky) sources (OR = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.13-4.03); and sold milk to the market (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.63). Herds that had been vaccinated had a lower odds of being seropositive (OR = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.68-0.66). This was the first epidemiological study of FMD in Baghlan province and the findings provide valuable direction for disease control on FMD in this and other provinces in Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Febre Aftosa/epidemiologia , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Febre Aftosa/virologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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