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1.
Rev Prat ; 70(3): 312-316, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877067

RESUMO

Yellow fever is still a current threat? Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne disease. Africa is the major endemic zone, although there have been epidemics of concern in South America in the last 3 years, especially in Brazil. The virus causes a febrile hepatitis, which can lead to hemorrhagic complications and death. Diagnosis is based on non-specific serological tests. There is no curative treatment. Prevention relies on protection against mosquito bites and on vaccination with a live attenuated vaccine. WHO recommends only one dose of vaccine but data from the literature about life-long protection are divergent on that point, and travel medicine French authorities still recommend a second dose in most at-risk situations.


Assuntos
Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela , África/epidemiologia , Animais , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Medicina de Viagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
2.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1836, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983097

RESUMO

Examining CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses after primary Yellow Fever vaccination in a cohort of 210 volunteers, we have identified and tetramer-validated 92 CD8+ and 50 CD4+ T cell epitopes, many inducing strong and prevalent (i.e., immunodominant) T cell responses. Restricted by 40 and 14 HLA-class I and II allotypes, respectively, these responses have wide population coverage and might be of considerable academic, diagnostic and therapeutic interest. The broad coverage of epitopes and HLA overcame the otherwise confounding effects of HLA diversity and non-HLA background providing the first evidence of T cell immunodomination in humans. Also, double-staining of CD4+ T cells with tetramers representing the same HLA-binding core, albeit with different flanking regions, demonstrated an extensive diversification of the specificities of many CD4+ T cell responses. We suggest that this could reduce the risk of pathogen escape, and that multi-tetramer staining is required to reveal the true magnitude and diversity of CD4+ T cell responses. Our T cell epitope discovery approach uses a combination of (1) overlapping peptides representing the entire Yellow Fever virus proteome to search for peptides containing CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cell epitopes, (2) predictors of peptide-HLA binding to suggest epitopes and their restricting HLA allotypes, (3) generation of peptide-HLA tetramers to identify T cell epitopes, and (4) analysis of ex vivo T cell responses to validate the same. This approach is systematic, exhaustive, and can be done in any individual of any HLA haplotype. It is all-inclusive in the sense that it includes all protein antigens and peptide epitopes, and encompasses both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell epitopes. It is efficient and, importantly, reduces the false discovery rate. The unbiased nature of the T cell epitope discovery approach presented here should support the refinement of future peptide-HLA class I and II predictors and tetramer technologies, which eventually should cover all HLA class I and II isotypes. We believe that future investigations of emerging pathogens (e.g., SARS-CoV-2) should include population-wide T cell epitope discovery using blood samples from patients, convalescents and/or long-term survivors, who might all hold important information on T cell epitopes and responses.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Vacinação , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Febre Amarela/virologia
3.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785481

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic challenges public health systems around the world. Tropical countries will face complex epidemiological scenarios involving the simultaneous transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with viruses transmitted by Aedes aegypti. The occurrence of arboviral diseases with COVID-19 in the Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region presents challenges and opportunities for strengthening health services, surveillance and control programs. Financing of training, equipment and reconversion of hospital spaces will have a negative effect on already the limited resource directed to the health sector. The strengthening of the diagnostic infrastructure reappears as an opportunity for the national reference laboratories. Sharing of epidemiological information for the modeling of epidemiological scenarios allows collaboration between health, academic and scientific institutions. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 is constraining people with arboviral diseases to search for care which can lead to an increase in serious cases and could disrupt the operation of vector-control programs due to the reluctance of residents to open their doors to health personnel. Promoting intense community participation along with the incorporation of long lasting innovations in vector control offers new opportunities for control. The COVID-19 pandemic offers challenges and opportunities that must provoke positive behavioral changes and encourage more permanent self-care actions.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , América , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Região do Caribe , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008405, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780745

RESUMO

Yellow fever virus (YFV) causes a clinical syndrome of acute hemorrhagic hepatitis. YFV transmission involves non-human primates (NHP), mosquitoes and humans. By late 2016, Brazil experienced the largest YFV outbreak of the last 100 years, with 2050 human confirmed cases, with 681 cases ending in death and 764 confirmed epizootic cases in NHP. Among affected areas, Bahia state in Northeastern was the only region with no autochthonous human cases. By using next generation sequence approach, we investigated the molecular epidemiology of YFV in NHP in Bahia and discuss what factors might have prevented human cases. We investigated 47 YFV positive tissue samples from NHP cases to generate 8 novel YFV genomes. ML phylogenetic tree reconstructions and automated subtyping tools placed the newly generated genomes within the South American genotype I (SA I). Our analysis revealed that the YFV genomes from Bahia formed two distinct well-supported phylogenetic clusters that emerged most likely of an introduction from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo states. Vegetation coverage analysis performed shows predominantly low to medium vegetation coverage in Bahia state. Together, our findings support the hypothesis of two independent YFV SA-I introductions. We also highlighted the effectiveness of the actions taken by epidemiological surveillance team of the state to prevented human cases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Alouatta , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Callithrix , Ecossistema , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Filogenia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Amarela/classificação
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008699, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764827

RESUMO

São Paulo, a densely inhabited state in southeast Brazil that contains the fourth most populated city in the world, recently experienced its largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. YFV does not normally circulate extensively in São Paulo, so most people were unvaccinated when the outbreak began. Surveillance in non-human primates (NHPs) is important for determining the magnitude and geographic extent of an epizootic, thereby helping to evaluate the risk of YFV spillover to humans. Data from infected NHPs can give more accurate insights into YFV spread than when using data from human cases alone. To contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo, we generated and analysed virus genomic data and epizootic case data from NHPs in São Paulo. We report the occurrence of three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the outbreak in São Paulo prior to February 2018. We generated 51 new virus genomes from YFV positive cases identified in 23 different municipalities in São Paulo, mostly sampled from NHPs between October 2016 and January 2018. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in lineage dispersal velocities between phylogenetic branches, continuous phylogeographic analyses of generated YFV genomes suggest that YFV lineages spread in São Paulo at a mean rate of approximately 1km per day during all phases of the outbreak. Viral lineages from the first epizootic phase in northern São Paulo subsequently dispersed towards the south of the state to cause the second and third epizootic phases there. This alters our understanding of how YFV was introduced into the densely populated south of São Paulo state. Our results shed light on the sylvatic transmission of YFV in highly fragmented forested regions in São Paulo state and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in sentinel species.


Assuntos
Genoma Viral , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/veterinária , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Genômica , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Doenças dos Primatas/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Primatas/virologia , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vírus da Febre Amarela/classificação , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS: Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS: Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Assuntos
Culicidae/virologia , Florestas , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Febre Amarela , Vírus da Febre Amarela/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Brasil , Culicidae/classificação , Insetos Vetores/classificação , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética
9.
N Engl J Med ; 383(5): 452-459, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726531

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insufficient vaccine doses and the lack of therapeutic agents for yellow fever put global health at risk, should this virus emerge from sub-Saharan Africa and South America. METHODS: In phase 1a of this clinical trial, we assessed the safety, side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of TY014, a fully human IgG1 anti-yellow fever virus monoclonal antibody. In a double-blind, phase 1b clinical trial, we assessed the efficacy of TY014, as compared with placebo, in abrogating viremia related to the administration of live yellow fever vaccine (YF17D-204; Stamaril). The primary safety outcomes were adverse events reported 1 hour after the infusion and throughout the trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the dose of TY014 at which 100% of the participants tested negative for viremia within 48 hours after infusion. RESULTS: A total of 27 healthy participants were enrolled in phase 1a, and 10 participants in phase 1b. During phase 1a, TY014 dose escalation to a maximum of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight occurred in 22 participants. During phases 1a and 1b, adverse events within 1 hour after infusion occurred in 1 of 27 participants who received TY014 and in none of the 10 participants who received placebo. At least one adverse event occurred during the trial in 22 participants who received TY014 and in 8 who received placebo. The mean half-life of TY014 was approximately 12.8 days. At 48 hours after the infusion, none of the 5 participants who received the starting dose of TY014 of 2 mg per kilogram had detectable YF17D-204 viremia; these participants remained aviremic throughout the trial. Viremia was observed at 48 hours after the infusion in 2 of 5 participants who received placebo and at 72 hours in 2 more placebo recipients. Symptoms associated with yellow fever vaccine were less frequent in the TY014 group than in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: This phase 1 trial of TY014 did not identify worrisome safety signals and suggested potential clinical benefit, which requires further assessment in a phase 2 trial. (Funded by Tysana; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03776786.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Vacina contra Febre Amarela , Febre Amarela/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Viremia/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20200152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578715

RESUMO

During the yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Brazil, many cases of fulminant hepatitis were seen, although mild to moderate hepatitis was mostly observed with complete recovery. This report presents a case of late-onset hepatitis due to YF relapse. The patient sought medical attention after jaundice recurrence 40 days after the first YF hepatitis episode. This case highlights the importance of patient follow-up after the complete resolution of YF symptoms and discharge.


Assuntos
Hepatite/complicações , Febre Amarela/complicações , Adulto , Hepatite/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491144

RESUMO

Eleven lactating women were inadvertently vaccinated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine in a small city of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Their infants were being exclusively breast-fed and the breastfeeding was interrupted for 10 days. Serum and breastmilk were collected from the vaccinated mothers and tested for the presence of genomic RNA of the vaccine strain 8, 10 and 15 days after vaccination. Viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum and human milk samples tested and the infants remained asymptomatic. Our result strengthens the effectineness of stopping breastfeeding for 10 days after the inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of lactating women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/efeitos adversos , Leite Humano/virologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Antígenos Virais/sangue , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , RNA Viral/sangue , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 157-159, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458782

RESUMO

Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) is the most accurate method for the detection of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) in acute illness. However, performing rRT-PCR is not feasible for many laboratories in regions of endemicity. The current study compared new reverse transcription-insulated isothermal PCRs (the POCKIT DENV and YFV reagent sets) with laboratory-developed rRT-PCRs for both viruses using clinical samples and viral strains from different endemic regions. Sensitivity and specificity of the POCKIT DENV Reagent Set were 87.2% (68/78 samples) and 98.2% of samples (54/55), respectively. The YFV reagent set demonstrated sensitive detection of YFV RNA from six viral strains down to an estimated concentration of 2.5 log10 copies/mL and proved to be specific for YFV. Although the POCKIT assays require RNA extraction, they may provide accurate and less-complex options for molecular testing in laboratory settings where rRT-PCR is not practical.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue/genética , Dengue/diagnóstico , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Vírus da Febre Amarela/genética , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Humanos , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/genética , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/virologia
14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 160-163, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458783

RESUMO

Yellow fever vaccine, a live attenuated vaccine, is primarily administered to pregnant women during outbreaks. A qualitative study was conducted in pregnant women on the perception of yellow fever mass vaccination. In total, interviews with 20 women-13 semi-structured interviews and one focus group discussion with seven participants-were analyzed. This study showed that conflicting information about vaccine safety led to concern about miscarriage. Furthermore, it was believed that vaccination during gestation would concurrently immunize the fetus by transplacental antibody transfer. Consultation of health workers at the vaccination site led to diverse recommendations. When vaccinating pregnant women, clear health communication is crucial. Vaccine recommendations should be obeyed, and health workers should be trained to address emerging vaccine concerns. Pregnant women should be informed that a booster dose is recommended to achieve lifelong immunity. After pregnancy, a booster should be offered to women in endemic areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Percepção Social , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/imunologia , Aborto Espontâneo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Imunização Secundária/psicologia , Vacinação em Massa/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vacinas Atenuadas , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/psicologia
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008304, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To counter the increasing global risk of Yellow fever (YF), the World Health Organisation initiated the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy. Estimating YF burden, as well as vaccine impact, while accounting for the features of urban YF transmission such as indirect benefits of vaccination, is key to informing this strategy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed two model variants to estimate YF burden in sub-Saharan Africa, assuming all infections stem from either the sylvatic or the urban cycle of the disease. Both relied on an ecological niche model fitted to the local presence of any YF reported event in 34 African countries. We calibrated under-reporting using independent estimates of transmission intensity provided by 12 serological surveys performed in 11 countries. We calculated local numbers of YF infections, deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost based on estimated transmission intensity while accounting for time-varying vaccination coverage. We estimated vaccine demand and impact of future preventive mass vaccination campaigns (PMVCs) according to various vaccination scenarios. Vaccination activities conducted in Africa between 2005 and 2017 were estimated to prevent from 3.3 (95% CI 1.2-7.7) to 6.1 (95% CI 2.4-13.2) millions of deaths over the lifetime of vaccinees, representing extreme scenarios of none or maximal herd effects, respectively. By prioritizing provinces based on the risk of urban YF transmission in future PMVCs, an average of 37.7 million annual doses for PMVCs over eight years would avert an estimated 9,900,000 (95% CI 7,000,000-13,400,000) infections and 480,000 (180,000-1,140,000) deaths over the lifetime of vaccinees, corresponding to 1.7 (0.7-4.1) deaths averted per 1,000 vaccine doses. CONCLUSIONS: By estimating YF burden and vaccine impact over a range of spatial and temporal scales, while accounting for the specificity of urban transmission, our model can be used to inform the current EYE strategy.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/administração & dosagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , África/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(6): e129-e137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386609

RESUMO

For centuries, yellow fever virus infection generated substantial fear among explorers, tourist travellers, workers, military personnel, and others entering areas of transmission. Currently, there is transmission only in some areas of tropical South America and sub-Saharan Africa. When symptomatic, yellow fever infection causes severe liver dysfunction and coagulopathy with elevated mortality rates. Since there is no effective treatment, vaccination against yellow fever, available since 1937, represents an important preventive intervention in endemic areas. Every year, an increasing number of individuals are travelling to yellow fever endemic areas, many of whom have complex medical conditions. Travel health practitioners should do individualised assessments of the risks and benefits of yellow fever vaccination to identify potential contraindications. The most relevant contraindications include a history of thymoma or thymus dysfunction, AIDS, and individuals receiving immunosuppressive drugs including biological therapies or chemotherapy. We briefly review strategies to prevent yellow fever infection in travellers with the use of yellow fever vaccination and the use of personal protection measures to avoid mosquito bites.


Assuntos
Viagem , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle , África/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunização Secundária , América Latina/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/efeitos adversos , Vacina contra Febre Amarela/imunologia
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1863(8): 194576, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389826

RESUMO

Juvenile hormones (JH) and ecdysone coordinately regulate metamorphosis in Aedes aegypti. We studied the function of an epigenetic regulator and multifunctional transactivator, CREB binding protein (CBP) in A. aegypti. RNAi-mediated knockdown of CBP in Ae. aegypti larvae resulted in suppression of JH primary response gene, Krüppel-homolog 1 (Kr-h1), and induction of primary ecdysone response gene, E93, resulting in multiple effects including early metamorphosis, larval-pupal intermediate formation, mortality and inhibition of compound eye development. RNA sequencing identified hundreds of genes, including JH and ecdysone response genes regulated by CBP. In the presence of JH, CBP upregulates Kr-h1 by acetylating core histones at the Kr-h1 promoter and facilitating the recruitment of JH receptor and other proteins. CBP suppresses metamorphosis regulators, EcR-A, USP-A, BR-C, and E93 through the upregulation of Kr-h1 and E75A. CBP regulates the expression of core eye specification genes including those involved in TGF-ß and EGFR signaling. These studies demonstrate that CBP is an essential player in JH and 20E action and regulates metamorphosis and compound eye development in Ae. aegypti.


Assuntos
Aedes/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Olho/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Organogênese/fisiologia , Aedes/genética , Animais , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila , Ecdisona/genética , Ecdisona/metabolismo , Ecdisona/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Histonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Larva , Organogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Organogênese/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Febre Amarela/genética
18.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 72-89, jan.-mar. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087216

RESUMO

Este artigo faz a leitura das notícias falsas que circulam conteúdo sobre saúde pública em redes digitais e aplicativos de troca de mensagens. Para enumerar os argumentos utilizados pelos divulgadores de fake news na disputa pela enunciação da verdade, no campo do discurso, os autores escolheram a campanha de vacinação contra a febre amarela, lançada em um surto da doença no Brasil, no final de 2016. Selecionamos os textos de posts e áudios que se multiplicaram no WhatsApp, especificamente no ano de 2018, para a análise ancorada nas teses sobre produção de verdade e poder de Michel Foucault e de Nikolas Rose. Iniciamos, assim, uma reflexão sobre a ação das fake news em defesa da vida e que, ao mesmo tempo, colocam a vida em risco. A Organização Mundial da Saúde já aponta as fake news como uma das responsáveis pela baixa nos níveis internacionais de imunização.


This article analyses the fake news that spread contents of public health using digital networks and crossplatform messaging applications. To list the arguments used by those people whom spread fake news to dispute the utterance of the truth, in the discourse field, the authors have chosen the yellow fever vaccination campaign, launched in the outbreak of the disease in Brazil, in late 2016. We selected the texts of posts and audios that multiplied via WhatsApp, specifically in 2018, for analysis based on the theses on the production of truth and power by Michel Foucault and Nikolas Rose. Thus, we started a reflection on the action of fake news in defense of life while themselves put many lives at risk. The World Health Organization already points out fake news as one of the factors responsible for the drop in international levels of immunization.


Este artículo hace un análisis de las fake news que difunden contenido sobre salud pública por medio de redes digitales y aplicaciones de mensajería. Para enumerar los argumentos utilizados por las personas que hacen la divulgación de las fake news en la disputa por la expresión de la verdad, en el campo del discurso, los autores eligieron la campaña de vacunación contra la fiebre amarilla, lanzada en el brote de la enfermedad en Brasil, a fines de 2016. Seleccionamos los textos de publicaciones y audios que se multiplicaron en el WhatsApp, especialmente en 2018, para el análisis basado en las tesis sobre la producción de verdad y poder de Michel Foucault y de Nikolas Rose. Comenzamos así a reflexionar sobre la acción de las fake news en defensa de la vida y que al mismo tiempo la ponen en riesgo. La Organización Mundial de la Salud ya señala las fake news como uno de los factores responsables de la bajada de los niveles internacionales de inmunización.


Assuntos
Humanos , Febre Amarela , Brasil , Programas de Imunização , Fraude , Promoção da Saúde , Saúde Pública , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Medo/psicologia , Rede Social , Mídias Sociais
19.
Nat Immunol ; 21(6): 684-694, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231301

RESUMO

Aging is associated with remodeling of the immune system to enable the maintenance of life-long immunity. In the CD8+ T cell compartment, aging results in the expansion of highly differentiated cells that exhibit characteristics of cellular senescence. Here we found that CD27-CD28-CD8+ T cells lost the signaling activity of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and expressed a protein complex containing the agonistic natural killer (NK) receptor NKG2D and the NK adaptor molecule DAP12, which promoted cytotoxicity against cells that expressed NKG2D ligands. Immunoprecipitation and imaging cytometry indicated that the NKG2D-DAP12 complex was associated with sestrin 2. The genetic inhibition of sestrin 2 resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D and DAP12 and restored TCR signaling in senescent-like CD27-CD28-CD8+ T cells. Therefore, during aging, sestrins induce the reprogramming of non-proliferative senescent-like CD27-CD28-CD8+ T cells to acquire a broad-spectrum, innate-like killing activity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Subfamília K de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Febre Amarela/genética , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Febre Amarela/metabolismo , Febre Amarela/virologia , Vírus da Febre Amarela/imunologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305985

RESUMO

People who travel to countries where they are at risk of contracting specific infections often need specific vaccines. To make correct recommendations in this respect several points have to be considered. The state of health of the traveler should be known as well as his or her destination and travel style. Very important, however, is the age of the traveler. As advancing age leads to changes in the immune system, in older individuals many infections are more severe. On the other hand, most vaccines are less immunogenic in the elderly. In this chapter, we will discuss which vaccines are necessary for older travelers visiting (mainly) tropical and subtropical countries, how these vaccines have to be used, and if perhaps their use has to be altered in older individuals. First, standard vaccinations will be addressed. When the immunization state of the individual is incomplete because certain vaccinations are expired or missing, it has to be updated. Vaccinations against tetanus, diphtheria, influenza, pneumococcal diseases, measles, and poliomyelitis have to be considered in this respect, because the risk of getting infected with these diseases in tropical and subtropical regions or in regions with poor hygienic conditions is often higher or at least the same as in industrialized countries. The second and main part of this chapter contains the typical travel vaccines. We will deal with vaccinations against cholera, hepatitis A and B, Japanese encephalitis, invasive meningococcal diseases, rabies, typhoid fever, and yellow fever. Clinical courses and epidemiology of the different infections are presented. The respective vaccines are discussed in detail, especially their efficiency in older individuals as far as data are available in this respect. Finally, recommendations for their use in older travelers will be given.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Viagem , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Difteria/prevenção & controle , Encefalite Japonesa/prevenção & controle , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Hepatite A/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções Meningocócicas/prevenção & controle , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Febre Tifoide , Vacinação , Febre Amarela/prevenção & controle
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