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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 82: 30-32, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30818047

RESUMO

Borrelia crocidurae is endemic in West Africa, where it represents the leading cause of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). TBRF typically presents with high fever and systemic symptoms, followed by recurrent episodes. Neurological complications may occur during febrile relapses. B. crocidurae is considered the most neurotropic agent of TBRF and is associated to severe neurological manifestations i.e. meningitis and encephalitis. To date, European cases of B. crocidurae infection have been reported in travelers returning from endemic areas. We report the first autochthonous case in Europe of B. crocidurae infection, presenting as meningitis with cranial polyneuritis and cavernous sinus thrombosis that were not preceded by classic febrile recurrences.


Assuntos
Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Meningite/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurite (Inflamação)/diagnóstico por imagem , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Animais , Borrelia/genética , Trombose do Corpo Cavernoso/microbiologia , Encefalite/microbiologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Meningite/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurite (Inflamação)/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia
3.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 14(41): e1815, 02/2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS | ID: biblio-986445

RESUMO

Objetivo: Apresentar informações sobre o diagnóstico e tratamento da síndrome PFAPA na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Métodos: Revisão sistemática de literatura baseada na recomendação PRISMA e realizada nas bases de dados Scielo, Lilacs, Medline, IBECS e PubMed, incluindo estudos publicados no período de 2004 a 2018, além da consulta a outros documentos específicos da síndrome PFAPA. Resultados: Após busca e seleção, foram incluídos 31 artigos. Avaliação e Diagnóstico: A síndrome PFAPA acomete principalmente crianças, sendo caracterizada por febre periódica acompanhada por faringite, estomatite aftosa e/ou adenite cervical. Seu diagnóstico é clínico e por exclusão, baseado em critérios estabelecidos. Recomendações: Os episódios costumam responder a prednisona e, em graus variáveis, a cimetidina e colchicina. Casos refratários e acompanhados de hipertrofia tonsilar são candidatos a tonsilectomia, devendo ser encaminhados à avaliação otorrinolaringológica.


Objective: To present information about the diagnosis and treatment of PFAPA syndrome in Primary Health Care. Methods: Systematic review of literature based on the PRISMA recommendation and carried out in the Scielo, Lilacs, Medline, IBECS and PubMed databases, including studies published from 2004 to 2018, in addition to consulting other PFAPA syndrome specific documents. Results: After search and selection, 31 articles were included. Assessment and Diagnosis: PFAPA syndrome affects mainly children and is characterized by periodic fever accompanied by pharyngitis, aphthous stomatitis and/or cervical adenitis. Its diagnosis is clinical and by exclusion, based on established criteria. Recommendations: The episodes usually respond to prednisone and, in varying levels, cimetidine and colchicine. Refractory cases and accompanied by tonsillar hypertrophy are candidates for tonsillectomy, and should be referred to otorhinolaryngological evaluation.


Objetivo: Presentar informaciones sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento del síndrome PFAPA en la Atención Primaria a la Salud. Métodos: Revisión sistemática de literatura basada en la recomendación PRISMA y realizada en las bases de datos Scielo, Lilacs, Medline, IBECS y PubMed, incluyendo estudios publicados en el período 2004 a 2018, además de la consulta a otros documentos específicos del síndrome PFAPA. Resultados: Después de la búsqueda y selección, se incluyeron 31 artículos. Evaluación y Diagnóstico: El síndrome PFAPA acomete principalmente niños, siendo caracterizada por fiebre periódica acompañada por faringitis, estomatitis aftosa y/o adenitis cervical. Su diagnóstico es clínico y por exclusión, basado en criterios establecidos. Recomendaciones: Los episodios suelen responder a la prednisona y, en grados variables, a la cimetidina y colchicina. Los casos refractarios y acompañados de hipertrofia tonsilar son candidatos a tonsilectomía, debiendo ser encaminados a la evaluación otorrinolaringológica.


Assuntos
Atenção Primária à Saúde , Febre Recorrente , Estomatite Aftosa , Faringite , Linfadenite
4.
Infect Immun ; 87(4)2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642902

RESUMO

The global public health impact of relapsing fever (RF) spirochetosis is significant, since the pathogens exist on five of seven continents. The hallmark sign of infection is episodic fever and the greatest threat is to the unborn. With the goal of better understanding the specificity of B-cell responses and the role of immune responses in pathogenicity, we infected rhesus macaques with Borrelia turicatae (a new world RF spirochete species) by tick bite and monitored the immune responses generated in response to the pathogen. Specifically, we evaluated inflammatory mediator induction by the pathogen, host antibody responses to specific antigens, and peripheral lymphocyte population dynamics. Our results indicate that B. turicatae elicits from peripheral blood cells key inflammatory response mediators (interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor alpha), which are associated with preterm abortion. Moreover, a global decline in peripheral B-cell populations was observed in all animals at 14 days postinfection. Serological responses were also evaluated to assess the antigenicity of three surface proteins: BipA, BrpA, and Bta112. Interestingly, a distinction was observed between antibodies generated in nonhuman primates and mice. Our results provide support for the nonhuman primate model not only in studies of prenatal pathogenesis but also for diagnostic and vaccine antigen identification and testing.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Borrelia/fisiologia , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Febre Recorrente/imunologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Animais , Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/fisiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Virulência
5.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0208432, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586413

RESUMO

The genus Borrelia, originally described by Swellengrebel in 1907, contains tick- or louse-transmitted spirochetes belonging to the relapsing fever (RF) group of spirochetes, the Lyme borreliosis (LB) group of spirochetes and spirochetes that form intermittent clades. In 2014 it was proposed that the genus Borrelia should be separated into two genera; Borrelia Swellengrebel 1907 emend. Adeolu and Gupta 2014 containing RF spirochetes and Borreliella Adeolu and Gupta 2014 containing LB group of spirochetes. In this study we conducted an analysis based on a method that is suitable for bacterial genus demarcation, the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP). We included RF group species, LB group species and two species belonging to intermittent clades, Borrelia turcica Güner et al. 2004 and Candidatus Borrelia tachyglossi Loh et al. 2017. These analyses convincingly showed that all groups of spirochetes belong into one genus and we propose to emend, and re-unite all groups in, the genus Borrelia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Borrelia/microbiologia , Borrelia/classificação , Borrelia/genética , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/microbiologia , Filogenia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(41): 10422-10427, 2018 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249639

RESUMO

Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is known to have killed millions of people over the course of European history and remains a major cause of mortality in parts of the world. Its pathogen, Borrelia recurrentis, shares a common vector with global killers such as typhus and plague and is known for its involvement in devastating historical epidemics such as the Irish potato famine. Here, we describe a European and historical genome of B recurrentis, recovered from a 15th century skeleton from Oslo. Our distinct European lineage has a discrete genomic makeup, displaying an ancestral oppA-1 gene and gene loss in antigenic variation sites. Our results illustrate the potential of ancient DNA research to elucidate dynamics of reductive evolution in a specialized human pathogen and to uncover aspects of human health usually invisible to the archaeological record.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Borrelia/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Metagenômica , Febre Recorrente/genética , Adulto , Animais , Borrelia/classificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XV , Humanos , Filogenia , Febre Recorrente/história , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos
8.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(4): 864-871, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29571703

RESUMO

In South America, early reports from more than 50 years ago incriminated Ornithodoros rudis as vector of Borrelia venezuelensis, an agent of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). Herein we report the rediscovery of O. rudis by means of morphological, biological and molecular analyses, which also comprise the first report of this tick species in Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis using partial fragments of mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene suggested that O. rudis forms a monophyletic group with Ornithodoros erraticus. By using laboratory rodents as hosts, we isolated a relapsing fever Borrelia from an infected O. rudis female. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the rrs, flaB, and glpQ genes of Borrelia spp. placed the spirochete harbored by O. rudis closely related to Borrelia turicatae. Until further genetic evidence is not obtained we are referring to this O. rudis spirochete as B. venezuelensis. This is the first in vitro isolation of a TBRF Borrelia from South America. The presence of O. rudis in Brazil should not be overlooked, since this tick has been historically implicated in human cases of TBRF in Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela. This study provides new reports of O. rudis and B. venezuelensis after decades of scientific silence on these agents.


Assuntos
Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Larva/fisiologia , Muda , Ornithodoros/genética , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Infestações por Carrapato/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
9.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(3): 535-542, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29398603

RESUMO

The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative agent of ehrlichiosis). With the notable exception of Powassan virus, which can be transmitted within minutes after attachment by an infected tick, there is no doubt that the risk of transmission of other I. scapularis-borne pathogens, including Lyme disease spirochetes, increases with the length of time (number of days) infected ticks are allowed to remain attached. This review summarizes data from experimental transmission studies to reinforce the important disease-prevention message that regular (at least daily) tick checks and prompt tick removal has strong potential to reduce the risk of transmission of I. scapularis-borne bacterial and parasitic pathogens from infected attached ticks. The most likely scenario for human exposure to an I. scapularis-borne pathogen is the bite by a single infected tick. However, recent reviews have failed to make a clear distinction between data based on transmission studies where experimental hosts were fed upon by a single versus multiple infected ticks. A summary of data from experimental studies on transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes (Bo. burgdorferi and Bo. mayonii) by I. scapularis nymphs indicates that the probability of transmission resulting in host infection, at time points from 24 to 72 h after nymphal attachment, is higher when multiple infected ticks feed together as compared to feeding by a single infected tick. In the specific context of risk for human infection, the most relevant experimental studies therefore are those where the probability of pathogen transmission at a given point in time after attachment was determined using a single infected tick. The minimum duration of attachment by single infected I. scapularis nymphs required for transmission to result in host infection is poorly defined for most pathogens, but experimental studies have shown that Powassan virus can be transmitted within 15 min of tick attachment and both A. phagocytophilum and Bo. miyamotoi within the first 24 h of attachment. There is no experimental evidence for transmission of Lyme disease spirochetes by single infected I. scapularis nymphs to result in host infection when ticks are attached for only 24 h (despite exposure of nearly 90 experimental rodent hosts across multiple studies) but the probability of transmission resulting in host infection appears to increase to approximately 10% by 48 h and reach 70% by 72 h for Bo. burgdorferi. Caveats to the results from experimental transmission studies, including specific circumstances (such as re-attachment of previously partially fed infected ticks) that may lead to more rapid transmission are discussed.


Assuntos
Babesiose/transmissão , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/transmissão , Ixodes/fisiologia , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/isolamento & purificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum/patogenicidade , Anaplasmose/transmissão , Animais , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , Babesia microti/patogenicidade , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Ehrlichia/isolamento & purificação , Ehrlichia/patogenicidade , Ehrlichiose/transmissão , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Encefalite Transmitidos por Carrapatos/patogenicidade , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Encefalite Transmitida por Carrapatos/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Ixodes/microbiologia , Ixodes/parasitologia , Doença de Lyme/transmissão , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(3): 465-470, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329785

RESUMO

A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was detected from the blood of wild deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan. The Borrelia sp. was distributed nationwide among deer with an overall prevalence of 26% in blood samples. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in fawns (48.4%) compared to adult deer (23.6%). Sequencing analysis reveals that this Borrelia sp. belongs to the hard tick-borne relapsing fever borreliae, and that it forms a single lineage based on sequences of the flagellin and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase genes. Borrelial genome copy number was estimated at 8.8 × 103 genome copies/µl of blood. Other hard tick-borne relapsing fever borrelia (e.g. Borrelia miyamotoi) were not detected in deer blood in this study. These findings suggest that wild deer may act as reservoirs for this Borrelia sp. in Japan.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Ixodidae/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/veterinária , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/veterinária , Fatores Etários , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/fisiologia , Cervos/microbiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Prevalência , Febre Recorrente/sangue , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/sangue , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(2): 334-339, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29174448

RESUMO

Ixodid and argasid ticks may hyperparasitize other individuals of their own species to acquire a blood meal, however most accounts are based on single observations and the behavior has rarely been studied. While maintaining laboratory colonies of Ornithodoros species, we noticed that unfed ticks occasionally fed on other ticks that were feeding on mice, and unfed ticks parasitized engorged ticks when confined together in tubes. Therefore, we investigated hyperparasitism by Ornithodoros hermsi and the ability of these ticks to acquire and transmit the relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia hermsii when feeding on other ticks. Various combinations of unfed and recently engorged male, female and nymphal ticks were confined for 1-2h as individual pairs or in groups, then examined to determine the number of ticks that acquired blood by feeding on others. Unfed O. hermsi males were far more likely to hyperparasitize other ticks than were females and nymphs, as 78.6% of males (114 of 145 ticks) fed when confined with recently engorged ticks. Unfed females and nymphs also hyperparasitized other ticks but far less frequently (only 6.7% combined; 17 of 254 ticks). Infection experiments demonstrated that unfed males acquired B. hermsii when parasitizing nymphs that had recently engorged on a spirochetemic mouse, and unfed infected males transmitted spirochetes to recently engorged nymphs. Some ticks infected via hyperparasitism subsequently transmitted B. hermsii to mice. Hyperparasitism by O. hermsi occurred more frequently than expected, although possibly influenced by our experimental design. The significance of this behavior as it may influence the horizontal transfer of B. hermsii in nature is not known but worthy of future consideration.


Assuntos
Borrelia/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Ornithodoros/parasitologia , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/microbiologia , Ninfa/parasitologia , Ninfa/fisiologia , Ornithodoros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ornithodoros/microbiologia
12.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(2): 382-388, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288009

RESUMO

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia and characterized by recurrent episodes of fever. Borrelia persica, the causative agent of this disease in Israel, is transmitted by the argasid tick Ornithodoros tholozani. There is little information about the maintenance and possible vertebrate reservoirs of B. persica in nature, but the tick O. tholozani is known to feed on animals that enter its habitat in caves, rock crevices and shady environments. The rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) is commonly found in such habitats and may therefore serve as a reservoir host for O. tholozani. Blood and spleen samples from rock hyraxes were collected from twelve locations in Israel and the West Bank during 2009-2014 to test if these animals may be infected with B. persica. Real-time PCR targeting a segment of the flagellin (flaB) gene was initially used to detect B. persica. Positive samples were further analyzed by PCR, using a segment of the glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) gene for additional confirmation. Borrelia species were identified by nucleotide sequence analysis and the copy number of Borrelia was quantified in blood and spleen samples based on the number of Borrelia 16S rRNA gene copies. A total of 112 hyraxes were examined, with both blood and spleen samples tested from 108 animals. Nine hyraxes were infected with B. persica, with a prevalence of 8%. Of these, two animals were positive for both blood and spleen samples, three only for blood and four only for the spleen. The number of DNA copies of Borrelia 16S rRNA was significantly higher in blood (5 × 106 to 9.2 × 108/ml blood) compared to spleen (2.1 × 104 to 1.0 × 106/ml). We conclude that rock hyraxes are possible reservoirs for B. persica because they have long lifespans and gregarious habits, share habitats with vector ticks, and are naturally infected with this spirochete. Further studies should be conducted in the future to evaluate the competence of hyraxes as reservoirs for B. persica infection.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/veterinária , Dassies , Febre Recorrente/veterinária , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Feminino , Flagelina/análise , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/análise , Filogenia , Prevalência , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 9(2): 281-287, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29169853

RESUMO

Relapsing fever (RF) in North America is caused primarily by the spirochete Borrelia hermsii and is associated with the bite of its tick vector Ornithodoros hermsi. Although this spirochete was known long before the discovery of the Lyme disease (LD) spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, basic methods to facilitate the study of B. hermsii have lagged behind. One important technique to expedite the study of the molecular biology and pathogenesis of B. hermsii would be a reliable method to grow and clone these bacteria in solid medium, which we now describe. We have defined the solidifying agent, plating temperature, oxygen concentration, and pH for the efficient plating of two species of RF spirochetes, B. hermsii and Borrelia turicatae. Importantly, this technique allowed us to successfully isolate virulent, clonal cell lines of spirochetes, and to enumerate and isolate viable B. hermsii from infected mouse blood and tick tissues. Our results also demonstrate the value of testing a range of several environmental variables to increase the efficiency of bacterial isolation, which may be helpful for researchers working on other prokaryotes that are intractable for in vitro growth.


Assuntos
Borrelia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Animais , Meios de Cultura/análise , Feminino , Camundongos , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia
14.
Ter Arkh ; 89(11): 35-43, 2017.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260744

RESUMO

Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis caused by Borrelia miyamotoi (ITBB-BM) is a previously unknown infectious disease discovered in Russia. AIM: The present study continues the investigation of the clinical features of ITBB-BM in the context of an immune system-pathogen interaction. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study enrolled 117 patients with ITBB-BM and a comparison group of 71 patients with Lyme disease (LD) that is ITBB with erythema migrans. All the patients were treated at the New Hospital, Yekateringburg. More than 100 clinical, epidemiological and laboratory parameters were obtained from each patient's medical history and included in the general database. A subset of patients hospitalized in 2015 and 2016 underwent additional laboratory examinations. Namely, the levels of B. miyamotoi-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were measured by the protein microarray containing GlpQ protein and four variable major proteins (VMPs): Vlp15/16, Vlp18, Vsp1, and Vlp5. The blood concentration of Borrelia was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: In contrast to LD, first of all (p<0.001) the following clinical features were typical for ITBB-BM: the absence of erythema migrans (in 95% of patients), fever (93%), fatigue (96%), headache (82%), chill (41%), nausea (28%), lymphopenia (56%), thrombocytopenia (46%), the abnormal levels of alanine aminotransferase (54%) and C-reactive protein (98%), proteinuria (61%). Given the set of these indicators, the course of ITBB-BM was more severe in approximately 70% of patients. At admission, only 13% and 38% of patients had antibodies to GlpQ and VMPs, respectively; at discharge, antibodies to GlpQ and VMPs were detected in 88% of patients. There was no statistically significant association of the antibody response with individual clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters of the disease. However, patients with more severe ITBB-BM produced less IgM antibodies to VMPs and GlpQ at the time of discharge. CONCLUSION: ITBB-BM is a moderate systemic disease accompanied by the production of specific antibodies in virtually all patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Borrelia/patogenicidade , Ixodes/virologia , Doença de Lyme , Febre Recorrente , Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Doença de Lyme/sangue , Doença de Lyme/fisiopatologia , Doença de Lyme/virologia , Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/imunologia , Febre Recorrente/sangue , Febre Recorrente/fisiopatologia , Febre Recorrente/virologia
15.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0189786, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232415

RESUMO

Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is caused by spirochetes in the genus Borrelia. Very limited information exists on the incidence of this disease in humans and domestic dogs in the United States. The main objective of this study is to evaluate exposure of dogs to Borrelia turicatae, a causative agent of TBRF, in Texas. To this end, 878 canine serum samples were submitted to Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory from October 2011 to September 2012 for suspected tick-borne illnesses. The recombinant Borrelial antigen glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase (GlpQ) was expressed, purified, and used as a diagnostic antigen in both ELISA assays and Immunoblot analysis. Unfortunately, due to significant background reaction, the use of GlpQ as a diagnostic marker in the ELISA assay was not effective in discriminating dogs exposed to B. turicatae. Nevertheless, immunoblot assays showed that 17 out of 853 samples tested were considered to be seropositive, which constitutes 1.99% of all Texas samples tested in this study. The majority of positive samples were from central and southern Texas. Exposure to TBRF spirochetes may be seasonal, with 70.59% (12 out of 17) of the cases detected between June and December. In addition, 2 out of the 17 sero-reactive cases (11.76%) showed reactivity to both B. burgdorferi (causative agent of Lyme disease) and B. turicatae (a causative agent of TBRF). This is the first report of TBRF sero-prevalence in companion animals in an endemic area. Our findings further indicate that B. turicatae is maintained in domestic canids in Texas in regions where human disease also occurs, suggesting that domestic dogs could serve as sentinels for this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Febre Recorrente/veterinária , Animais , Western Blotting , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Febre Recorrente/sangue , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Texas
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(11): e0006064, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Anaplasmataceae/isolamento & purificação , Argasidae/microbiologia , Bartonella/isolamento & purificação , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Febre Recorrente/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Anaplasmataceae/genética , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Anaplasmataceae/microbiologia , Animais , Bartonella/genética , Infecções por Bartonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bartonella/microbiologia , Borrelia/genética , Infecções por Borrelia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Borrelia/microbiologia , Clima , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Ornithodoros/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 97(6): 1669-1672, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29016302

RESUMO

We report two cases of louse-borne relapsing fever observed at our Institution in June 2016. Both patients were young asylum seekers from Africa who had recently arrived in Milan, Italy. Notably, direct microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears was repeatedly negative for the presence of spirochetes and the diagnosis, supported by clinical and epidemiologic evidence, required molecular confirmation by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from blood and sequencing of the amplified products.


Assuntos
Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Febre Recorrente/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Microscopia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Refugiados , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Somália , Sudão
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(10): e0006047, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084219

RESUMO

Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation. Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) was used to predict the species distribution of O. hermsi and B. hermsii through time and space based on current climatic trends and future projected climate changes. From this modeling process, we found that the projected current distributions of both the tick and spirochete align with known endemic foci for the disease. Further, global climate models predict a shift in the distribution of suitable habitat for the tick vector to higher elevations. Our predictions are useful for targeting surveillance efforts in areas of high risk in western North America, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public health investigations and vector control efforts.


Assuntos
Vetores Aracnídeos/fisiologia , Borrelia/fisiologia , Ornithodoros/fisiologia , Febre Recorrente/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/transmissão , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/microbiologia , Borrelia/genética , Borrelia/isolamento & purificação , Clima , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , América do Norte , Ornithodoros/microbiologia , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0185434, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28937997

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick transmitted disease in Europe. The diagnosis of LB today is based on the patient´s medical history, clinical presentation and laboratory findings. The laboratory diagnostics are mainly based on antibody detection, but in certain conditions molecular detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may serve as a complement. AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analytical sensitivity, analytical specificity and concordance of eight different real-time PCR methods at five laboratories in Sweden, Norway and Denmark. METHOD: Each participating laboratory was asked to analyse three different sets of samples (reference panels; all blinded) i) cDNA extracted and transcribed from water spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, ii) cerebrospinal fluid spiked with cultured Borrelia strains, and iii) DNA dilution series extracted from cultured Borrelia and relapsing fever strains. The results and the method descriptions of each laboratory were systematically evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The analytical sensitivities and the concordance between the eight protocols were in general high. The concordance was especially high between the protocols using 16S rRNA as the target gene, however, this concordance was mainly related to cDNA as the type of template. When comparing cDNA and DNA as the type of template the analytical sensitivity was in general higher for the protocols using DNA as template regardless of the use of target gene. The analytical specificity for all eight protocols was high. However, some protocols were not able to detect Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae or Borrelia japonica.


Assuntos
Borrelia burgdorferi/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/microbiologia , Dinamarca , Doença de Lyme/diagnóstico , Noruega , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Febre Recorrente/microbiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Suécia , Microbiologia da Água
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