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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 900, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B, and C. There is an emergence of Typhoid fever caused by extensively drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi strain called XDR S.Typhi. This strain is resistant to recommended first-line antibiotics and cephalosporins. WHO estimated 5274 cases of XDR S.Typhi in Karachi from November 2016 to December 2019. This study aims to determine clinical course, complications and response to treatment of XDR S.Typhi among the pediatric population coming to Indus Hospital. METHOD: We reviewed the records of children who had culture-proven XDR S.Typhi infection at Indus Hospital from July 2017 to December 2018. A pre-designed data abstraction form was used to record information about seasonality, demographic details, clinical features and course, treatment, complications and outcomes of the cases of XDR S.Typhi. RESULTS: The records of 680 children were reviewed. The median (IQR) age of the patients was 5 (2-8) years. More than half (n = 391, 57.5%) of the patients were males. The outcomes were recorded in 270 (40%) patients. Out of these, 234 (86.7%) children got cured within 14 days, while a delayed response to antibiotics was noted in 32 (11.9%) children. Seventy-six (29%) children recovered on a combination of meropenem and azithromycin, 72 (27%) got cured on azithromycin alone, while 15 (6%) responded to meropenem alone. CONCLUSION: Our review indicated that children under 5 years of age were affected more with XDR S.Typhi. Azithromycin alone or in combination with meropenem were effective antibiotics for treating XDR S.Typhi in children.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
2.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(235): 256-262, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever commonly called as enteric fever is a life-threatening illness caused by Salmonella serotype Typhi and Salmonella serotype Paratyphi, respectively. It is a major public health issue in underdeveloped and developing countries. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of enteric fever pathogens in blood culture of patients attending a tertiary care centre. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 3483 blood samples of patients attending a tertiary care centre, with the history and symptoms suspicious of enteric fever during one year period from mid-September 2019 to mid-September 2020 after ethical approval from the institutional review committee. Isolates were identified by standard microbiological methods and tested for in vitro antibiotic susceptibility by modified kirby-bauer disc diffusion method. The obtained data was entered and analyzed in WHONET 5.6 program, point estimate at 95% was calculated along with frequency and proportion for binary data. RESULTS: In our study, enteric fever pathogens were isolated from 18 (0.51%) blood samples. Out of which, Salmonella Paratyphi A was isolated from 10 (8.19%) and Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 8 (6.55%) blood samples. Other serotypes were not isolated. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that salmonella species that was isolated were sensitive to most of the drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of enteric fever pathogens was lesser compared to other studies. Varying degrees of antibiotic resistance among isolated enteric fever pathogens necessitates continuous surveillance of the susceptibility patterns. Prudent use of antimicrobials, active infection control practices and stringent antibiotic policy should be implemented to prevent emergence of antibiotic resistance and future outbreaks.


Assuntos
Febre Paratifoide , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hemocultura , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Febre Paratifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Paratifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Paratifoide/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Salmonella typhi , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(12): 1104-1115, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever caused by multidrug-resistant H58 Salmonella Typhi is an increasing public health threat in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind trial in Blantyre, Malawi, to assess the efficacy of Vi polysaccharide typhoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TCV). We randomly assigned children who were between 9 months and 12 years of age, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a single dose of Vi-TCV or meningococcal capsular group A conjugate (MenA) vaccine. The primary outcome was typhoid fever confirmed by blood culture. We report vaccine efficacy and safety outcomes after 18 to 24 months of follow-up. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis included 28,130 children, of whom 14,069 were assigned to receive Vi-TCV and 14,061 were assigned to receive the MenA vaccine. Blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever occurred in 12 children in the Vi-TCV group (46.9 cases per 100,000 person-years) and in 62 children in the MenA group (243.2 cases per 100,000 person-years). Overall, the efficacy of Vi-TCV was 80.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.2 to 89.6) in the intention-to-treat analysis and 83.7% (95% CI, 68.1 to 91.6) in the per-protocol analysis. In total, 130 serious adverse events occurred in the first 6 months after vaccination (52 in the Vi-TCV group and 78 in the MenA group), including 6 deaths (all in the MenA group). No serious adverse events were considered by the investigators to be related to vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Among Malawian children 9 months to 12 years of age, administration of Vi-TCV resulted in a lower incidence of blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever than the MenA vaccine. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03299426.).


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Malaui , Masculino , Vacinas Meningocócicas/efeitos adversos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/efeitos adversos , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Conjugadas
4.
Lancet ; 398(10301): 675-684, 2021 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low-income and middle-income countries. Vi-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (Vi-TT) is recommended by WHO for implementation in high-burden countries, but there is little evidence about its ability to protect against clinical typhoid in such settings. METHODS: We did a participant-masked and observer-masked cluster-randomised trial preceded by a safety pilot phase in an urban endemic setting in Dhaka, Bangladesh. 150 clusters, each with approximately 1350 residents, were randomly assigned (1:1) to either Vi-TT or SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine. Children aged 9 months to less than 16 years were invited via parent or guardian to receive a single, parenteral dose of vaccine according to their cluster of residence. The study population was followed for an average of 17·1 months. Total and overall protection by Vi-TT against blood culture-confirmed typhoid were the primary endpoints assessed in the intention-to-treat population of vaccinees or all residents in the clusters. A subset of approximately 4800 participants was assessed with active surveillance for adverse events. The trial is registered at www.isrctn.com, ISRCTN11643110. FINDINGS: 41 344 children were vaccinated in April-May, 2018, with another 20 412 children vaccinated at catch-up vaccination campaigns between September and December, 2018, and April and May, 2019. The incidence of typhoid fever (cases per 100 000 person-years) was 635 in JE vaccinees and 96 in Vi-TT vaccinees (total Vi-TT protection 85%; 97·5% CI 76 to 91, p<0·0001). Total vaccine protection was consistent in different age groups, including children vaccinated at ages under 2 years (81%; 95% CI 39 to 94, p=0·0052). The incidence was 213 among all residents in the JE clusters and 93 in the Vi-TT clusters (overall Vi-TT protection 57%; 97·5% CI 43 to 68, p<0·0001). We did not observe significant indirect vaccine protection by Vi-TT (19%; 95% CI -12 to 41, p=0·20). The vaccines were well tolerated, and no serious adverse events judged to be vaccine-related were observed. INTERPRETATION: Vi-TT provided protection against typhoid fever to children vaccinated between 9 months and less than 16 years. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to assess the duration of protection and the need for booster doses. FUNDING: The study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Toxoide Tetânico/uso terapêutico , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/administração & dosagem , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Encefalite Japonesa/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Vacinas contra Encefalite Japonesa/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/imunologia
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(8)2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351258

RESUMO

Introduction. Enteric fever (caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi) frequently presents as an acute, undifferentiated febrile illness in returning travellers, requiring timely empirical antibiotics.Gap Statement. Determining which empirical antibiotics to prescribe for enteric fever requires up-to-date knowledge of susceptibility patterns.Aim. By characterising factors associated with antimicrobial resistance in cases of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi imported to England, we aim to guide effective empirical treatment.Methodology. All English isolates of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi 2014-2019 underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing; results were compared to a previous survey in London 2005-2012. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance were analysed with logistic regression models to predict adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for resistance to individual antibiotics and multi-drug resistance.Results. We identified 1088 cases of S. Typhi, 729 S. Paratyphi A, 93 S. Paratyphi B, and one S. Paratyphi C. In total, 93 % were imported. Overall, 90 % of S. Typhi and 97 % of S. Paratyphi A isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; 26 % of S. Typhi were multidrug resistant to ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, co-trimoxazole, and chloramphenicol (MDR+FQ). Of the isolates, 4 % of S. Typhi showed an extended drug resistance (XDR) phenotype of MDR+FQ plus resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, with cases of XDR rising sharply in recent years (none before 2017, one in 2017, six in 2018, 32 in 2019). For S. Typhi isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin was associated with travel to Pakistan (aOR=32.0, 95 % CI: 15.4-66.4), India (aOR=21.8, 95 % CI: 11.6-41.2), and Bangladesh (aOR=6.2, 95 % CI: 2.8-13.6) compared to travel elsewhere, after adjusting for rising prevalence of resistance over time. MDR+FQ resistance in S. Typhi isolates was associated with travel to Pakistan (aOR=3.5, 95 % CI: 2.4-5.2) and less likely with travel to India (aOR=0.07, 95 % CI 0.04-0.15) compared to travel elsewhere. All XDR cases were imported from Pakistan. No isolate was resistant to azithromycin. Comparison with the 2005-2012 London survey indicates substantial increases in the prevalence of resistance of S. Typhi isolates to ciprofloxacin associated with travel to Pakistan (from 79-98 %) and Africa (from 12-60 %).Conclusion. Third-generation cephalosporins and azithromycin remain appropriate choices for empirical treatment of enteric fever in most returning travellers to the UK from endemic countries, except from Pakistan, where XDR represents a significant risk.


Assuntos
Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Viagem , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Estudos Transversais , Gerenciamento Clínico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Febre Tifoide/história , Febre Tifoide/terapia , Febre Tifoide/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(8): 2069-2072, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34418032

RESUMO

We aimed to detect typhoid carriers by performing duodenal fluid culture in patients in a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted during 2017 at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. Participants were interviewed, and duodenal fluid samples were taken for culture to detect Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) and paratyphi. A polymerase chain reaction on 100 randomly selected sub-samples was also conducted. A total of 477 participants were enrolled. The mean age was 42.4±15.5 years. History of typhoid fever was present in 73 (15.3%) participants. Out of the 477 duodenal fluid cultures tested for various micro-organisms, 250 (52.4%) were positive. Neither S. typhi nor paratyphi were isolated. S. typhi was also not detected by PCR. To better detect S. typhi carriage in general population, future studies should target people with gall bladder diseases and screen them using culture and PCR based methods.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Adulto , Portador Sadio/diagnóstico , Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salmonella typhi , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 30(3): 725-737, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226462

RESUMO

Multi-drug resistant Typhoid fever (resistant to previously used chloramphenicol, ampicillin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) has been commonly described in the South East Asia region and a recent report suggests that the salmonella typhi have reduced response to fluoroquinolones (nalidixic acid-resistant). The optimum treatment protocol for this type of serovar has not been established. This study compared different antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of uncomplicated typhoid fever which was conducted in the medicine ward of Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH) and outdoor setting in private practice in Dhaka metropolitan city, Mymensingh and Sylhet town from January 2017 to December 2017. Bangladeshi adults with uncomplicated typhoid fever were included in this an open-label randomized controlled trial. Ciprofloxacin (20mg/kg of body weight/day for 14 days), azithromycin (20mg/kg/day for 14 days), and Cefixime (16mg/kg/day for 14 days) were compared. Of the 81 enrolled patients, 62 were eligible for analysis (61 S. enterica serovar Typhi, 1 Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A). Of the S enterica serovar Typhi isolates, 88.7% (55/62) were MDR and 93.5% (58/62) were nalidixic acid resistant (NAR). The clinical cure rate was 62% (13/21) with ciprofloxacin, 71% (15/21) with Cefixime, and 85% (17/20) with azithromycin (p=0.053). The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) fever clearance time for patients treated with azithromycin (5.8 days [5.1 to 6.5 days]) was shorter than that for patients treated with cefixime (7.1 days [6.2 to 8.1 days]) and ciprofloxacin (8.2 days [7.2 to 9.2 days]) (p<0.001). All three antibiotics were well tolerated. A 7-day course of azithromycin can be successfully used in uncomplicated typhoid fever due to isolates of MDR S enterica serovar Typhi.


Assuntos
Azitromicina , Febre Tifoide , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Cefixima/uso terapêutico , Ciprofloxacina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
10.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(8): e1154-e1162, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) is a major public health problem in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and impact of the typhoid conjugate vaccine Typbar-TCV against S Typhi among children in an outbreak setting of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S Typhi in Pakistan. METHODS: This cohort study was done from Feb 21, 2018, to Dec 31, 2019. A census survey of all households located in the Qasimabad and Latifabad subdistricts of Hyderabad, Pakistan, was done at baseline, and 174 005 households were registered in the census. The Typbar-TCV immunisation campaign was initiated at temporary vaccination centres and 207 000 children aged 6 months to 10 years were vaccinated from Feb 21, 2018, to Dec 31, 2018. Social mobilisers informed parents about the vaccination process. Vaccination records were maintained electronically and linked with the household census surveys. Active surveillance for suspected and blood-culture-confirmed S Typhi was established in hospitals, clinics, and laboratories to assess the following outcomes: cases of suspected typhoid fever, culture-confirmed S Typhi, and antimicrobial resistance. An age-stratified cohort of 1100 vaccinated children was randomly selected from the vaccination registry, tested for Vi-IgG antibodies (data not reported), and followed up fortnightly (via telephone calls or household visits) until Dec 31, 2019, for ascertainment of outcomes during the study period. 20 847 vaccinated and unvaccinated children were randomly selected from the census registry as a quality control cohort and followed up from Oct 1 to Dec 31, 2019, for ascertainment of outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness against suspected, culture-confirmed, and XDR S Typhi was calculated. FINDINGS: 23 407 children from the census registry and surveillance system were included in the vaccine effectiveness analysis. 13 436 (57·4%) children were vaccinated, 12 214 (52·2%) were male, and 10 168 (43·4%) were aged 6-59 months. 5378 (23·0%) of 23 407 children had suspected S Typhi, among whom 775 (14·4%) had culture-confirmed S Typhi and 361 (68·6%) of 526 had XDR S Typhi. Vaccine effectiveness was 55% (95% CI 52-57) against suspected S Typhi (regardless of culture confirmation), 95% (93-96) against culture-confirmed S Typhi, and 97% (95-98) against XDR S Typhi. INTERPRETATION: Typbar-TCV is effective in protecting children against S Typhi infection in an outbreak setting, and was able, with moderate deployment, to curtail a major XDR S Typhi outbreak in a densely populated setting. The vaccine shows efficacy against S Typhi irrespective of antimicrobial resistance. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Salmonella enterica/genética , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
11.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 51(2): 129-132, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pakistan is one of the endemic regions for typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. This study aimed to identify the evolving antimicrobial sensitivity patterns of Salmonella species causing enteric fever and its implications on the clinical prescribing of antimicrobials. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at a university hospital. Antimicrobial resistance was defined in terms of non-resistant, multidrug resistant (MDR) and extended drug resistant (XDR) as per WHO guidance. Data were collected from the years 2009 and 2019. Chi squared was applied to test for statistical significance (p < 0.05). RESULTS: A total of 200 patients (100 from 2009 and 100 from 2019) were included in the study. Non-resistant enteric fever cases reduced from 100% in 2009 to 44% in 2019, whereas the MDR and XDR enteric fever cases increased to 16% and 40%, respectively (p < 0.05). Cross tabulation carried out for individual drugs showed an independent rise in the sensitivities of individual first-line antimicrobials. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial resistant enteric fever has become a big challenge for Pakistan. The choice of antibiotic prescription has narrowed down to broader spectrum antimicrobials making it difficult to treat, leading to increased morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella paratyphi A , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
12.
Vaccine ; 39(30): 4089-4098, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: World Health Organization has prequalified the use of typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV) in children over six months of age in typhoid endemic countries. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of introducing TCV separately for urban and rural areas of India. METHODS: A decision analytic model was developed, using a societal perspective, to compare long-term costs and outcomes (3% discount rate) in a new-born cohort of 100,000 children immunized with or without TCV. Three vaccination scenarios were modelled, assuming the protective efficacy of TCV to last for 5, 10 and 15 years following immunization. Incidence of typhoid infection estimated under 'National Surveillance System for Enteric Fever' (NSSEFI)' was used. The prices of vaccine and cost of service delivery were included for vaccination arm. Both health system cost and out-of-pocket expenditures for treatment of typhoid illness and its complications was included. RESULTS: TCV introduction in urban areas would result in prevention of 17% to 36% typhoid cases and deaths. With exclusion of indirect costs, the incremental cost per QALY gained was ₹ 151,346 (54,730-307,975), ₹ 61,710 (-5250 to 163,283) and ₹ 45,188 (-17,069 to 141,093) for scenario 1, 2 and 3 respectively. While, with inclusion of indirect costs, all 3 scenarios were cost saving. Further, in rural areas, TCV is estimated to reduce the typhoid cases and deaths by 19% to 36%, with ICER (incremental cost per QALY gained) ranging from ₹ 2340 (1316-4370) to ₹ 3574 (2057 - 6691) thousand (inclusive of indirect costs) among the 3 vaccination scenarios. CONCLUSION: From a societal perspective, introduction of TCV is a cost saving strategy in urban India. Further, due to low incidence of typhoid infection, introduction of TCV is not cost-effective in rural settings of India.


Assuntos
Febre Tifoide , Vacinas Tíficas-Paratíficas , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Índia/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinação , Vacinas Conjugadas
14.
J Glob Health ; 11: 04031, 2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131486

RESUMO

Background: This review assessed the case definitions, diagnostic criteria, antimicrobial resistance, and methods used for enteric fever outbreaks and utilization of any unified outbreak score or checklist for early identification and response in Asia and Africa from 1965-2019. Methods: We searched enteric fever outbreaks using PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane library. Studies describing a single outbreak event of enteric fever in Asia and Africa from 1965-2019 were reviewed. We excluded case reports, letter to editors, studies reporting typhoid in conjunction with other diseases, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) trip reports, the World Health Organization (WHO) bulletins report, data from mathematical modeling and simulation studies, reviews and ProMed alert. Also, non-typhoidal salmonella outbreaks were excluded. Results: A total of 5063 articles were identified using the key terms and 68 studies were selected for data extraction. Most (48, 71%) outbreaks were from Asian countries, 20 (29%) were reported from Africa. Only 15 studies reported the case definition used for case identification during an outbreak and 8 of those were from Asia. A third (20, 29%) of the studies described antibiotic resistance pattern. 43 (63%) studies contained information regarding the source of the outbreak. Outcomes (hospitalization and deaths) were reported in a quarter of studies. Only 23 (29%) of the studies reported outbreak control strategies while none reported any unified outbreak score or a checklist to identify the outbreak. Conclusion: This review highlights the variability in detection and reporting methods for enteric fever outbreaks in Asia and Africa. No standardized case definitions or laboratory methods were reported. Only a few studies reported strategies for outbreak control. There is a need for the development of a unified outbreak score or a checklist to identify and report enteric fever outbreaks globally.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(6): 1639-1643, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To see the efficacy of rapid colour test for the sensitivity of ceftriaxone against clinical isolates of salmonella typhi. METHODS: The cross-sectional validation study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, Pakistan Navy Ship Shifa Hospital, Karachi, from Nov 2018 to April 2019, and comprised clinical isolates of salmonella typhi that were obtained from five different hospitals in Karachi and Hyderabad. The isolates were tested using the rapid colour test. All the isolates were also tested using the conventional disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations on the Vitek-2 version 8.01. RESULTS: Of the 97 isolates, 83(85.5%) were ceftriaxone-resistant and 14(14.4%) were ceftriaxone-sensitive. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid colour test were 100% when compared with the results of the other methods. All the results were readable within 2 hours on the colour test. CONCLUSIONS: The colour test was found to be a rapid, accurate and inexpensive tool to screen for ceftriaxone resistance in typhoid-endemic areas.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/diagnóstico , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8887266, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954201

RESUMO

Introduction: Typhoid fever (TF) is a febrile global health problem caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) with relatively high prevalence in low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. Identifying local prevalence and gaps in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) towards TF is recommended by the World Health Organization to implement preventive measures. Therefore, this study determined the prevalence of S. Typhi and KAP of febrile patients towards TF in Injibara General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to March 2020. A total of 237 patients were included conveniently. Data on KAP and demographic variables were collected using a structured questionnaire by face-to-face interview. After the interview, 5 ml venous blood was collected and processed using the Widal test following the manufacturer's instruction. Mean scores and percentages were used to determine the level of KAP. Multivariable analysis was done to correlate KAPs with TF. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of S. Typhi was 25.7%. The highest seroprevalence was observed among the age group of 30-34 years (33.3%) and patients with no education. The majority of participants know the major ways of TF transmission (59.1-90.7%) and prevention (81.4%) methods. However, the misconception on the route of TF transmission was observed in 13.5-36.7% of participants. About 65.4% and 67.5% of study participants were considered knowledgeable and had good preventive practice towards TF, respectively. Being a student (AOR = 0.227, CI = 0.053 - 0.965) and considering mosquito bite as transmission routes (AOR = 2.618, CI = 1.097 - 6.248) were significantly associated with TF. Conclusion: High S. Typhi prevalence was observed in the study area. Moreover, the misconception on the transmission of typhoid fever and educational level was a risk factor for TF. Thus, health facilities should incorporate topics on typhoid fever as part of their health education system within health facilities and in the community.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Gerais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Febre Tifoide/transmissão , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 162-169, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enteric fever (caused by Salmonella enterica) has been associated with poor hygiene and is endemic in the South-Asian countries. The increase in resistance to first line antimicrobials has been observed, while the emergence of multi/extremely drug resistance cases have been identified in several countries. The objective of this study is to analyze the current trend of antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolates in Nepal, and to identify the status of multi- and extremely- drug resistant isolates. METHODS: We recruited individuals at study hospitals with suspected enteric fever between September 2016 and August 2019 and performed blood cultures. The Salmonella isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and the antimicrobial resistance trend was evaluated. RESULTS: 1438 positive blood culture isolates were studied for antimicrobial resistance. 88% were culture positive for Salmonella Typhi and 12% for Salmonella Paratyphi. Multidrug resistant S. Typhi cases appeared mostly in December 2018 and January 2019, while there were no multidrug resistant S. Paratyphi cases. Also, extremely drug resistant S. Typhi cases were not observed during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The Salmonella isolates were mostly susceptible to first-line antimicrobials, cephalosporins and others. Many fluoroquinolones non-susceptible Salmonella were obtained, nevertheless their overall trend seems to be declining. In addition, the S. Paratyphi total cases are reducing since September 2017. Among S. Typhi isolates, only few were multidrug resistant and there were no extremely drug resistant isolates.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Febre Tifoide , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nepal/epidemiologia , Salmonella paratyphi A , Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009170, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651791

RESUMO

In Korea, typhoid fever is a rare disease due to improved living standards. However, typhoid fever remains a major burden in developing countries and regions, such as India and Southeast Asia. In this study, we isolated Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) from eight patients with typhoid fever who were travelers returning from India. The strains isolated were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility profiling and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis. All strains were resistant to nalidixic acid and azithromycin. Among them, four isolates were highly resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥32 µg/ml); these strains have not been confirmed in Korea PulseNet DB. According to WGS, the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains belong to the global dominant multidrug-resistant (MDR) haplotype H58 (SNP glpA C1047T, SptP protein Q185* (premature stop codon)) and do not harbor the MDR plasmid. H58-associated SNPs in membrane and metabolism genes, including yhdA, yajI, hyaE, tryE, rlpB and metH, are present. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis assigned the H58 strains to sublineage II, whereas the non-H58 strains are closely related to haplotype H50. The presence of high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant S. Typhi haplotype H58 in Korea was first confirmed as due to influx from overseas via travelers. This study provides information about intercontinental drug-resistant transmission between countries and suggests that travelers need to be careful about personal hygiene.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella typhi/classificação , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacina/farmacologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhi/genética , Salmonella typhi/isolamento & purificação , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia
20.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(6): 1459-1466, 2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are approximately 300 cases of enteric fever reported annually from England and Wales; most are imported infections. Clinical management of enteric fever remains a challenge with the emergence of ESBL-producing strains, especially XDR Salmonella Typhi from Sindh, Pakistan. METHODS: All strains of S. Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A isolated from cases presenting with symptoms of enteric fever in England and Wales, between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2020, were characterized using WGS. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using an agar dilution method. RESULTS: ESBL strains contributed to 69 cases of enteric fever (S. Typhi n = 68, S. Paratyphi A n = 1); 68 were imported (Pakistan n = 64, Iraq n = 2, Bangladesh n = 1 and India n = 1). Ages ranged from 1 to 56 years, 36/69 (52%) were children, 52% were female and the duration of hospital stay ranged from 1 to 23 days. The ESBL phenotype was conferred by the presence of blaCTX-M-15 (S. Typhi n = 67 and S. Paratyphi A n = 1) or blaCTX-M-55 (S. Typhi n = 1). An IncY plasmid harbouring blaCTX-M-15 and qnr was detected in 56 strains from Pakistan. The IncY plasmid was absent in the remaining strains and there was evidence of a 4 kb ISEcpl-blaCTX-M-15-tnp gene cassette insertion into the chromosome at one of three integration points. CONCLUSIONS: Chromosomal integration of blaCTX-M-15 within the XDR Sindh strains may lead to the maintenance of resistance in the absence of antibiotic selection pressure. Empirical treatment of cases of complicated enteric fever returning from Pakistan will henceforth have to include a carbapenem.


Assuntos
Salmonella typhi , Febre Tifoide , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Salmonella typhi/genética , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , beta-Lactamases/genética
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