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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 366-371, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546584

RESUMO

Co-epidemics happening simultaneously can generate a burden on healthcare systems. The co-occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 with vector-borne diseases (VBD), such as malaria and dengue in resource-limited settings represents an additional challenge to the healthcare systems. Herein, we assessed the coinfection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD to highlight the need to carry out an accurate diagnosis and promote timely measures for these infections in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. This was a cross-sectional study conducted with 105 subjects tested for the SARS-CoV-2 and VBD with a rapid detection test in April 2021. The participants tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (3.80%), malaria (13.3%), and dengue (27.6%). Low odds related to testing positivity to SARS-CoV-2 or VBD were observed in participants above or equal to 40 years (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60, p = 0.536), while higher odds were observed in male (OR: 1.44, p = 0.392) and urbanized areas (OR: 3.78, p = 0.223). The overall co-infection rate between SARS-CoV-2 and VBD was 11.4%. Our findings showed a coinfection between SARS-CoV-2 with malaria and dengue, which could indicate the need to integrate the screening for VBD in the SARS-CoV-2 testing algorithm and the adjustment of treatment protocols. Further studies are warranted to better elucidate the relationship between COVID-19 and VBD in Angola.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Angola/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste para COVID-19 , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
2.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(10): 11-12, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34781654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is a globally spreading infectious arboviral disease transmitted from a diurnal bite of the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes. It is a disease with sporadic outbreaks. It is now resurfacing in South East Asia especially in India, where it is found to have high mortality and morbidity and presenting with atypical presentation, especially with the neurotropic presentation. OBJECTIVE: To review clinical profile of patients who required admission in the Intensive care unit with atypical presentation of Chikungunya and to study their clinical spectrum and outcome over a course of three years in India. METHOD AND FINDINGS: Using Established guidelines, we conducted a prospective study in a Tertiary care center where we identified patients who required intensive care admissions and were admitted with complicated chikungunya infection and then evaluated their clinical progression of the disease. CONCLUSION: CHIKV infection is rapidly emerging in more than 100 countries and more and more atypical serious neurological manifestations are seen in elderly populations. Many of these patients have high morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Idoso , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45(5): 401-410, 2021.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738457

RESUMO

The relevant ecological changes due to the anthropological pressure on the planet is causing reactions in the biological systems, which we must understand and characterize at the local scale to assist the adoption of suitable decisions in the public health risk management. The project presented in this paper is focused on the vector-borne diseases, mainly transmitted by mosquitoes. The species of mosquito currently playing an active role of public health importance in Italy are Aedes albopictus, as a vector of Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses, as well as Culex pipiens, as a vector of West Nile and Usutu viruses. Predictive models are indicating the risk of introduction and establishment in the Mediterranean basin of Aedes aegypti, which is causing a mayor concern. The project has been conducted by the Emilia-Romagna, Piemonte, Veneto, Marche and Sicilia Regions, together with the Italian National Health Institute. The aim was to develop and pilot testing new approaches and technological tools possibly assisting the public health system in the management of the risk. The activities have been organized on six specific objectives: 1. Development and field testing of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquito species; 2. Creation of risk maps for Chikungunya, Dengue and Zika viruses based on the quantitative monitoring of Aedes albopictus populations; 3. Shaping web platform models assisting the sharing of data from/to actors involved in the integrated surveillance of West Nile at the regional level; 4. Developing communication formats dealing with vector borne diseases addressing citizen and specific categories; 5. Approaching the cost-benefit analysis in the view to assist decision makers; 6. Sero-surveillance on arboviruses not included in the Ministry directive (Tick Borne Encephalitis and Toscana virus). The achieved results are presented and the acquired experience is made available to promote the adoptions on a larger scale of the approaches and methods to be certainly adapted in the specific contexts. The one health approach seems suitable to address the necessities emerging in this field by taking into consideration the different triggers shaping the dynamics we are observing.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Culex , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
4.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0223, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are a growing global health problem. This study analyzed the spatial distribution of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika cases in São Luís, Maranhão, from 2015 to 2016 and investigated the association between socio-environmental and economic factors and hotspots for mosquito proliferation. METHODS: This was a socio-ecological study using data from the National Information System of Notifiable Diseases. The spatial units of analysis were census tracts. The incidence rates of the combined cases of the three diseases were calculated and smoothed using empirical local Bayes estimates. The spatial autocorrelation of the smoothed incidence rate was measured using Local Moran's I and Global Moran's I. Multiple linear regression and spatial autoregressive models were fitted using the log of the smoothed disease incidence rate as the dependent variable and socio-environmental factors, demographics, and mosquito hotspots as independent variables. RESULTS: The findings showed a significant spatial autocorrelation of the smoothed incidence rate. The model that best fit the data was the spatial lag model, revealing a positive association between disease incidence and the proportion of households with surrounding garbage accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika cases showed a significant spatial pattern, in which the high-risk areas for the three diseases were explained by the variable "garbage accumulated in the surrounding environment," demonstrating the need for an intersectoral approach for vector control and prevention that goes beyond health actions.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Incidência , Mosquitos Vetores , Análise Espacial , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 911, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential shift of major causes of febrile illnesses from malaria to non-malarial febrile illnesses, including arboviral diseases such as chikungunya and dengue, is of concern. The last outbreaks of these infections were reported in 2018 and 2019 for chikungunya in Zanzibar and dengue in Dar es Salaam. We conducted a cross-sectional study that involved serological testing of stored blood samples from the blood banks in Temeke Referral Hospital in Dar es Salaam and the National Blood Bank Unit in Zanzibar. The samples were collected from Zanzibar and Dar es Salaam donors in May and June 2020, respectively. A total of 281 samples were included in the study, and their demographic information extracted from the registers. The samples were then transported to Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences at the Microbiology Laboratory. They were subjected to an indirect ELISA to detect IgG and IgM against dengue and chikungunya viruses. RESULTS: Seropositive IgM samples from Dar es Salaam were 3/101 (2.97%) for chikungunya and 1/101 (0.9%) for dengue, while samples from Zanzibar were all IgM negative for both viruses. Chikungunya IgG seropositivity was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) in Dar es Salaam 21/101 (21.2%) than Zanzibar 22/180 (12.2%). There was no difference in dengue IgG seropositivity between Dar es Salaam 44/101 (43.5%) and Zanzibar 68/180 (37.8%). Similarly, dual IgG seropositivity for both dengue and chikungunya viruses were not different between Dar es Salaam 13/101 (12.9%) and Zanzibar 11/180 (6.1%). CONCLUSION: Detection of IgM for dengue and chikungunya in Dar es Salaam indicates recent or ongoing transmission of the two viruses in the absence of a reported outbreak. These findings suggest the possibility of transmission of the two infections through blood transfusion. Detection of IgG antibodies for dengue and chikungunya viruses might be contributed by both; the ongoing infections and residual responses caused by preceding infections in the country. Results from blood banks may represent the tip of the iceberg. Further studies are needed to gain insight into the actual burden of the two diseases in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Doadores de Sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
6.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 37(3): 157-160, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407170

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is primarily transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and is responsible for reemerging disease internationally. Container habitats of immature Aedes mosquitoes are often found around residential areas, thus water-holding container investigation is an important vector control strategy. This study aimed to survey mosquito species in container inhabiting stages and water-holding containers associated with the CHIKV outbreak in urban areas within the 4 villages of Hat Yai district in Songkhla province during 2019. The results indicated that of the 75 houses surveyed, 34 had water-holding containers; 78 out of 438 containers were positive for mosquitoes; and 34 were positive for mosquito stages. The house index (HI), Breteau index (BI), container index (CI), and pupal index (PI) were 46.87, 93.75, 14.92, and 271.88 for case houses, respectively. Specific container index (SCI) showed discarded containers such as bottles, cans, and tires. The findings suggest that Aedes aegypti was predominant in the surveyed urban area and might be the vector responsible for CHIKV transmission in Songkhla province.


Assuntos
Aedes , Febre de Chikungunya , Dengue , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ecossistema , Tailândia
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 271-280, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV), and Zika (ZIKV) viruses in Tanzania. METHODS: The study covered the districts of Buhigwe, Kalambo, Kilindi, Kinondoni, Kondoa, Kyela, Mvomero, and Ukerewe in Tanzania. Blood samples were collected from individuals recruited from households and healthcare facilities. An ELISA was used to screen for immunoglobulin G antibodies against CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV. RESULTS: A total of 1818 participants (median age 34 years) were recruited. The overall CHIKV, DENV, and ZIKV seroprevalence rates were 28.0%, 16.1%, and 6.8%, respectively. CHIKV prevalence was highest in Buhigwe (46.8%), DENV in Kinondoni (43.8%), and ZIKV in Ukerewe (10.6%) and Mvomero (10.6%). Increasing age and frequent mosquito bites were significantly associated with CHIKV and DENV seropositivity (P < 0.05). Having piped water or the presence of stagnant water around the home (P < 0.01) were associated with higher odds of DENV seropositivity. Fever was significantly associated with increased odds of CHIKV seropositivity (P < 0.001). Visiting mines had higher odds of ZIKV seropositivity (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that DENV, CHIKV, and ZIKV are circulating in diverse ecological zones of Tanzania. There is a need to strengthen the control of mosquito-borne viral diseases in Tanzania.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Adulto , Animais , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
8.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2895-2899, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351521

RESUMO

After the 2005-2009 chikungunya epidemic, intermittent outbreaks were reported in many parts of India. The outbreaks were caused by either locally circulating strains or imported viruses. Virus transmission routes can be traced by complete genome sequencing studies. We investigated two outbreaks in 2014 and 2019 in Kerala, India. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated from the samples, and whole genomes were sequenced for a 2014 isolate and a 2019 isolate. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolates formed a separate group with a 2019 isolate from Pune, Maharashtra, and belonged to the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype, Indian subcontinent sublineage of the Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL). A novel mutation at amino acid position 76 of the E2 gene was observed in the group. The phylogenetic results suggest that the outbreaks might have been caused by a virus that had been circulating in India since 2014. A detailed study is needed to investigate the evolution of CHIKV in India.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Vírus Chikungunya/classificação , Vírus Chikungunya/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mutação , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e188, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338179

RESUMO

In 2015-2016, simultaneous circulation of dengue, Zika and chikungunya in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) was reported. We conducted an ecological study to analyse the spatial distribution of dengue, Zika and chikungunya cases and to investigate socioeconomic factors associated with individual and combined disease incidence in 2015-2016. We then constructed thematic maps and analysed the bivariate global Moran indices. Classical and spatial models were used. A distinct spatial distribution pattern for dengue, Zika and chikungunya was identified in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The bivariate global Moran indices (P < 0.05) revealed negative spatial correlations between rates of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and combined arboviruses incidence and social development index and mean income. The regression models (P < 0.05) identified a negative relationship between mean income and each of these rates and between sewage and Zika incidence rates, as well as a positive relationship between urban areas and chikungunya incidence rates. In our study, spatial analysis techniques helped to identify high-risk and social determinants at the local level for the three arboviruses. Our findings may aid in backing effective interventions for the prevention and control of epidemics of these diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Aedes/virologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/transmissão , Epidemias , Humanos , Incidência , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise Espacial , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009735, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is now of public health concern globally due to its re-emergence in endemic areas and introduction into new areas of the world. Worldwide, the vectors for transmission of the chikungunya virus are Aedes mosquitoes and these are prevalent in Ghana. Despite its global significance, the true burden of chikungunya virus infection in Ghana is largely unknown and the threat of outbreak remains high owing to international travel. This study sought to determine chikungunya virus infection among febrile patients suspected of having malaria infections at some selected health facilities in the Ashanti, Bono East, and Bono Regions of Ghana. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study recruited six hundred (600) febrile patients suspected of having malaria who submitted their clinical samples to the laboratories of the selected health facilities for the diagnosis of their infections. Five to ten millilitres (5-10ml) of venous blood were collected from each study participant. Sera were separated and tested for anti-chikungunya (IgM and IgG) antibodies using InBios ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. Samples positive for chikungunya IgM and IgG were selected and tested for chikungunya virus RNA using Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test kits were used to screen the participants for malaria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic and clinical information of the study participants. RESULT: Of the 600 samples tested, the overall seroprevalence of chikungunya was 6%. The seroprevalence of chikungunya IgM and IgG antibodies were 1.8% and 4.2% respectively. None of the chikungunya IgM and IgG positive samples tested positive for chikungunya RNA by RT-qPCR. Of the 600 samples, tested 32.3% (194/600) were positive for malaria parasites. Malaria and chikungunya co-infection was detected in 1.8% (11/600) of the participants. CONCLUSION: Findings from the current study indicate low-level exposure to the chikungunya virus suggesting the virus is circulating and potentially causing morbidity in Ghana.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Febre/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 881, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of Zika and chikungunya to dengue hyperendemic regions increased interest in better understanding characteristics of these infections. We conducted a cohort study in Mexico to evaluate the natural history of Zika infection. We describe here the frequency of Zika, chikungunya and dengue virus infections immediately after Zika introduction in Mexico, and baseline characteristics of participants for each type of infection. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort evaluating the natural history of Zika virus infection in the Mexico-Guatemala border area. Patients with fever, rash or both, meeting the modified criteria of PAHO for probable Zika cases were enrolled (June 2016-July 2018) and followed-up for 6 months. We collected data on sociodemographic, environmental exposure, clinical and laboratory characteristics. Diagnosis was established based on viral RNA identification in serum and urine samples using RT-PCR for Zika, chikungunya, and dengue. We describe the baseline sociodemographic and environmental exposure characteristics of participants according to diagnosis, and the frequency of these infections over a two-year period immediately after Zika introduction in Mexico. RESULTS: We enrolled 427 participants. Most patients (n = 307, 65.7%) had an acute illness episode with no identified pathogen (UIE), 37 (8%) Zika, 82 (17.6%) dengue, and 1 (0.2%) chikungunya. In 2016 Zika predominated, declined in 2017 and disappeared in 2018; while dengue increased after 2017. Patients with dengue were more likely to be men, younger, and with lower education than those with Zika and UIE. They also reported closer contact with water sources, and with other people diagnosed with dengue. Participants with Zika reported sexual exposure more frequently than people with dengue and UIE. Zika was more likely to be identified in urine while dengue was more likely found in blood in the first seven days of symptoms; but PCR results for both were similar at day 7-14 after symptom onset. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 2 years of Zika introduction to this dengue hyper-endemic region, frequency of Zika peaked and fell over a two-year period; while dengue progressively increased with a predominance in 2018. Different epidemiologic patterns between Zika, dengue and UIE were observed. Trial registration Clinical.Trials.gov (NCT02831699).


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Dengue/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(7): e1009174, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214074

RESUMO

Zika virus (ZIKV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were recently introduced into the Americas resulting in significant disease burdens. Understanding their spatial and temporal dynamics at the subnational level is key to informing surveillance and preparedness for future epidemics. We analyzed anonymized line list data on approximately 105,000 Zika virus disease and 412,000 chikungunya fever suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases during the 2014-2017 epidemics. We first determined the week of invasion in each city. Out of 1,122, 288 cities met criteria for epidemic invasion by ZIKV and 338 cities by CHIKV. We analyzed risk factors for invasion using linear and logistic regression models. We also estimated that the geographic origin of both epidemics was located in Barranquilla, north Colombia. We assessed the spatial and temporal invasion dynamics of both viruses to analyze transmission between cities using a suite of (i) gravity models, (ii) Stouffer's rank models, and (iii) radiation models with two types of distance metrics, geographic distance and travel time between cities. Invasion risk was best captured by a gravity model when accounting for geographic distance and intermediate levels of density dependence; Stouffer's rank model with geographic distance performed similarly well. Although a few long-distance invasion events occurred at the beginning of the epidemics, an estimated distance power of 1.7 (95% CrI: 1.5-2.0) from the gravity models suggests that spatial spread was primarily driven by short-distance transmission. Similarities between the epidemics were highlighted by jointly fitted models, which were preferred over individual models when the transmission intensity was allowed to vary across arboviruses. However, ZIKV spread considerably faster than CHIKV.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Epidemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção por Zika virus , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Vírus Chikungunya , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 704, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The co-circulation of types of arbovirus in areas where they are endemic increased the risk of outbreaks and limited the diagnostic methods available. Here, we analyze the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV at the serological and molecular level in patients with suspected infection with these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: In 2016, the Central Public Health Laboratory (LACEN) of Juazeiro do Norte received 182 plasma samples from patients who visited health facilities with symptoms compatible with arbovirus infection. The LACEN performed serological tests for detection of IgM/IgG to DENV and CHIKV. They then sent these samples to the Retrovirology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo and Faculty of Medical of the ABC where molecular analyses to confirm the infection by DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV were performed. The prevalence of IgM/IgG antibodies and of infections confirmed by RT-qPCR were presented with 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: In serologic analysis, 125 samples were positive for antibodies against CHIKV and all were positive for antibodies against DENV. A higher prevalence of IgG against CHIKV (63.20% with 95% CI: 45.76-70.56) than against DENV (95.05% with 95% CI: 78.09-98.12) was observed. When the samples were submitted to analysis by RT-qPCR, we observed the following prevalence: mono-infection by ZIKV of 19.23% (95% CI: 14.29-34.82) patients, mono-infection by CHIKV of 3.84% (95% CI: 2.01-5.44) and co-infection with ZIKV and CHIKV of 1.09% (95% CI: 0.89-4.56). CONCLUSION: The serologic and molecular tests performed in this study were effective in analyzing the epidemiological profile of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV in patients with suspected infection by these arboviruses in the city of Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará/Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Zika virus/imunologia , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/terapia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Medição de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Infecção por Zika virus/terapia
14.
Arq Bras Oftalmol ; 84(6): 549-553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320111

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify ocular manifestations in patients with Chikungunya fever in the chronic phase and describe their sociodemographic profile. METHODS: Patients with serologic confirmation of Chikungunya infection were included in this transverse study. All subjects underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation, including specific lacrimal function tests (tear break-up time test, Schirmer test, and lissamine green). RESULTS: Overall, 64 eyes of 32 patients were evaluated. Most patients were women (71.9%), with the mean age of 50.0 ±13.7 years. The mean interval between serologic confirmation and the examination was 12.7 ±7.7 months. Twenty patients (62%) presented with dry eye. No statistically significant association was observed between dry eye and infection diagnosis time (p=0.5546), age (p=0.9120), sex (p=1.00), race (p=0.2269), arthralgia in acute infection (p=0.7930), retro-orbital pain (p=0.3066), and conjunctivitis (p=1.00). CONCLUSION: Dry eye was the most prevalent manifestation observed. No signs of intraocular inflammation and affected visual acuity were observed.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Adulto , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Olho , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lágrimas
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009556, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The introduction of the bacterium Wolbachia (wMel strain) into Aedes aegypti mosquitoes reduces their capacity to transmit dengue and other arboviruses. Evidence of a reduction in dengue case incidence following field releases of wMel-infected Ae. aegypti has been reported previously from a cluster randomised controlled trial in Indonesia, and quasi-experimental studies in Indonesia and northern Australia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following pilot releases in 2015-2016 and a period of intensive community engagement, deployments of adult wMel-infected Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were conducted in Niterói, Brazil during 2017-2019. Deployments were phased across four release zones, with a total area of 83 km2 and a residential population of approximately 373,000. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of wMel deployments in reducing dengue, chikungunya and Zika incidence. An untreated control zone was pre-defined, which was comparable to the intervention area in historical dengue trends. The wMel intervention effect was estimated by controlled interrupted time series analysis of monthly dengue, chikungunya and Zika case notifications to the public health surveillance system before, during and after releases, from release zones and the control zone. Three years after commencement of releases, wMel introgression into local Ae. aegypti populations was heterogeneous throughout Niterói, reaching a high prevalence (>80%) in the earliest release zone, and more moderate levels (prevalence 40-70%) elsewhere. Despite this spatial heterogeneity in entomological outcomes, the wMel intervention was associated with a 69% reduction in dengue incidence (95% confidence interval 54%, 79%), a 56% reduction in chikungunya incidence (95%CI 16%, 77%) and a 37% reduction in Zika incidence (95%CI 1%, 60%), in the aggregate release area compared with the pre-defined control area. This significant intervention effect on dengue was replicated across all four release zones, and in three of four zones for chikungunya, though not in individual release zones for Zika. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that wMel Wolbachia can be successfully introgressed into Ae. aegypti populations in a large and complex urban setting, and that a significant public health benefit from reduced incidence of Aedes-borne disease accrues even where the prevalence of wMel in local mosquito populations is moderate and spatially heterogeneous. These findings are consistent with the results of randomised and non-randomised field trials in Indonesia and northern Australia, and are supportive of the Wolbachia biocontrol method as a multivalent intervention against dengue, chikungunya and Zika.


Assuntos
Aedes/microbiologia , Aedes/virologia , Febre de Chikungunya/transmissão , Dengue/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Wolbachia/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vírus da Dengue/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253953, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237098

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF), Chikungunya (CHIK), and Zika(ZIK) are among re-emerging arboviral diseases of major public health concern. Despite the proximity of the Gambella Region to South Sudan where arboviral cases have been recorded repeatedly the current epidemiological situation is unclear in this part of southwest Ethiopia. Therefore, we conducted a community-based seroprevalence survey of YF virus (YFV), CHIK virus (CHIKV), and ZIK virus (ZIKV) infections in two selected districts. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two locations of the Gambella region (Lare and Itang) to investigate the seroprevalence of these viruses' infections. Blood samples were collected from the study participants and screened for IgG antibodies specific to YFV and CHIKV infections using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). For the detection of ZIKV specific IgG antibodies, Blockade-of-binding ELISA was used. Data were analyzed using the STATA version 13.1 Softwares. A total of 150 individuals (96 males and 54 females, age ranging from 18 to 65 years, mean age ± SD = 35.92 ± 10.99) participated and provided blood samples. Among the 150 samples 135, 90, and 150 were screened for YFV, CHIKV, and ZIKV, respectively. Hence, 2.9% (95% CI: 1.1-7.7%), 15.6% (95% CI: 9.3-24.8%), and 27.3% (95% CI: 20.7-35.3%) of samples tested positive for IgG antibodies to YFV, CHIKV, and ZIKV infections, respectively. Among the individual seropositive for ZIKV, YFV and CHIKV, only six, one and three had a history of residence outside the Gambella region respectively. Agro-pastoral occupation was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IgG against CHIKV (AOR = 14.17; 95%CI: 2.30, 87.30) and residency in the Lare district (AOR = 11; 95%CI: 3.31, 39.81) was found to be significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IgG against ZIKV. Our findings revealed the occurrence of YFV, CHIKV and ZIKV infections in the study locations.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Febre de Chikungunya/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Viagem , Febre Amarela/sangue , Febre Amarela/imunologia , Adulto Jovem , Zika virus/fisiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/sangue , Infecção por Zika virus/imunologia
17.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(2): 187-193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270541

RESUMO

In American countries, simultaneously with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, epidemics caused by different arboviruses (dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses) are occurring. In Mexico, several of the strategies to control the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which transmits arboviruses, involve the interaction of health personnel with the community. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and home confinement measures have been implemented. To obey these measures and avoid the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission, the National Center for Preventive Programs and Disease Control (CENAPRECE) has presented the vector control strategy in the scenario of simultaneous dengue and COVID-19 transmission in Mexico. In this work, we mention the routine comprehensive mosquito control measures and describe the adaptations that have been made. Furthermore, we discuss the relevance of medical personnel training and supervision, especially focusing on the similarity of symptoms between both pathologies.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Pandemias , Animais , Infecções por Arbovirus/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Distanciamento Físico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 639, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection by chikungunya (CHIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) can cause a wide spectrum of clinical features, many of which are undifferentiated. Cytokines, which broadly also include chemokines and growth factors, have been shown to play a role in protective immunity as well as DENV and CHIKV pathogenesis. However, differences in cytokine response to both viruses remain poorly understood, especially in patients from countries where both viruses are endemic. Our study is therefore aimed to provide a comparative profiling of cytokine response induced by acute DENV and CHIKV infections in patients with similar disease stages and in experimental in vitro infections. METHODS: By using multiplex immunoassay, we compared host cytokine profiles between acute CHIKV and DENV infections by analysing serum cytokine levels of IL-1α, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-13, RANTES, MCP-3, eotaxin, PDGF-AB/BB, and FGF-2 from the sera of acute chikungunya and dengue fever patients. We further investigated the cytokine profile responses using experimental in vitro CHIKV and DENV infections of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). RESULTS: We found that both CHIKV and DENV-infected patients had an upregulated level of IL-8 and IL-4, with the highest IL-4 level observed in DENV-2 infected patients. Higher IL-8 level was also correlated with lower platelet count in dengue patients. IL-13 and MCP-3 downregulation was observed only in chikungunya patients, while conversely PDGF-AB/BB and FGF-2 downregulation was unique in dengue patients. Age-associated differential expression of IL-13, MCP-3, and IL-5 was also observed, while distinct kinetics of IL-4, IL-8, and FGF-2 expression between CHIKV and DENV-infected patients were identified. Furthermore, the unique pattern of IL-8, IL-13 and MCP-3, but not IL-4 expression was also recapitulated using experimental in vitro infection in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our study identified common cytokine response profile characterized by upregulation of IL-8 and IL-4 between CHIKV and DENV infection. Downregulation of IL-13 and MCP-3 was identified as a unique cytokine response profile of acute CHIKV infection, while distinct downregulation of PDGF-AB/BB and FGF-2 characterized the response from acute DENV infection. Our study provides an important overview of the host cytokine responses between CHIKV and DENV infection, which is important to further understand the mechanism and pathology of these diseases.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/imunologia , Vírus Chikungunya/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Vírus da Dengue/imunologia , Dengue/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/metabolismo , Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/imunologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/metabolismo , Dengue/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 63(3 May-Jun): 452-458, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098620

RESUMO

Objetivo. Describir y analizar el gasto de la Secretaría de Salud asociado con iniciativas de comunicación social de las campañas de prevención de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores (Zika, chikunguña y dengue) y la evaluación de impacto o resultados. Material y métodos. La in-formación se obtuvo de 690 contratos de prestación de servicios de comunicación social (2015-2017), asociados con dos declaraciones de emergencia epidemiológica (EE- 2-2015 y EE-1-2016). Resultados. Se concluye una débil evaluación de impacto del gasto público. No existe evidencia suficiente que demuestre la correspondencia del gasto en comunicación social con la efectividad y cumplimiento de las campañas. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos permiten definir recomendaciones para vigilar, transparentar y hacer más eficiente el gasto público. Existe información pública sobre el gasto; sin embargo, es necesario garantizar mecanismos de transparencia, trazabilidad de contratos y evaluación de impacto de las campañas.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/prevenção & controle , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/prevenção & controle , Comunicação em Saúde/economia , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle
20.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(6): e0009537, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143771

RESUMO

Three key elements are the drivers of Aedes-borne disease: mosquito infestation, virus circulating, and susceptible human population. However, information on these aspects is not easily available in low- and middle-income countries. We analysed data on factors that influence one or more of those elements to study the first chikungunya epidemic in Rio de Janeiro city in 2016. Using spatio-temporal models, under the Bayesian framework, we estimated the association of those factors with chikungunya reported cases by neighbourhood and week. To estimate the minimum temperature effect in a non-linear fashion, we used a transfer function considering an instantaneous effect and propagation of a proportion of such effect to future times. The sociodevelopment index and the proportion of green areas (areas with agriculture, swamps and shoals, tree and shrub cover, and woody-grass cover) were included in the model with time-varying coefficients, allowing us to explore how their associations with the number of cases change throughout the epidemic. There were 13627 chikungunya cases in the study period. The sociodevelopment index presented the strongest association, inversely related to the risk of cases. Such association was more pronounced in the first weeks, indicating that socioeconomically vulnerable neighbourhoods were affected first and hardest by the epidemic. The proportion of green areas effect was null for most weeks. The temperature was directly associated with the risk of chikungunya for most neighbourhoods, with different decaying patterns. The temperature effect persisted longer where the epidemic was concentrated. In such locations, interventions should be designed to be continuous and to work in the long term. We observed that the role of the covariates changes over time. Therefore, time-varying coefficients should be widely incorporated when modelling Aedes-borne diseases. Our model contributed to the understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of an urban Aedes-borne disease introduction in a tropical metropolitan city.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Temperatura , Aedes , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya , Cidades/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Ecossistema , Humanos , Mosquitos Vetores , Análise Espaço-Temporal
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