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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1113, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34715814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of dengue fever had been observed to change with time since its first outbreak in 2000 in Bangladesh. This report showed the clinical presentation of the 2019 outbreak in Bangladesh along with its comparison to previous outbreaks witnessed in this region. METHODS: This hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the largest tertiary care hospitals in Dhaka city. A total of 553 laboratory-confirmed and 194 probable dengue cases were interviewed. The clinical manifestation of the confirmed cases of the current outbreak was compared with three of the outbreak reports retrieved from the databases. R version 3.6.3 was used for data analysis. RESULTS: Among the confirmed cases, two-thirds were male (63.2%) and the average age was 27(± 11) years. Positive tests for NS1 and IgM were present in 99.6% (n = 525/527) and 82.6% (n = 38/46) of the cases, respectively. Thrombocytopenia was present in 66.1% of cases. Fever (100%) was common for all. Gastrointestinal (GIT) features, including abdominal pain (86.5%), anorexia and/or vomiting (69.6%), and Diarrhea (> 3 motions/day) (26.2%) were more frequent than typical rash and other pain symptoms. Hypotension was present in approximately a quarter of patients (25%). GIT features (anorexia, nausea, and/or vomiting) and hypotension were more common among adult participants while bleeding manifestation (melena and vaginal bleeding, p = 0.009 & 0.032) was more frequent in pediatric patients. Compared to outbreaks of 2008, 2016, and 2018, increasing trends in GIT symptoms e.g. anorexia, abdominal pain, and diarrhea were observed. While a negative trend in hemorrhagic manifestations (skin rash, melena, and conjunctival hemorrhage/hemorrhagic sclera) and arthralgia/joint pain were found. CONCLUSION: The present outbreak was noticeably characterized by GIT symptoms and hypotension in addition to the typical clinical features like rash and pain symptoms. An increasing trend in GIT features and decreasing trend in hemorrhagic manifestations was noted over the last decade of dengue outbreaks.


Assuntos
Dengue , Surtos de Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dengue/complicações , Dengue/diagnóstico , Dengue/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20569, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663823

RESUMO

The Brazilian Northern region registered a high incidence of COVID-19 cases, particularly in the state of Pará. The present study investigated the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 in a Brazilian Amazon region of 100,819 cases. An epidemiological, cross-sectional, analytical and demographic study, analyzing data on confirmed cases for COVID-19 available at the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance platform, was conducted. Variables such as, municipalities of residence, age, gender, signs and symptoms, comorbidities were included and associated with COVID-19 cases and outcomes. The spatial distribution was performed using the ArcGIS program. A total of 100,819 cases were evaluated. Overall, patients had the mean age of 42.3 years, were female (51.2%) and with lethality reaching 4.79% of cases. Main symptoms included fever (66.5%), cough (61.9%) and sore throat (39.8%). Regarding comorbidities, most of the patients presented cardiovascular disease (5.1%) and diabetes (4.2%). Neurological disease increased risk of death by nearly 15 times, followed by obesity (5.16 times) and immunodeficiency (5.09 time). The municipalities with the highest incidence rate were Parauapebas, Canaã dos Carajás and Jacareacanga. Similarity between the Lower Amazon, Marajó and Southwest mesoregions of Pará state were observed concerning the highest morbidity rates. The obtained data demonstrated that the majority of cases occurred among young adults, females, with the classic influenza symptoms and chronic diseases. Finally, data suggest that the highest incidences were no longer in the metropolitan region of the state. The higher lethality rate than in Brazil may be associated with the greater impacts of the disease in this Amazonian population, or factors associated with fragile epidemiological surveillance in the notification of cases of cure.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Tosse/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Análise de Regressão , Risco , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We planned this study to determine the clinical spectrum and compare incidence of multiorgan dysfunction in children hospitalized with scrub typhus with other etiologies of tropical fever. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Pediatric emergency and PICU services of a university teaching hospital situated in the sub-Himalayan region. PATIENT: Children aged 2 months to 14 years with acute undifferentiated fever of more than 5 days. INTERVENTIONS: Detailed fever workup was performed in all children. We compared scrub typhus IgM positive children (cases) with remaining febrile children who were negative for scrub IgM assay (controls) for mortality and morbidity. MAIN RESULTS: We enrolled 224 febrile children; 76 children (34%) were positive for scrub typhus IgM ELISA. Scrub typhus group had a significantly higher incidence of multiorgan dysfunction [OR 3.5 (95% CI 2.0-6.3); p < 0.001] as compared to non-scrub typhus group requiring supportive care. The incidence of altered sensorium [OR 8.8 (95% CI 3.1-24.9)], seizures [OR 3.0 (95% CI 1.1-8.3)], acute respiratory distress syndrome [OR 17.1 (95% CI 2.1-140.1)], acute renal failure (5% vs. 0%), meningitis [OR 6.2 (95% CI 1.2-31.6)], thrombocytopenia [OR 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.1)], transaminitis [OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.6-4.8)], requirement of oxygen [OR 17.8 (95% CI 4.0-80.3)], positive pressure support [OR 3.7 (95% CI 1.2-10.5)] and shock requiring inotropes [OR 3.0 (95% CI 1.3-6.7)] was significantly higher in scrub typhus group as compared to the non-scrub typhus group (Table 1). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric scrub typhus who were hospitalized had severe systemic manifestations when compared to other causes of fever.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Índia , Estudos Prospectivos , Tifo por Ácaros/complicações , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 712190, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513787

RESUMO

Fever is one of the typical symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We aimed to investigate the association between early fever (EF) and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. A total of 1,014 COVID-19 patients at the Leishenshan Hospital were enrolled and classified into the EF and non-EF groups based on whether they had fever within 5 days of symptom onset. Risk factors for clinical outcomes in patients with different levels of disease severity were analyzed using multivariable analyses. Time from symptom onset to symptom alleviation, CT image improvement, and discharge were longer for patients with moderate and severe disease in the EF group than in the non-EF group. Multivariable analysis showed that sex, EF, eosinophil number, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 levels were positively correlated with the time from symptom onset to hospital discharge in moderate cases. The EF patients showed no significant differences in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, compared with the non-EF patients. The Kaplan-Meier curve showed no obvious differences in survival between the EF and non-EF patients. However, EF patients with increased temperature showed markedly lower survival than the non-EF patients with increased temperature. EF had no significant impact on the survival of critically ill patients, while an increase in temperature was identified as an independent risk factor. EF appears to be a predictor of longer recovery time in moderate/severe COVID-19 infections. However, its value in predicting mortality needs to be considered for critically ill patients with EF showing increasing temperature.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Estado Terminal , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(9): 11-12, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34585890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is known from various parts of India. However Central India was naive to any epidemics of scrub typhus with occasional and sporadic occurrence now and then. This part of India witnessed an outbreak of scrub typhus in the months of August and September 2018. Therefore present research was carried out with an objective to study the clinical profile and treatment outcome in scrub typhus patients in central India. METHOD: In this study, total 140 patients with an acute febrile illness diagnosed as scrub typhus by positive IgM antibodies against O. tsutsugamushi were enrolled, over a period of two months (August to October 2018). All relevant data were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Among 140 cases, 52.14% patients reported from urban area and 47.85% patients from rural area. The mean age of patients was 43.75±16.82 years, ranged from 12-83 years with female predominance (male: female-1:1.37). Fever (100%), cough (38.57%) breathlessness (27.85%), altered sensorium (9.28%) and headache (7.85%) were the predominant clinical features. Eschar was seen in 33 patients (23.57 %). Renal (73; 52.14%) and hepatic dysfunction (68; 48.57%) was the commonest followed by respiratory dysfunction (59; 42.14%). All patients (except pregnant patients) were treated with oral or inj doxycycline. Seventeen patients needed mechanical ventilation and five patients required dialysis. Total 24 (17.14%) patients died during the study period. CONCLUSION: Scrub typhus has become a leading infectious disease in central India and an important cause of infectious fever. An increasing awareness of this disease coupled with prompt management will go a long way in reducing both morbidity and mortality from this disease.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi , Tifo por Ácaros , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Doxiciclina , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , Tifo por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9048, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526516

RESUMO

Although the clinical practice guideline for outpatient management of febrile neutropenia (FN) in adults treated for malignancy was updated by the ASCO/IDSA in 2018, most patients with FN in our hospital have been hospitalized. We performed this study to analyze the usefulness of the guideline. The medical records of patients hospitalized for FN in Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital from May 2016 to April 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. The feasibility of candidates for outpatient management according to the guideline was evaluated based on the outcomes. A total of 114 patients were enrolled and categorized into two groups, low-risk (38.6%) and high-risk (61.4%). The proportion of feasible candidates for outpatient management was 70.2% and was higher in the low-risk than in the high-risk group (90.0% vs. 57.1%; P < 0.001). The low-risk group had no mortality, no resistance to oral amoxicillin/clavulanate or ciprofloxacin, a higher rate of successful empirical antibiotics, and lower rates of glycopeptide or carbapenem administration. A significant number of hospitalized cancer patients treated for FN after chemotherapy were found to be feasible candidates for outpatient management. The guideline can be a useful tool to reduce labor of healthcare workers and hospitalization costs.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Neutropenia/etiologia , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Gerenciamento Clínico , Neutropenia Febril/diagnóstico , Neutropenia Febril/epidemiologia , Neutropenia Febril/etiologia , Neutropenia Febril/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/terapia , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5539, 2021 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545081

RESUMO

The increasing burden of tick-borne orthonairovirus infections, such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, is becoming a global concern for public health. In the present study, we identify a novel orthonairovirus, designated Yezo virus (YEZV), from two patients showing acute febrile illness with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia after tick bite in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2019 and 2020, respectively. YEZV is phylogenetically grouped with Sulina virus detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Romania. YEZV infection has been confirmed in seven patients from 2014-2020, four of whom were co-infected with Borrelia spp. Antibodies to YEZV are found in wild deer and raccoons, and YEZV RNAs have been detected in ticks from Hokkaido. In this work, we demonstrate that YEZV is highly likely to be the causative pathogen of febrile illness, representing the first report of an endemic infection associated with an orthonairovirus potentially transmitted by ticks in Japan.


Assuntos
Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/virologia , Nairovirus/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Febre/sangue , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Ixodes/virologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nairovirus/genética , Nairovirus/imunologia , Nairovirus/ultraestrutura , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Vírion/ultraestrutura
9.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(9): e184-e188, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data on invasive bacterial infection (IBI), defined as bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis, in febrile infants aged <60 days old primarily derive from smaller, dated studies conducted at large, university-affiliated medical centers. Our objective with the current study was to determine current prevalence and epidemiology of IBI from a contemporary, national cohort of well-appearing, febrile infants at university-affiliated and community-based hospitals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective review of well-appearing, febrile infants aged 7 to 60 days was performed across 31 community-based and 44 university-affiliated centers from September 2015 to December 2017. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture results were reviewed and categorized by using a priori criteria for pathogenic organisms. Prevalence estimates and subgroup comparisons were made by using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: A total of 10 618 febrile infants met inclusion criteria; cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures were tested from 6747 and 10 581 infants, respectively. Overall, meningitis prevalence was 0.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.2-0.5); bacteremia prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.7). Neonates aged 7 to 30 days had significantly higher prevalence of bacteremia, as compared with infants in the second month of life. IBI prevalence did not differ between community-based and university-affiliated hospitals (2.7% [95% CI: 2.3-3.1] vs 2.1% [95% CI: 1.7-2.6]). Escherichia coli and Streptococcus agalactiae were the most commonly identified organisms. CONCLUSIONS: This contemporary study of well-appearing, febrile infants supports previous epidemiological estimates of IBI prevalence and suggests that the prevalence of IBI may be similar among community-based and university-affiliated hospitals. These results can be used to aid future clinical guidelines and prediction tool development.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Infecções Bacterianas , Meningites Bacterianas , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Meningites Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257080, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492080

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Armed conflicts result in greater vulnerability and socioeconomic inequality of populations besides risking their health and well-being. Conflict intensifies the health needs and risks the life and well-being of individuals at large through displacement. Therefore, our study aims to apprise the interventions to which children under-five living in Jordan are especially at risk for acute respiratory infections, diarrhea, and fever in the conflict circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Secondary data analysis is used in the present study. We used a weighted sample of around 9650 children from Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS), 2017-18. Bivariate analysis including prevalence rates were used to examine the distribution of socio-demographic characteristics of children. The study has also used multinomial logistic regression model, in order to evaluate the variations in the probability of nationality of under-five children living in Jordan. RESULTS: "Syrian nationalist" children have a higher relative risk of ARI (RRR = 1.19, [1.08, 1.32]), and "Other-nationalist" children have two times greater risk of ARI compared to "Jordanian children." The relative risk of diarrhea is lower among "Syrian nationalist" and "Other-nationalist" children compared to "Jordanian children." Children belong "Other-nationalist" are found to be less relative risk of fever (RRR = 0.9, [0.80, 1.01]) than "Jordanian children." CONCLUSIONS: Our study concludes that conflict-driven displacement has an immediate effect on child health through access, availability, and affordability of health care services, resulting in more significant health care risks. However, sufficient investment is required to address such adversities that affect the health care system due to uneven demand as experienced by the Jordanian health care system. Thus, collaborative efforts through global partners can play a significant role in the countries facing the challenges of managing these health care emergencies.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados , Saúde da Criança , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Mães , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Refugiados , Análise de Regressão , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Síria , Adulto Jovem
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(32): e26485, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397870

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is commonly used for the treatment of upper urinary calculi in clinical setting, and fever is a common complication after PCNL. It is necessary to evaluate the risk factors of fever in patients undergoing PCNL, to provide insights into the management of PCNL.Patients who underwent PCNL in our hospital from January 2018 to August 2020 were included. The clinical data of postoperative fever and no fever patients were collected and assessed. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to analyze the risk factors for fever in patients undergoing PCNL.A total of 276 patients undergoing PCNL were included, the incidence of postoperative fever for patients undergoing PCNL was 19.39%. No significant differences in the gender, body mass index, alcohol drinking, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, intraoperative blood infusion, length of hospital stay between fever patients, and no fever patients were found (all P > .05). There were significant differences in the age, diabetes, size of stones, duration of surgery between fever patients, and no fever patients (all P < .05). Age ≥60 years (odds ratio [OR] 2.143, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.101∼3.264), diabetes (OR 2.218, 95% CI 1.176∼4.642), size of stone ≥2 cm (OR 1.428, 95%CI 1.104∼2.055), duration of surgery ≥100 minutes (OR 1.334, 95% CI 1.015∼1.923) were the risk factors for fever in patients with PCNL (all P < .05). Escherichia coli (48.44%), Staphylococcus aureus (18.75%), and Candida albicans (10.93%) were the top 3 pathogenic bacteria of urine culture.Fever is one of the common complications after PCNL. Patients with high-risk factors should be given full attentions and take corresponding preventive measures targeted on risks.


Assuntos
Febre/epidemiologia , Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444014

RESUMO

Setting off a global pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been marked by a heterogeneous clinical presentation that runs the gamut from asymptomatic to severe and fatal. Although less lethal in children than adults, COVID-19 has nonetheless afflicted the pediatric population. This systematic review used clinical information from published literature to assess the spectrum of COVID-19 presentation in children, with special emphasis on characteristics associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). An electronic literature search for English and Chinese language articles in COVIDSeer, MEDLINE, and PubMed from 1 January 2020 through 1 March 2021 returned 579 records, of which 54 were included for full evaluation. Out of the total 4811 patients, 543 (11.29%) exhibited MIS-C. The most common symptoms across all children were fever and sore throat. Children presenting with MIS-C were less likely to exhibit sore throat and respiratory symptoms (i.e., cough, shortness of breath) compared to children without MIS-C. Inflammatory (e.g., rash, fever, and weakness) and gastrointestinal (e.g., nausea/vomiting and diarrhea) symptoms were present to a greater extent in children with both COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting that children testing positive for COVID-19 and exhibiting such symptoms should be evaluated for MIS-C.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Criança , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 862, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serious bacterial infection rates in febrile infants < 60 days are about 8-11%. Less than 1% of febrile infants with no respiratory symptoms will have pneumonia however, chest radiography (CXR) rates remain between 30 and 60%. Rapid Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and influenza (flu) testing is common, however, there is not enough data to determine if febrile infants without any respiratory symptoms should be tested. The goal of this study is to determine the rate of positive CXR and RSV/flu results in febrile infants with no respiratory symptoms and no sick contacts. METHODS: Well-appearing febrile infants between 7 and 60 days of age who presented to the pediatric emergency department (PED) from September 1st, 2015 through October 30th, 2017 were enrolled. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, CXR findings and RSV/flu results were collected. SAS statistical software was used for analysis. RESULTS: 129 infants met enrollment criteria. Of the 129 infants, 58 (45.0%) had no respiratory symptoms and no sick contacts. Of these 58, 36 (62.1%) received a CXR and none of them had any abnormal findings, 48 (82.8%) had RSV/flu testing, no patients tested positive for RSV and only one patient tested positive for flu. Costs of CXR and RSV/flu testing for this cohort was $19,788. CONCLUSION: The absence of positive CXRs in this patient population reinforces the current recommendations that CXR is not indicated. The low incidence of RSV/flu indicate that routine testing may not be necessary in this population especially outside of the flu season. Reduced testing could decrease overall costs to the healthcare system as well as radiation exposure to this population.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Criança , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico por imagem , Radiografia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia
15.
Arch Pediatr ; 28(7): 553-558, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34400055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of serious bacterial infections (SBIs) in infants less than 90 days old presenting with fever on arrival at the emergency department (ED), and to assess the diagnostic management of febrile infants. DESIGN: A retrospective study at Mamoudzou Hospital, Mayotte Island, French Department. SETTING: General ED in the only pediatric hospital throughout the territory PATIENTS: We included infants less than 90 days old with a history of fever and bacterial investigation evaluated in the ED between 2016 and 2018. We excluded preterm infants (gestational age < 37 weeks) and those with known immunodeficiency or previous administration of antibiotics. RESULTS: A total of 594 infants were included. In all, 105 infants (17.7%) were diagnosed with an SBI and 28 (4.7%) with an invasive bacterial infection of which 1.34% was meningitis. The most frequent SBI was pneumonia (n = 69, 11.6%) followed by urinary tract infection (UTI; n = 37, 6.2%). Predominant pathogens (excluding contaminants) were Escherichia coli (51.2% of the UTI cases), group B Streptococcus (62.5% of meningitis cases), and Staphylococcus aureus (61.5% of bacteremia cases). Seven infants presented with bacterial pneumonia due to Staphylococcus aureus with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) exotoxin production. Ill-appearing infants, clinical signs of SBI and complex chronic condition were associated with a risk of SBI (respective odds ratio [OR]: 4.6, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3-6.9; OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.8-6.4; and OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.5). The median age for SBI was 42 days (5-90). Fever without source (FWS) occurred more often in infants under 21 days of age (48.5% vs. 31.3% in older infants, p < 0.001). The median duration of fever at home was 24 h (6-96). Concerning management, in infants aged under 21 days, there were more lumbar punctures (58.3% vs. 23% in older infants, p < 0.001) and more frequent initiation of empiric antibiotics (62.6% vs. 42.7%, p < 0.001). Length of stay was also longer in this age range (5 days vs. 3 days, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: Delay in medical consultation in the case of fever, the risk of SBI regardless of age, and unusual epidemiology with many IBI due to Staphylococcus aureus with PVL exotoxin production are specific characteristics observed in our study. Knowledge of the current epidemiology of SBI in Mayotte would be useful for setting up a risk-stratified protocol in this population in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Variância , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos/normas , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/etiologia , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009670, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403427

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fever with jaundice is a common symptom of some infectious diseases. In public health surveillance within the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), yellow fever is the only recognized cause of fever with jaundice. However, only 5% of the surveillance cases are positive for yellow fever and thus indicate the involvement of other pathogens. Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of leptospirosis, a widespread bacterial zoonosis, a known cause of fever with jaundice. This study aimed to determine the seropositivity of anti-Leptospira antibodies among suspected yellow fever cases and map the geographical distribution of possible leptospirosis in the DRC. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using 1,300 samples from yellow fever surveillance in the DRC from January 2017 to December 2018. Serum samples were screened for the presence of IgM against Leptospira spp. by a whole cell-based IgM ELISA (Patoc-IgM ELISA) at the Institut National de Recherche Biomedicale in Kinshasa (INRB) according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidance. Exploratory univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were undertaken to assess associations between socio-demographic factors and the presence of Leptospira IgM. RESULTS: Of the 1,300 serum samples screened, 88 (7%) showed evidence of IgM against Leptospira spp. Most positive cases (34%) were young adult males in the 20-29-year group. There were statistically significant associations between having Leptospira IgM antibodies, age, sex, and living area. Observed positive cases were mostly located in urban settings, and the majority lived in the province of Kinshasa. There was a statistically significant association between seasonality and IgM Leptospira spp. positivity amongst those living in Kinshasa, where most of the positive cases occurred during the rainy season. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that leptospirosis is likely an overlooked cause of unexplained cases of fever with jaundice in the DRC and highlights the need to consider leptospirosis in the differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice, particularly in young adult males. Further studies are needed to identify animal reservoirs, associated risk factors, and the burden of human leptospirosis in the DRC.


Assuntos
Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/epidemiologia , Febre/microbiologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Icterícia/diagnóstico , Icterícia/epidemiologia , Icterícia/microbiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Febre Amarela/diagnóstico , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(8): e0009735, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya is now of public health concern globally due to its re-emergence in endemic areas and introduction into new areas of the world. Worldwide, the vectors for transmission of the chikungunya virus are Aedes mosquitoes and these are prevalent in Ghana. Despite its global significance, the true burden of chikungunya virus infection in Ghana is largely unknown and the threat of outbreak remains high owing to international travel. This study sought to determine chikungunya virus infection among febrile patients suspected of having malaria infections at some selected health facilities in the Ashanti, Bono East, and Bono Regions of Ghana. METHODOLOGY: This cross-sectional study recruited six hundred (600) febrile patients suspected of having malaria who submitted their clinical samples to the laboratories of the selected health facilities for the diagnosis of their infections. Five to ten millilitres (5-10ml) of venous blood were collected from each study participant. Sera were separated and tested for anti-chikungunya (IgM and IgG) antibodies using InBios ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instruction. Samples positive for chikungunya IgM and IgG were selected and tested for chikungunya virus RNA using Reverse Transcription-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test kits were used to screen the participants for malaria. Structured questionnaires were administered to obtain demographic and clinical information of the study participants. RESULT: Of the 600 samples tested, the overall seroprevalence of chikungunya was 6%. The seroprevalence of chikungunya IgM and IgG antibodies were 1.8% and 4.2% respectively. None of the chikungunya IgM and IgG positive samples tested positive for chikungunya RNA by RT-qPCR. Of the 600 samples, tested 32.3% (194/600) were positive for malaria parasites. Malaria and chikungunya co-infection was detected in 1.8% (11/600) of the participants. CONCLUSION: Findings from the current study indicate low-level exposure to the chikungunya virus suggesting the virus is circulating and potentially causing morbidity in Ghana.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya/virologia , Vírus Chikungunya/fisiologia , Febre/virologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/sangue , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(27): e196, 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an observational study to analyze an emergency department (ED) utilization pattern of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinated in-hospital healthcare workers (HCWs). METHODS: We included 4,703 HCWs who were administered the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine between March 4 and April 2, 2021, in a tertiary hospital in Korea where fast-track and post-vaccination cohort zone (PVCZ) were introduced in ED. We analyzed data of participants' age, sex, occupation, date and type of vaccination, and their clinical information using SPSS v25.0. RESULTS: The sample comprised HCWs, who received either the ChAdOx1 (n = 4,458) or the BNT162B2 (n = 245) vaccines; most participants were female (73.5%), and 81.1% were under 50 years old. Further, 153 (3.3%) visited the ED and reported experiencing fever (66.9%) and myalgia (56.1%). Additionally, 91 (59.5%) of them were in their 20s, and 106 (67.5%) were assigned to the PVCZ. Lastly, 107 (68.2%) of the patients received parenteral management. No patient required hospitalization. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, vaccinated HCWs who visited the ED with adverse events had a high incidence of fever and a low likelihood of developing serious illnesses. As the COVID-19 vaccination program for Korean citizens continues to expand, strategies to minimize unnecessary ED overcrowding should be put into effect.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antieméticos/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Teste para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Calafrios/induzido quimicamente , Calafrios/epidemiologia , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Feminino , Febre/induzido quimicamente , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/epidemiologia , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mialgia/induzido quimicamente , Mialgia/epidemiologia , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/tratamento farmacológico , Náusea/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Design de Software , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Triagem , Adulto Jovem
19.
WMJ ; 120(2): 94-99, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical epidemiology and outcomes of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who did not experience fever and cough during the early pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective cohort of all patients admitted during March 13, 2020 through May 13, 2020 with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 to 3 tertiary-care hospitals. Patient-level data (demographic, clinical manifestations, comorbid illnesses, inpatient treatment) were analyzed. The main outcome variable was atypical presentation, defined as any hospitalized patient with COVID-19 infection who did not experience both fever and cough. We identified risk factors for atypical presentation on univariate and multivariate analyses and assessed 30-day mortality differences via survival analysis. RESULTS: Of 163 patients in the study, 39 (24%) were atypical. On univariate analysis, atypical cases were significantly more likely to be older, reside in a long-term-care facility (LTCF), and have underlying diabetes mellitus, stroke, or cardiac disease; present without dyspnea or myalgia, have lower C-reactive proteins (CRP) and higher beta-natriuretic peptides. They were less likely to receive intensive care unit care or specific COVID-19 treatments (P < .05). The incidence of acute respiratory failure was not significantly different between the groups. On logistic regression, atypical cases were significantly more likely to be LTCF residents (P = 0.003) and have a lower average CRP (P = 0.01). Atypical cases had significantly higher 30-day mortality (hazard ratio 3.4 [95% CI, 1.6 - 7.2], P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: During the first pandemic surge, COVID-19 patients without inflammatory signs and symptoms were more likely to be LTCF residents and had higher mortality. Timely recognition of these atypical presentations may have prevented spread and improved clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/terapia , Comorbidade , Tosse/epidemiologia , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Análise de Sobrevida , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(27): e26596, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232210

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to understand the clinical presentations of febrile young infants with severe bacterial infection (SBI), and to investigate the pathogen variations throughout the vaccine era and after antenatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) screening.All infants < 90 days old with a body temperature of ≥38.0°C and admitted to the emergency department were retrospectively enrolled in our study. SBI was defined as a positive culture of urine, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. All clinical variables were analyzed and compared between the SBI group and the non-SBI group, to identify the relevant risk factors for SBI in infants with pyrexia.A total of 498 infants were studied, 279 of whom (56%) had SBI. The body temperature at triage was higher in the SBI group, and the difference was highly obvious in the neonatal group. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein levels were both significantly higher in the SBI group (P < .05), whereas neutrophil percentage and band percentage demonstrated no significant differences. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen and plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum lactamases were detected in up to 9.1%. GBS was detected in 16 cases of bacteremia (6 cases with concurrent meningitis).The body temperature at triage may provide a clue for differentiating sick babies, especially in the neonatal group. Complete serum analysis is required for infection survey, especially white blood cell and C-reactive protein. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen, and clinician should raise awareness of drug resistance in some patients. The prevalence of GBS infection in the young infant group remains high after routine antenatal GBS screening.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/complicações , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Febre/sangue , Febre/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
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