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1.
Neuroimage ; 237: 118108, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940152

RESUMO

Object formation is considered the aim of perceptual organization, but such a proposition has been neglected in empirical studies. In the current study, we investigated the role of object formation in configural superiority. Essentially, discrimination on bar orientations was enhanced by adding a right angle to each of the bars. Such facilitation is due to the emergent feature (EF) of closure formed by combining the bars with right angles. To study object formation, visual stimuli were generated by random dot stereograms to form objects or holes in 3D. Behaviorally, we found that the EF of closure facilitated oddball discrimination on objects, as demonstrated by previous studies, but did not facilitate oddball discrimination on holes with the same shape as objects. Multivariate pattern analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data showed that the EF of closure increased the object classification accuracy compared to the holes in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), where object information is encoded, but not in the early visual cortex (EVC). The neural representations of objects and holes with and without EFs were further investigated using representational similarity analysis. The results demonstrate that in the LOC, the neural representations of objects with EFs showed a greater difference than those of the other three, that is, objects without EFs and holes with or without EFs. However, the uniqueness of objects with EFs was not observed in the EVC. Thus, our results suggest that the EF of closure, which leads to the configural superiority effect, only emerges for objects but not for holes, and only in the LOC but not the EVC. Our study provides the first empirical evidence suggesting that object formation plays an indispensable role in perceptual organization.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico , Lobo Occipital/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Occipital/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
2.
Schizophr Bull ; 47(3): 722-730, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150444

RESUMO

Individual differences in perception are widespread. Considering inter-individual variability, synesthetes experience stable additional sensations; schizophrenia patients suffer perceptual deficits in, eg, perceptual organization (alongside hallucinations and delusions). Is there a unifying principle explaining inter-individual variability in perception? There is good reason to believe perceptual experience results from inferential processes whereby sensory evidence is weighted by prior knowledge about the world. Perceptual variability may result from different precision weighting of sensory evidence and prior knowledge. We tested this hypothesis by comparing visibility thresholds in a perceptual hysteresis task across medicated schizophrenia patients (N = 20), synesthetes (N = 20), and controls (N = 26). Participants rated the subjective visibility of stimuli embedded in noise while we parametrically manipulated the availability of sensory evidence. Additionally, precise long-term priors in synesthetes were leveraged by presenting either synesthesia-inducing or neutral stimuli. Schizophrenia patients showed increased visibility thresholds, consistent with overreliance on sensory evidence. In contrast, synesthetes exhibited lowered thresholds exclusively for synesthesia-inducing stimuli suggesting high-precision long-term priors. Additionally, in both synesthetes and schizophrenia patients explicit, short-term priors-introduced during the hysteresis experiment-lowered thresholds but did not normalize perception. Our results imply that perceptual variability might result from differences in the precision afforded to prior beliefs and sensory evidence, respectively.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Limiar Sensorial/fisiologia , Sinestesia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
3.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2020: 8825197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082776

RESUMO

Perceptual organization is an important part of visual and auditory information processing. In the case of visual occlusion, whether the loss of information in images could be recovered and thus perceptually closed affects object recognition. In particular, many elderly subjects have defects in object recognition ability, which may be closely related to the abnormalities of perceptual functions. This phenomenon even can be observed in the early stage of dementia. Therefore, studying the neural mechanism of perceptual closure and its relationship with sensory and cognitive processing is important for understanding how the human brain recognizes objects, inspiring the development of neuromorphic intelligent algorithms of object recognition. In this study, a new experiment was designed to explore the realistic process of perceptual closure under occlusion and intact conditions of faces and building. The analysis of the differences in ERP components P1, N1, and Ncl indicated that the subjective awareness of perceptual closure mainly occurs in Ncl, but incomplete information has been processed and showed different manners compared to complete stimuli in N170 for facial materials. Although occluded, faces, but not buildings, still maintain the specificity of perceptual processing. The Ncl by faces and buildings did not show significant differences in both amplitude and latency, suggesting a "completing" process regardless of categorical features.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Fechamento Perceptivo , Idoso , Potenciais Evocados , Humanos , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Visual
4.
Cognition ; 195: 104132, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726323

RESUMO

Visual holes (cutouts in a surface) have recently intrigued vision scientists as interesting and useful stimuli in the studies of shape perception and as a perceptual conundrum regarding figure/ground organization. Adopting the Bouba/Kiki paradigm, this study addressed a controversial issue of whether the perceived shape of a closed region alters when the region changes from a solid object to an empty hole, in a more direct manner than previous studies did. Observers were presented with two doughnut-like cardboard cutouts, one with a flower-shaped hole and the other with a star-shaped hole, and then matched them with two nonsense words. The curvature profile of the hole boundary was manipulated so that the shape of the interior region (i.e., a hole) and that of the exterior region (i.e., material edges) give rise to opposite shape impressions (i.e., one rounded and the other spiky). The results of Experiment 1 revealed that shape-name matching for holed objects is based on the interior shapes of holes, but not those of materially defined inner edges. The following three experiments replicated the same pattern of results even when holes appeared like oral apertures in animal character faces (Experiments 2-3) and when they were irregular, non-symmetric, and low in semantic association with familiar real-world objects (Experiment 4). Lastly, Experiment 5 showed that shape-name matching for "C"-shaped, negative-part stimuli is also interior-shape-based if the opening of the interior region is relatively small. These findings suggest that the interior shapes of holes are automatically accessible. I conclude with a discussion of my hypothesis that the only global-level, unitary shape representation of a bounded region of a single connected surface is that of the interior region for both objects and holes, imposing an important constraint in visual shape processing.


Assuntos
Associação , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 5096, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704913

RESUMO

Sound sources in the world are experienced as stable even when intermittently obscured, implying perceptual completion mechanisms that "fill in" missing sensory information. We demonstrate a filling-in phenomenon in which the brain extrapolates the statistics of background sounds (textures) over periods of several seconds when they are interrupted by another sound, producing vivid percepts of illusory texture. The effect differs from previously described completion effects in that 1) the extrapolated sound must be defined statistically given the stochastic nature of texture, and 2) the effect lasts much longer, enabling introspection and facilitating assessment of the underlying representation. Illusory texture biases subsequent texture statistic estimates indistinguishably from actual texture, suggesting that it is represented similarly to actual texture. The illusion appears to represent an inference about whether the background is likely to continue during concurrent sounds, providing a stable statistical representation of the ongoing environment despite unstable sensory evidence.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Ilusões/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Mascaramento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Som , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neuropsychologia ; 134: 107229, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610184

RESUMO

Many experiments have shown that comprehenders can generate predictions about upcoming inputs on the fly, but relatively little is known about whether and how comprehenders' sensitivity to predictability may be modulated by the experimental context. The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) in two experiments to ask whether changing the overall predictive validity of the stimuli will affect comprehenders' brain responses to predictable as well as unpredictable words by manipulating the filler sentences, which made up 50% of the stimuli in each experiment. Contrary to the prediction that predictable words should be processed more easily and elicit a smaller N400 response in a more prediction-encouraging experimental context, we found that participants' N400 response to predictable as well as unpredictable words was smaller when the overall predictive validity of the stimuli was low (that is, when the filler items were incongruous compared to when they were predictable). Further, even though the use of different filler sentences did modulate comprehenders' ERP and behavioural responses, it did not modulate the effect of target word predictability on participants' ERP responses at all. We take the present findings to suggest that healthy young adults' brain responses are inherently sensitive to the predictability of the incoming linguistic stimuli, and that this robust sensitivity can be observed regardless of the make-up of the experimental stimuli.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Antecipação Psicológica , Compreensão/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Linguística , Masculino , Fechamento Perceptivo , Estimulação Luminosa , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
8.
Neuropsychologia ; 128: 103-108, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29079397

RESUMO

Blindsight has been central to theories of phenomenal awareness; that a lesion to primary visual cortex (V1) abolishes all phenomenal awareness while unconscious visual functions can remain has led to the view that this region plays a crucial role in generating visual consciousness. However, since the early 20th century, there have been reports, many of which controversial, of phenomenal awareness in patients with V1 lesions. These reports include selective sparing of motion awareness, hemianopic completion and visual aftereffects. More recently, there have been successful attempts of inducing visual qualia with noninvasive brain stimulation. Here we critically review this evidence and discuss their implications to theoretical understanding of phenomenal awareness.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Cegueira/fisiopatologia , Cegueira/psicologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia , Percepção Visual , Hemianopsia/fisiopatologia , Hemianopsia/psicologia , Humanos , Fechamento Perceptivo
9.
Neuroimage ; 181: 359-369, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30010007

RESUMO

Recent neuroimaging studies identified posterior regions in the temporal and parietal lobes as neuro-functional correlates of subitizing and global Gestalt perception. Beyond notable overlap on a neuronal level both mechanisms are remarkably similar on a behavioral level representing both a specific form of visual top-down processing where single elements are integrated into a superordinate entity. In the present study, we investigated whether subitizing draws on principles of global Gestalt perception enabling rapid top-down processes of visual quantification. We designed two functional neuroimaging experiments: a task identifying voxels responding to global Gestalt stimuli in posterior temporo-parietal brain regions and a visual quantification task on dot patterns with magnitudes within and outside the subitizing range. We hypothesized that voxels activated in global Gestalt perception should respond stronger to dot patterns within than those outside the subitizing range. The results confirmed this prediction for left-hemispheric posterior temporo-parietal brain areas. Additionally, we trained a classifier with response patterns from global Gestalt perception to predict neural responses of visual quantification. With this approach we were able to classify from TPJ Gestalt ROIs of both hemispheres whether a trial requiring subitizing was processed. The present study demonstrates that mechanisms of subitizing seem to build on processes of high-level visual perception.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Conceitos Matemáticos , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 44(11): 1683-1693, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024224

RESUMO

Grouping distinct, temporally separated sounds is assumed to follow Gestalt principles, such as similarity or proximity. In the auditory streaming paradigm, the probability of perceiving all sounds as part of the same repeating pattern (the integrated percept) increases when the interstimulus interval (ISI) is increased from medium to long intervals. However, ISIs shorter than 50 ms have not been systematically explored. Here we show that below ca. 60-ms intervals the direction of the effect of ISI on perception is reversed compared to longer ISIs: Decreasing the ISI increases the probability of the integrated percept. This suggests that temporal proximity plays a different role in auditory stream segregation at very short than at longer ISIs. As the effect of temporal proximity may vary among individuals, we tested whether the proportion of the integrated reports with short ISIs could be associated with individual differences in the temporal resolution of the central auditory system. We found that individual differences in the temporal integration threshold (as measured by a temporal order judgment task) correlated with the percentage of integrated percept reports in some of the short-ISI regions. Although this result cannot be regarded as strong evidence, it is compatible with the notion that temporal integration plays a role in auditory stream segregation at short ISIs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Discriminação Psicológica/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Vision Res ; 145: 21-30, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621493

RESUMO

We studied the influence of knowledge in the interpretation of partly occluded objects. In the past decades, amodal completion has often been studied by using abstract, meaningless outlines of rather stylistic, geometric shapes. It has been recognized that smooth continuation of partly occluded contours behind an occluding surface is a strong completion tendency. In the current study we contrast this structurally driven completion tendency with knowledge driven tendencies. We used a set of partly occluded well-known objects for which structure-based completions and knowledge-based completions resulted in either the same or different interpretations. We adopted the behavioural primed matching paradigm to measure differential priming effects due to these completion tendencies. Our results implied differential temporal properties for structure-based and knowledge-based effects during perception of partly occluded objects. Interestingly, knowledge has an influence as early as 150 ms after the onset of the prime.


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Conhecimento , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 15: 45-52, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28480163

RESUMO

Sensory perceptual processing deficits, such as impaired visual object identification and perceptual closure, have been reported in schizophrenia. These perceptual impairments may be associated with neural deficits in visual association areas, including lateral occipital cortex and inferior temporal areas. However, it remains unknown if such deficits can be found in the intrinsic architecture of the visual system. In the current study, we measured perceptual closure performance and resting-state functional connectivity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) in 16 schizophrenia patients and 16 matched healthy controls. We estimated intrinsic functional connectivity using self-organized grouping spatial ICA, which clusters component maps in the subject space according to spatial similarity. Patients performed worse than controls in the perceptual closure task. This impaired closure performance of patients was correlated with increased severity of psychotic symptoms. We also found that intrinsic connectivity of the visual processing system was diminished in patients compared to controls. Lower perceptual closure performance was correlated to lower visual cortical intrinsic connectivity overall. We suggest that schizophrenia is associated with impaired intrinsic connectivity of the visual system, and that it is a potential mechanism leading to impaired visual object perception. These findings contribute to increasing evidence for impairments of higher visual functions in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Fechamento Perceptivo , Desempenho Psicomotor , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Córtex Visual/fisiopatologia
14.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 79(6): 1742-1754, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28527003

RESUMO

Performance in rapid serial visual presentation tasks has been shown to depend on the temporal integration of target stimuli when they are presented in direct succession. Temporal target integration produces a single, combined representation of visually compatible stimuli, which is comparatively easy to identify. It is currently unknown to what extent target compatibility affects this perceptual behavior, because it has not been studied systematically to date. In the present study, the effects of compatibility on temporal integration and attention were investigated by manipulating the Gestalt properties of target features. Of particular interest were configurations in which a global illusory shape was formed when all stimulus features were present; a Kanizsa stimulus, which was expected to have a unifying effect on the perception of the successive targets. The results showed that although the presence of a Kanizsa shape can indeed enhance temporal integration, this also was observed for other good Gestalts, such as due to common fate and closure. Identification accuracy seemed to vary, possibly as a result of masking strength, but this did not seem associated with attentional processing per se. Implications for theories of Gestalt processing and temporal integration are discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Vis ; 16(10): 10, 2016 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548088

RESUMO

One of the characteristics of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is atypical sensory processing and perceptual integration. Here, we used an object naming task to test the significance of deletion of vertices versus extended contours (edges) in naming fragmented line drawings of natural objects in typically developing and ASD children. The basic components of a fragmented image in perceptual closure need to be integrated to make a coherent visual perception. When vertices were missing and only edges were visible, typically developing and ASD subjects performed similarly. But typically developing children performed significantly better than ASD children when only vertex information was visible. These results indicate impairment of binding vertices but not edges to form a holistic representation of an object in children with ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 42(12): 1928-1946, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27505227

RESUMO

Competing theories of partially occluded object perception (amodal completion) emphasize either relatively local contour relationships or global factors such as symmetry. These disparate theories may reflect 2 separate processes: a low-level contour interpolation process and a higher-order global recognition process. The 2 could be distinguished experimentally if only the former produces precise representations of occluded object boundaries. Using a dot localization paradigm, we measured the precision and accuracy of perceived object boundaries for participants instructed to complete occluded objects with divergent local and global interpretations. On each trial, a small red dot was flashed on top of an occluder. Participants reported whether the dot fell inside or outside the occluded object's boundaries. Interleaved, 2-up, 1-down staircases estimated points on the psychometric function where the probability was .707 that the dot would be seen as either outside or inside the occluded object's boundaries. The results reveal that local contour interpolation produces precise and accurate representations of occluded contours, and consistency across observers, but completion according to global symmetry does not. These results support a distinction between local, automatic contour interpolation processes and global processes based on recognition from partial information. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
18.
Cognition ; 153: 146-60, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27206312

RESUMO

A Grey parrot, Griffin (Psittacus erithacus), previously taught English labels for various colors and shapes with respect to three-dimensional (3D) stimuli, was tested on his ability to transfer to very different two-dimensional (2D) images consisting of modal and amodal completion stimuli. For modal completion (aka subjective contours), Kanizsa figures were constructed using black 'pac-men' to form regular polygons on colored paper. For amodal completion, portions of variously colored regular 2D polygons were occluded by black circles or other black figures. For each task, Griffin provided a vocal English shape label for five possible shapes designated by their vertices (one, two, three, four, six). His accuracy was high for both amodal completed figures, including probe stimuli (28/38 correct) and modally completed figures (29/38 correct), with chance=0.20. The modally completed case (i.e., Kanizsa subjective figures) is of particular importance as there are no shared image parts between training and testing stimuli. We draw several conclusions from these results. First, a surface level completion process is fully operative insofar as Griffin was able to correctly identify shapes that differed considerably from training images. Second, because parrots can generalize from shapes of real objects to drawings where original image contours were clearly absent, the data provide a compelling example of shape invariance, indicating that visual shapes are processed far beyond that of their image description. Third, parrots with a repertoire of multiple vocal responses can be rigorously tested for visual competencies, an option as yet to be tried in other experimental animals.


Assuntos
Generalização Psicológica , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Fechamento Perceptivo , Animais , Cognição , Masculino , Papagaios
19.
Brain Topogr ; 29(4): 552-60, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27021230

RESUMO

Perceptual closure ability is postulated to depend upon rapid transmission of magnocellular information to prefrontal cortex via the dorsal stream. In contrast, illusory contour processing requires only local interactions within primary and ventral stream visual regions, such as lateral occipital complex. Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in perceptual closure versus illusory contours processing that is hypothesized to reflect impaired magnocellular/dorsal stream. Perceptual closure and illusory contours performance was evaluated in separate groups of 12 healthy volunteers during no TMS, and during repetitive 10 Hz rTMS stimulation over dorsal stream or vertex (TMS-vertex). Perceptual closure and illusory contours were performed in 11 schizophrenia patients, no TMS was applied in these patients. TMS effects were evaluated with repeated measures ANOVA across treatments. rTMS significantly increased perceptual closure identification thresholds, with significant difference between TMS-dorsal stream and no TMS. TMS-dorsal stream also significantly reduced perceptual closure but not illusory contours accuracy. Schizophrenia patients showed increased perceptual closure identification thresholds relative to controls in the no TMS condition, but similar to controls in the TMS-dorsal stream condition. Conclusions of this study are that magnocellular/dorsal stream input is critical for perceptual closure but not illusory contours performance, supporting both trickledown theories of normal perceptual closure function, and magnocellular/dorsal stream theories of visual dysfunction in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Fechamento Perceptivo , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Vias Visuais , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 45(6): 1427-1449, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861215

RESUMO

The ability to detect non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. between a and b in aXb) in spoken input may support the acquisition of morpho-syntactic dependencies (e.g. The princess is kiss ing the frog). Functional morphemes in morpho-syntactic dependencies are often marked by perceptual cues that render them distinct from lexical elements. We use an artificial grammar learning experiment with adults to investigate the role of perceptual cues in non-adjacent dependency learning, by manipulating the perceptual/prosodic properties of the a / b elements in aXb strings and testing participants' incidental learning of these dependencies. Our results show that non-adjacent dependencies are learned both when the dependent elements are perceptually prominent, and when they are perceptually reduced compared to the intervening material (in the same way that functional words are reduced compared to lexical words), but only if integrated into a natural prosodic contour. This result supports the idea that the prosodic properties of natural languages facilitate non-adjacent dependency learning.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Fechamento Perceptivo/fisiologia , Psicolinguística/métodos , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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