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1.
Urologiia ; (4): 138-144, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486287

RESUMO

A review of the literature on the urgent problem of urology, which is therapy of chronic prostatitis (CP) is presented. Despite numerous studies dedicated to the prevention and treatment of CP, it has not yet been possible to reduce the CP incidence. Therapeutic approaches aimed at improving the quality of life are not always effective due to the lack of a clear understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease. Leading Russian urologists recommend introducing into the complex therapy of CP a domestic drug from the cytomedin, namely Vitaprost, which causes a significant decrease in the severity of trophic disorders, inflammatory and congestive processes, improves microcirculation in the prostate, stimulates cellular and humoral immunity, all of which increase the effectiveness of CP therapy.


Assuntos
Prostatite , Urologia , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Masculino , Prostatite/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Federação Russa
2.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486845

RESUMO

The article considers, on the basis of results of sociological research, consequences of pandemic impact on social health of citizens of the Eurasian Economic Union states. The comparative analysis was applied to two groups of labor migrants from the EAEU states in Moscow and Russian citizens of the same age. The measures taken by the EАEU to maintain population social health in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic are considered.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Moscou , Pandemias , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486847

RESUMO

The article presents analysis of legal regulation of medical technologies in Russia. The proper development of medicine and health care is impossible without permanent improvement and implementation of new medical technologies. The upcoming decades will be an era of development of bio-technologies, cellular and gene technologies included. The proposed analysis is focused on conceptual set, analysis of actual normative legal base regulating mentioned relationships and identification of perspectives of development of medical technologies. The adequate and competent legal regulation creates enabling environment developing new technological capabilities. The legislation should avoid inhibiting retributive mode and apply particularly permitting and regulating approach determining framework not to be violated. Undoubtedly, these activities should be carried out in conjunction with professional medical community to develop legislation ensuring the highest possible level of development of health care practice.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Federação Russa
4.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486848

RESUMO

The analysis of international data established that the national indicator of population health quality in the Russian Federation is significantly lower than in the EU, the USA and Canada. In this regard, the urgency of enhancement of state policy concerning updating and promoting development of national health care system,involving available resources of the public and private health sectors is obvious. The development of entrepreneurship in health care should be considered as a mean of improving social and economic efficiency of health care system in Russia. The purpose of study was to analyze perspective directions of development of entrepreneurial initiatives in national health care. On the basis of analysis of corresponding normative legal acts and publications, it is demonstrated that in national health care system prerequisites are establishing to implement new opportunities for patient-oriented entrepreneurial activities associated with development of digital technologies, e-Health, new forms of public-private partnership focused primarily on prevention and rehabilitation of patients.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Empreendedorismo , Humanos , Setor Privado , Estudos Prospectivos , Federação Russa
5.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486852

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to analyze normative legal documents and their modifications in order to determine the labor standards of medical personnel in case of rendering and planning obstetric gynecological care in the Russian Federation, including standards of number of medical personnel in medical organizations and modes of operation of various types. The materials of the study were normative legal documents presented at the WEB-portal "garant.ru". The comparative analysis of actual normative legal set of documents concerning labor standards in the profile of "obstetrics and gynecology" demonstrated that the new order of Minzdrav of Russia № 1130n of 20.10.2020 introduced significant changes as compared with the current one. Its provisions contribute to reducing staffing by obstetricians-gynecologists of medical organizations providing primary health care, and to decreasing significantly the number of nurses for all types of considered medical organizations. The main drawback of the new order and the erroneousness of the orders on Procedures of Minzdrav of Russia in terms of staff support of round-the-clock functioning are demonstrated. The methodology of calculating the number of positions under different modes of operation of medical organizations are presented. The dynamics of general population morbidity in classes "Pregnancy, childbirth and complications of the postpartum period" and "Diseases of the genitourinary system" was analyzed.The corresponding trends were prognosticated for the period up to 2024. The results of the study testify the necessity to amend actual normative legal documents governing labor standards of medical personnel in case of providing obstetric gynecological and other types of medical care in the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Federação Russa , Recursos Humanos
6.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486853

RESUMO

The formation of code of normative legal documents ensuring activities of perinatal service is one of the most important, basic organizational technologies that determine activities of obstetrics and childhood services, contributing to increasing of natality, decreasing of maternal and infant morbidity, and maternal and childhood health care in general. The article presents analysis of formation of normative legal base that regulates functioning of perinatal service in the Russian Federation in 2000-2020. Actually, there is no objective prerequisites for fundamental alterations in the three-level system of medical care of women during pregnancy, labor, postpartum period and newborns. However, the regulatory adjustment of the system, improvement and refinement of models of profile patients' routing, development of medical care of pregnant women, parturient women and puerpera will proceed.


Assuntos
Obstetrícia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Organizações , Assistência ao Paciente , Gravidez , Federação Russa
7.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486854

RESUMO

All around the world, about 570 000 of new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed annually and more than 300 000 of women die of this pathology. In the Russian Federation, in 2018, more than 17 500 of new cases of cervical cancer were diagnosed and more than 6 000 of women died of this pathology. The purpose of the study was to analyze incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in 2007-2018. The analysis of incidence rates of cervical cancer in the Russian Federation in 2007-2018 established steady trend of increasing of incidence rate from 12.8 (2007) to 15.8 (2018). The incidence rate increased up to 26.6%. The increasing is most pronounced in the age groups of 35-39, 40-44 and 45-49 years. The analysis of dynamics of mortality rates established relative stability indices in 2007-2018 (5.11 and 5.07 in standardized rates per 100 000). The decrease of 2018 as compared to 2007 made up to 0.78%. In most age groups mortality rates are decreasing. However, significant increase of mortality rate in age group of 40-44 years was established amounted up to 25%.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Morbidade , Mortalidade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486857

RESUMO

The article analyzes dynamics of main indices of disability in population older than able-bodied age in the Rostov Oblast. The trend of decreasing of scope of examinations of individuals of the mentioned age group, including decreasing the number of first and iteratively recognized as the disabled, against the background of increasing in the population structure of percentage of individuals older than able-bodied age. At the same time, increasing of accumulated disability was established in the studied category of population.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Problemas Sociais
9.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486859

RESUMO

Actually, one of the world trends in social policy in the field of health care is self-preserving behavior of population as readiness of each member of society to take responsibility for maintenance of one's own health and prolongation of life activity. The value of health becomes not only human, personally significant, but also social capital, without which it is impossible to achieve high indices of social development, as well as ensuring national security of the state. The measures of public policy of the Russian Federation are targeted to developing culture of self-preserving behavior of Russians, that is reflected in the national projects "Health care" and "Demography". To assess the self-preserving behavior of Russians, it is necessary to achieve such asks as identification of the need in longevity and the degree of its implementation in various social demographic groups; assessment of features of self-preserving behavior in the context of motives of achieving longevity; determination of the response in various social demographic groups to demographic policy targeted to preserve population health and to decrease mortality; analysis of popular practices of self-preserving behavior. The article presents the results of sociological survey on the subject "Demographic well-being of Russia", carried out by the Institute of social political research of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2020-2021, in terms of the use by Russians of various practices of self-preserving behavior.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Mudança Social , Demografia , Humanos , Federação Russa , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486861

RESUMO

The article considers the issue of alternative dietary intake in children of vegetarian families, both in Russia and abroad. The types of vegetarianism, its advantages and limitations are highlighted on the basis of empirical studies of national and foreign researchers. The emphasis is made on the risks to physical and mental health of children in case of unbalanced diet and on the need for regular consultations with pediatricians and nutritionists as well.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Vegetarianos , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Pediatras , Federação Russa
11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486865

RESUMO

In accordance with the Russian Federal Law No. 350 of January 2019 the retirement age for Russians is increased for men from 60 up to 65 years, for women from 55 up to 60 years that requires implementation of organizational technologies of health-preserving, promotion of life and labor potential of population of late able-bodied age. In this regard, the role of day hospitals (DH) functioning directed at maximal possible prolongation of autonomous life and working capacity of elderly population increases. Besides, DH also presents additional reserve of optimization of medical care costs. The purpose of the study is to elaborate guidelines of improving activities of DH for population of late able-bodied age, for the purpose of preventive hospitalization. The study was organized on the basis of pilot medical organization of the Moscow Oblast, consisted of hospital of 600 beds and day hospital of 120 beds. The methods applied included sociological survey, expert judgment, statistical direct observation. The primary data was obtained from the forms of federal and sectorial statistical monitoring for 2014-2018. The analysis of medical documentation concerning pilot medical organization functioning during the year of the study was applied. The sociological surveys of patients of late able-bodied age (5 years before retirement according to the new legislation - men 60-65 years old, women 55-60 years old) who received treatment in day hospital. The results. The analysis of main indices of round-the-clock functioning in-patient and day hospitals in the Russian Federation in 2014-2018 established trend towards improvement of using hospital beds due to development of day hospital. However, bed capacity of hospitals is used ineffectively and experts assume that more than 1/3 of patients could receive medical care or aftercare in day hospitals. The experimental study of planning hospitalization of patients with chronic diseases at out-patient level demonstrated that 11.5% of population of able-bodied age need planned and preventive hospitalization in day hospital. The cost of treatment of patient with chronic pathology is 2-3 times lower in day hospital than in common hospital at the stage of exacerbation. It is reliable to apply at the out-patient level experience of planning hospitalization of patients with chronic pathology in day hospitals followed by performance control. The organization of functioning of day hospital and common hospital requires particular enhancement, including issues of succession, financing of the DS, the remuneration of medical personnel through effective contract determining interest of physician in early discharge of patient to aftercare in day hospital. The day hospital functioning is to be implemented in 2-3 turns. The day hospital is to be located in detached placement and the departments of base medical institution are to used in fullness. The day hospital is be used more actively for purpose of health preservation of population of late able-bodied age who. This contingent suffers of chronic pathology and is in need of preventive and health-promoting therapy in conditions of day hospital.


Assuntos
Hospitalização , Médicos , Idoso , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moscou , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486866

RESUMO

The enhancement of organization of palliative medical care to increase life quality of terminally ill patients is one of directions of development of health care system. To elaborate measures of improving accessibility and quality of palliative medical care, it is necessary to apply single unified methodology of calculating indices and criteria. One of them is provision of bed capacity. The purpose of the study is to elaborate methodology of calculating control indices of provision population with beds to render palliative medical care. The indices are calculated on the basis of statistical processing of monitoring corresponding data in the subjects of the Russian Federation.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Cuidados Paliativos , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Federação Russa
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486870

RESUMO

The article presents the results of comparative analysis of the research potential of participants of the North Caucasian Scientific and Educational Medical Cluster. The differences in the indices of training of residents and post-graduate students, the availability of research and pedagogical personnel, the scope of research studies and income received from their commercialization in educational organizations participating in the cluster were studied. It is noted that the medical faculties of educational organizations of various departmental subordination, in terms of their research activities, differ from medical universities of the Minzdrav of Russia. However, there are intra-departmental imbalances too. The joint use of personnel, technological and other resources of educational organizations can provide synergistic effect in research field.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Universidades , Humanos , Organizações , Federação Russa , Estudantes
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486872

RESUMO

In 1907-1910, the Pirogov Society prepared project of large-scale reform of university medical education. The elite of medical community and the students of Russia criticized the organization and content of educational process at medical faculties of Russian universities and developed set of proposals their reforming. In particular, suggestions were made about changing target goals of medical faculties functioning, transferring to two-stage model of training of physician, revising scope and character of teaching theoretical medical disciplines and organizing a number of new chairs.


Assuntos
Educação Médica , Médicos , Docentes de Medicina , Humanos , Federação Russa , Universidades
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486875

RESUMO

The article analyses the process of establishment of medical knowledge concerning territories of the Russian Empire in XVIII century on the basis of written heritage of the Prussian physician Johann Jacob Lerche (1708-1780). The analysis is focused on forms of actual medical geographical studies practiced by European doctors and Lerche himself, first of all on his meteorological observations. The Lerche's interpretations of local natural and social phenomena in construction of medical characteristics of particular corners of the Empire in manuscript about endemics in Russia and Persia are analyzed. The assumption is proposed that studies of Russia implemented by Lerche are constructed on the analogy of summarizing academic descriptions of naturalists of XVIII century. Thereby, the works of Prussian physician seems to be participated in process of development of language of systematization and ranking of diseases and endowed category of "disease" with function of inherent to region characteristic such as climate, flora and fauna.


Assuntos
Médicos , Geografia Médica , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486876

RESUMO

The pandemic of plague, that affected Eurasia in middle of 40s - early 50s of XIV century and remained in history as as "The Black Death", became one of the most death-dealing epidemics that ever stroke humankind and recorded in historical sources. Owing to that many documentary and narrative sources remained intact, the history of this pandemic is considered as well examined. This is evidenced by enormous historiography of the problem, including works of the most different character and orientation. Yet, it should be admitted that in national Russian historiography the issues related to history of this pandemic on the Russian land remain to be insufficiently studied. This condition is related to limitation of source base from one hand and to inadequate development of comprehensive approach to exploration of this page of national history. The article, on the basis of analysis of chronicle texts, reconstructs general picture of the pandemic in the Russian land and characterizes its consequences.


Assuntos
Peste , História do Século XX , História Medieval , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pandemias , Peste/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
17.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 36(3): 321-345, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476641

RESUMO

The purpose of the current research was to compare pre- and post-retirement financial and economic resources of two groups of Jewish Israelis, Russian-speaking immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) and Hebrew-speaking veteran Israelis. The strategy of data-processing was based on SHARE Wave 6 (Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe) and included two levels of analysis: a) household general economic indices and b) individual economic variables for two age subsamples ('51-66' and '67 + '). The research-based model of well-being enabled comparison of economic profiles of the studied groups. The results of logistic regression and discriminant analysis of twenty SHARE 6.0 monetary variables displayed economic and financial inequality of retirement resources between veteran Israeli residents and Russian-speaking immigrants. Lower values of main residence, owned vehicles, and private pensions, together with higher values of mortgage burden, rent expenses, and inter-family support were significant distinguishing features of FSU immigrants. Analysis of the household indices demonstrated that the group of older FSU immigrants was most vulnerable due to their lowest values of household net worth and total income. According to the results of inter- and intra-gender comparisons of incomes between the groups of '67 + ' representatives, Russian-speaking women were identified as having the fewest resources. The retirement resources of Russian-speaking Israelis were clearly inferior to those of Hebrew-speaking veteran Israelis of the same age.Future research of retirement resources of Israelis may include non-financial components of human capital and additional socio-demographic factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Judeus , Aposentadoria , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , U.R.S.S.
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486844

RESUMO

The article describes, on the basis of the results of content analysis of posts and comments in social networks, the actual situation with coronavirus infection including its overcoming, security maintaining, possibility of risks and threats occurrence and acceptance/refusal of vaccination as well. The desk research technique was applied to analyze documents and publications of the WHO, live data from national resource www.стопкоронавирус.рф, statistical information, results of sociological surveys of leading sociological companies.It is demonstrated that how the situation concerning coronavirus and vaccination issues in various Russian regions changed, including causes of different dispositions of residents. Three stable social groups were identified, provisionally designated as optimists, moderate and pessimists. The classification is based on differences in assessment of the epidemiological situation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17421, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465820

RESUMO

Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread rapidly to countries all around the world from the end of 2019, which caused a great impact on global health and has had a huge impact on many countries. Since there is still no effective treatment, it is essential to making effective predictions for relevant departments to make responses and arrangements in advance. Under the limited data, the prediction error of LSTM model will increase over time, and its prone to big bias for medium- and long-term prediction. To overcome this problem, our study proposed a LSTM-Markov model, which uses Markov model to reduce the prediction error of LSTM model. Based on confirmed case data in the US, Britain, Brazil and Russia, we calculated the training errors of LSTM and constructed the probability transfer matrix of the Markov model by the errors. And finally, the prediction results were obtained by combining the output data of LSTM model with the prediction errors of Markov Model. The results show that: compared with the prediction results of the classical LSTM model, the average prediction error of LSTM-Markov is reduced by more than 75%, and the RMSE is reduced by more than 60%, the mean [Formula: see text] of LSTM-Markov is over 0.96. All those indicators demonstrate that the prediction accuracy of proposed LSTM-Markov model is higher than that of the LSTM model to reach more accurate prediction of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Redes Neurais de Computação , Projetos de Pesquisa , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
20.
Adv Gerontol ; 34(3): 396-403, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409818

RESUMO

The problem of thyroid cancer in Russia became especially relevant after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. We can trace the dynamics of morbidity in the population of Leningrad-Saint Petersburg from 1980 to 2018. for the periods before and after the accident, even before the inclusion of this localization of malignant neoplasms in the state reports. Thyroid cancer can be attributed to rare malignancies. In addition to morbidity and mortality, it is planned to consider such analytical indicators that are practically not used in Russia as the reliability of accounting, partial mortality and five-year survival of patients with thyroid cancer calculated according to the international standard. In many territories of Russia and abroad, an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been detected, which to some extent may be associated with its overdiagnosis, against the background of a decrease in the population's mortality from this cause. Favorable patterns were found in relation to the reliability of accounting in Russia and especially in Saint Petersburg. Some structural changes were detected in the histological structure of thyroid cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Morbidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
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