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PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238701, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925927


OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the role of gender expression (femininity, masculinity, or androgyny) in relation to sex differences in depression. This study tested if gender expression was associated with depression and burden of depressive symptoms in a 70-year-old population. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based sample of 70-year-olds from The Gothenburg H70 Birth Cohort Study (n = 1203) was examined in 2014-16. Data were collected using psychiatric examinations and structured questionnaires, including the Positive-Negative Sex-Role Inventory to assess gender expression. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and symptom burden was assessed with Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). RESULTS: Gender expression was related to MADRS score and depression diagnosis. In fully adjusted models, feminine traits with low social desirability (FEM-) were associated with a higher MADRS score (R2 0.16; B 0.16; CI 0.1-0.2), while androgyny (t ratio) (R2 0.12; B 0.42; CI 0.1-0.7) and masculine traits with high social desirability (MAS+) (R2 0.13; B -0.06; CI -0.1--0.01) were associated with a lower MADRS score. Also, feminine traits with low social desirability (FEM-) were positively associated with depression (OR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.1). No associations between depression and masculinity or androgyny were observed in adjusted models. There were no interactions between sex and gender expression in relation to depression or MADRS score, indicating that the effects of gender expression were similar in men and women. CONCLUSIONS: We found that gender expression was associated to both depression and burden of depressive symptoms. More specifically, we found that femininity was associated to higher levels of depression, irrespective of biological sex. In addition, masculinity and androgyny were associated with lower levels of depression. These results highlight the importance of taking gender expression into consideration when studying sex differences in depression among older populations in future studies.

Depressão/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Caracteres Sexuais , Idoso , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Personalidade , Fatores Sexuais
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(10): 1021-1028, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747806


Cultural stereotypes such as the idea that men are more suited for paid work and women are more suited for taking care of the home and family, may contribute to gender imbalances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, among other undesirable gender disparities. Might these stereotypes be learned from language? Here we examine whether gender stereotypes are reflected in the large-scale distributional structure of natural language semantics. We measure gender associations embedded in the statistics of 25 languages and relate these to data on an international dataset of psychological gender associations (N = 656,636). People's implicit gender associations are strongly predicted by gender associations encoded in the statistics of the language they speak. These associations are further related to the extent that languages mark gender in occupation terms (for example, 'waiter'/'waitress'). Our pattern of findings is consistent with the possibility that linguistic associations shape people's implicit judgements.

Associação , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Humanos
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237707, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797069


BACKGROUND: Gender role non-conforming behaviors are a significant risk factor for school-related violence. The objective of this study is to describe the types, prevalence and correlates of social violence among Thai secondary school students, with a focus on gender role non-conformity. METHODS: This article uses secondary data from a national study of 2070 secondary school students aged 13-20 years representing Bangkok and all four regions of Thailand. Students were asked about their gender/sexual identity, self-perception of their masculinity or femininity, and experiences of social violence. Correlates of social violence were examined using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Prevalence of social violence victimization was high (57%). Most students considered themselves to be as masculine or as feminine as other members of their sex (82.6%), while 9.1% thought that they were less masculine/less feminine, and 8.3% thought they were more masculine/more feminine. Students who considered themselves less masculine or less feminine than others of their sex (AOR = 1.59, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.25) were more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who considered themselves equally masculine/feminine. Students who self-identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.86) were also more likely to experience social violence, compared to students who did not identify as LGBT. However, students who considered themselves more masculine or feminine than other students of their sex (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.88) were less likely to experience social violence. DISCUSSION: Students who identified as LGBT, or considered themselves to be less masculine or less feminine than other students of their sex, had higher odds of social violence victimization. Anti-bullying campaigns need to emphasize that perpetrating social violence is not tolerated, and gender-based violence needs to be included in comprehensive sexuality education curricula.

Bullying , Identidade de Gênero , Sexualidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Estudantes , Tailândia , Violência , Adulto Jovem
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 102, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799803


BACKGROUND: Women's morphological femininity is perceived to develop under the influence of sex hormones and to serve as a cue of estradiol level, fertility and health in mating context. However, as the studies on direct relationship between femininity and sex steroid levels have reported mixed results, it is still not well understood what factors contribute to inter-women variation in morphological femininity. Epidemiological studies show that indicators of adverse conditions during intrauterine growth and development in utero, such as low birthweight or relative thinness at birth, influence women's physiology ovarian functioning and may be associated with life-time exposure to estradiol in women. Thus, here we tested if birth parameters are also related with the level of morphological femininity in adult women. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five healthy women of mean age 28.47 years (SD = 2.39) participated in the study. Facial femininity was estimated based on facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) and facial shape sexual dimorphism measured in the photos. Body femininity was estimated based on waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and breast size. Birth weight and birth length were obtained from medical records and ponderal index at birth was calculated. No relationship between birth parameters and facial or body femininity in women of reproductive age was found, also when controlled for adult sex steroid levels and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that, although previous research showed that birth parameters predict reproductive development and adult oestradiol level, they do not explain the variance in morphological femininity in women of reproductive age, trait that is thought to be a cue of a woman's estradiol level and fertility in mating context.

Peso ao Nascer , Face/anatomia & histologia , Feminilidade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto , Mama , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Relação Cintura-Quadril
Agora (Rio J.) ; 23(2): 100-108, maio-ago. 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1130810


RESUMO: Partindo de duas vertentes diversas o tema do gozo e da sexuação e o final da análise e liquidação da transferência - pretendemos aproximá-las através da noção de destituição subjetiva, decorrente do fim do tratamento e subentendida na acepção de ausência de um significante que nomeie o feminino. Os conceitos de traço unário e de ideal do eu ligam os dois escopos conceituais citados, permitindo abordar os desdobramentos da transferência em análise e aquilo que é não-todo na sexuação. Conclui-se que a destituição subjetiva, que produz um analista ao final da análise, assemelha-se à posição feminina: sem o falo como resposta identificatória ao Outro e sem o nome/traço que faria contar o sujeito e agrupá-lo em um coletivo. É o significante da falta do Outro [S(Ⱥ)] que permitirá ao analista, tendo concluído sua análise, abrir mão de sua condição de sujeito ao dirigir uma cura.

Abstract: Departing from two different views - the theme of joissance and the final of analysis and liquidation of transference - we intend to approach them through the notion of subjective destitution, resulting from the end of treatment and implied in the idea of absence of a signifier that names the feminine. The concepts of unitary trace and of ego-ideal connect the two mentioned concept objectives, allowing to approach the unfolding of transference in analysis and the one which is not-all in the sexuation. It is concluded that the subjective destitution that is produced by the analyst in the end of analysis, is similar to the feminine position: without the phallus as an identification to the Other and without the name/trace that would count the subject and groups him in a collective. It is the signifier of the lack of the Other [S(Ⱥ)] that will allow to the analyst, having concluded his analysis, quitting his condition of subject in directing a cure.

Psicanálise , Sexualidade , Feminilidade
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e205495, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579192


Importance: Facial paralysis has a significant effect on affect display, with the most notable deficit being patients' the inability to smile in the same way as those without paralysis. These impairments may result in undesirable judgements of personal qualities, thus leading to a significant social penalty in those who have the condition. Objective: To quantify the association of facial paralysis with the way smiling patients are perceived by others with respect to personality traits, attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity and to evaluate the potential association of facial palsy-related patient-reported outcome measures with how patients are perceived by others. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cross-sectional study used 20 images of smiling patients with facial paralysis evaluated between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016. Using photograph editing software, the photographs were edited to create a simulated nonparalysis smiling facial appearance. A total of 40 photographs were split into 4 groups of 10 photographs, each with 5 altered and 5 unaltered photographs. The surveys were designed such that altered and unaltered photographs of the same patient were not placed in the same survey to avoid recall bias. Anonymous raters used a 7-point Likert scale to rate their perception of each patient's personality traits (ie, aggressiveness, likeability, and trustworthiness), attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity based on photographs in their assigned survey. Raters were blinded to study intent. Scores from the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation questionnaire were included to assess self-perception. Data were analyzed from November 11, 2019, to February 20, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Ratings of personality traits, attractiveness, and femininity or masculinity. Social function domain scores and overall scores were analyzed from the Facial Clinimetric Evaluation questionnaire. Results: This study included photographs of 20 patients with facial paralysis (mean [range] age, 54 [28-69] years; 15 [75%] women). A total of 122 respondents completed the survey (71 [61%] women). Most respondents were between the ages of 25 and 34 years (79 participants [65%]). Overall, smiling photos of patients with facial paralysis were perceived as significantly less likeable (difference, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.14), trustworthy (difference, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.39 to -0.11), attractive (difference, -0.47; 95% CI, -0.62 to -0.32), and feminine or masculine (difference, -0.21; 95% CI, -0.38 to -0.03) compared with their simulated preparalysis photographs. When analyzed by sex, smiling women with facial paralysis experienced lower ratings for likeability (difference, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.16), trustworthiness (difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.43 to -0.06), attractiveness (difference, -0.74; 95% CI, -0.94 to -0.55), and femininity (difference, -0.35; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.13). However, smiling men with facial paralysis only received significantly lower ratings for likeability (difference, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.47 to -0.01) and trustworthiness (difference, -0.30; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.07). As patients' self-reported social function and total Facial Clinimetric Evaluation scores increased, there was an increase in perceived trustworthiness (rs[480] = 0.11; P = .02) and attractiveness (rs[478] = 0.10; P = .04) scores by raters. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, photographs of patients with facial paralysis received lower ratings for several personality and physical traits compared with digitally edited images with no facial paralysis. These findings suggest a social penalty associated with facial paralysis.

Paralisia Facial/psicologia , Percepção , Sorriso/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Beleza , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Personalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Confiança
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(6): 1499-1509, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459779


BACKGROUND: No data exist on the prospective outcomes of facial feminization surgery. This study set out to determine the effects of facial feminization surgery on quality-of-life outcomes for gender-diverse patients. METHODS: A prospective, international, multicenter, cohort study with adult gender-diverse patients with gender dysphoria was undertaken. Facial feminization outcome score was calculated preoperatively and postoperatively (1-week to 1-month and >6 months). Photogrammetric cephalometries were measured at the same time points. Self-perceived preoperative masculinity and femininity were recorded. Externally rated gender appearance (scale of 1 to 5, with 1 being most feminine) and general aesthetics (scale of 1 to 10, with 10 being very good) for 10 facial feminization surgery patients were compared with those of five cisgender controls. Univariate linear regression analyses were used to predict outcomes from facial feminization surgery. RESULTS: Sixty-six consecutive patients were enrolled. Patients noted that their brows, jaws, and chins were the most masculine aspects of their faces (54.5 percent, 33.3 percent, and 30.3 percent, respectively). Median facial feminization outcome score increased from 47.2 preoperatively to 80.6 at 6 months or more postoperatively (p < 0.0001). Mean satisfaction was excellent (3.0 at both 1-month and ≥6-month follow-up; p = 0.46). Cephalometric values were significantly more feminine after surgery. Gender appearance was feminine to very feminine (1.83 ± 0.96) and general aesthetics were good (6.09 ± 2.01) but different from those of cisgender women controls (1.25 ± 0.49 and 7.63 ± 1.82, respectively; p < 0.001 for each). CONCLUSION: Facial feminization achieved improved quality of life, feminized cephalometries, feminine gender appearance, good overall aesthetics, and high satisfaction that were present at 1 month and stable at more than 6 months. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.

Face/cirurgia , Disforia de Gênero/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Feminilidade , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Autoimagem , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 94-102, Jan.-Apr. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1059209


RESUMO: Em Freud, a mulher é irremediavelmente ligada a uma reivindicação fálica jamais satisfeita e a assunção da feminilidade coincide com a maternidade. Que o feminino não se deixe recobrir inteiramente pela mãe é, por outro lado, destacado por Lacan. A prática da conversação com adolescentes mães e gestantes realizada no âmbito de uma pesquisa revela que, apesar das diversas conquistas das mulheres nas últimas décadas, a maternidade fornece ainda hoje significado e imagem com os quais se revestem o feminino pela via do ter fálico. Contudo, a tentativa de encerrar o feminino na mãe não cessa de fracassar.

Abstract: For Freud, the woman is inexorably linked to a phallic claim and the assumption of feminility does coincide with motherhood. For Lacan, on the other hand, the feminility does not overlap completely with motherhood. The conversation practice we conducted with teenagers, both mothers and pregnant, has shown that, in spite of all the progress made by women in the last decades, the meaning and the image of motherhood around the feminility are still defined by the phallic. However, all the efforts to close the feminility in motherhood does not stop failing.

Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Psicanálise , Mulheres/psicologia , Feminilidade , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Imagem Corporal
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 23(1): 66-74, Jan.-Apr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1059208


Resumo: A transfobia, enquanto prática de violência e exclusão, é infligida de diversas formas contra indivíduos travestis e transexuais, sendo as trans significativamente mais atingidas. Neste artigo, estabelecemos um diálogo com o conceito de corpos abjetos de Judith Butler e as formulações da psicanálise acerca da constituição do sujeito e teoria da sexuação com o objetivo de pensar a transfobia enquanto um fenômeno de segregação. Nossa hipótese é que a trans pode funcionar como uma lente de aumento sobre o gozo não codificado pela linguagem, essa espécie de aberração que espreita todo ser falante, mas da qual nada queremos saber.

Abstract: Transphobia, as a practice of violence and exclusion, is inflicted in several ways against transvestites and transsexuals, but the "trans" women are significantly more affected. In this article we make a dialogue between Judith Butler's concept of abject bodies and Psychoanalysis formulations about the constitution of the subject and the theory of sexuation, aiming to think transphobia as a phenomenon of segregation. Our hypothesis is that the "trans" women figures may work as a magnifying glass over the jouissance not encoded by language, this type of aberration that peeks every speaking being, which we don't want to know about.

Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicanálise , Transexualidade , Transfobia , Feminilidade , Masculinidade
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(4): 818e-828e, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221232


During the past 10 years, academic publications that address facial feminization surgery have largely examined the technical aspects of the different surgical procedures involved and clinical evaluations of postoperative results. This Special Topic article focuses on aspects that are underdeveloped to date but useful with regard to taking the correct therapeutic approach to transgender patients who are candidates for facial gender confirmation surgery. The authors propose a protocolized sequence, from the clinical evaluation to the postoperative period, based on a sample size of more than 1300 trans feminine patients, offering facial gender confirmation surgery specialists standardized guidelines to handle their patients' needs in a way that is both objective and reproducible.

Protocolos Clínicos , Face/cirurgia , Disforia de Gênero/cirurgia , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/métodos , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Feminino , Feminilidade , Disforia de Gênero/diagnóstico , Disforia de Gênero/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Seleção de Pacientes , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/normas , Período Pós-Operatório , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/psicologia , Cirurgia de Readequação Sexual/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229162, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155157


Can beautification empower women to act assertively? Some women report that beautification is an agentic and assertive act, whereas others find beautification to be oppressive and disempowering. To disentangle these effects, in the context of romantic attraction we conducted the first experimental tests of beautification-on psychological and behavioral assertiveness. Experiment 1 (N = 145) utilized a between-subjects design in which women used their own clothing, make-up, and accessories to adjust their appearance as they normally would for a "hot date" (beautification condition) or a casual day at home with friends (control condition). We measured implicit, explicit, and behavioral assertiveness, as well as positive affect and sexual motivation. Experiment 2 (N = 40) sought to conceptually replicate Experiment 1 using a within-subject design and different measures of assertiveness. Women completed measures of explicit assertiveness and assertive behavioral intentions in three domains, in whatever clothing they were wearing that day then again after extensively beautifying their appearance. In Experiment 1, we found that women demonstrated higher psychological assertiveness after beautifying their appearance, and that high sexual motivation mediated the effect of beautification on assertive behavior. All effects were independent of positive affect. Experiment 2 partially replicated Experiment 1. These experiments provide novel insight into the effects of women's appearance-enhancing behaviors on assertiveness by providing evidence that beautification may positively affect assertiveness in women under some circumstances.

Assertividade , Beleza , Feminilidade , Relações Interpessoais , Desejabilidade Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Cosméticos , Empoderamento , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Fatores Sociológicos , Adulto Jovem
Evol Psychol ; 18(1): 1474704920910403, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124644


Previous research has shown that manipulating the pitch of a face (tilting the face upward or downward) affects the perceived femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and dominance of the given face. However, previous research has not considered the influence of direct eye gaze on dominance perceptions or the ambiguity surrounding the proposed social signals sent from a static face. The current research used 94 participants across two studies (women = 63%, age: M = 31). Stimuli varied in head pitch angle, eye gaze, and motion/static appearance. Participants rated the stimuli for levels of masculinity, femininity, attractiveness, and dominance. Both studies confirmed that pitching the face upward at incrementally increasing angles resulted in a linear increase in ratings of masculinity, physical dominance, and social dominance and a linear decrease in ratings of femininity, physical attractiveness, and behavioral allure. Study 2 showed that these effects can be dependent on either the perceived structural change of the face or the actual movement of the face, and these are different for each rating category. The perceived dimorphism, attractiveness, and dominance of a face will change dependent on the angle of pitch it is presented but also whether it is moving or not, where it is moving in space, and what direction it is moving.

Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Percepção Social , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Beleza , Feminino , Feminilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Predomínio Social
Psico USF ; 25(1): 101-113, jan.-mar. 2020. il, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1135700


This study aimed to examine current scientific production regarding sexuality-related issues in the context of eating disorders (ED). Searches were performed on PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL and PsycINFO, including papers published between 2008 and 2018, using the following descriptors: eating disorders, femininity, sexuality and sexual behavior. Nineteen studies were selected. Findings were systematized into two main thematic categories and showed, in general, that femininity can be a risk factor to the development of ED. Studies indicated that endorsing a gender role that is socially considered discrepant from biological sex, despite feminine or masculine, is related to ED symptomatology. Moreover, body dissatisfaction is positively correlated to sexual dysfunction. Interventions targeting prevention of ED should include sexuality-related issues by approaching probable negative consequences of adhering to female gender role social requirements and stereotypes, especially those related to body weight and body shape. (AU)

O estudo buscou examinar a produção científica atual acerca de questões relacionadas à sexualidade no contexto dos transtornos alimentares (TAs). As buscas foram realizadas nas bases de dados PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL e PsycINFO, incluindo artigos publicados entre 2008 e 2018, com os seguintes descritores: transtornos alimentares, feminilidade, sexualidade e comportamento sexual. Dezenove estudos foram selecionados. Os dados foram sistematizados em duas categorias principais e demonstraram, de maneira geral, que a feminilidade pode ser considerada como fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de TAs. Os estudos indicaram que assumir um papel de gênero socialmente considerado discrepante do sexo biológico, independentemente de se tratar do gênero feminino ou masculino, está relacionado com sintomatologia de TAs. Além disso, a insatisfação com a imagem corporal mostra-se positivamente correlacionada com disfunção sexual. Enfatiza-se a necessidade de incluir questões relacionadas à sexualidade em intervenções direcionadas à prevenção de TAs, abordando as possíveis consequências negativas de se aderir aos estereótipos e requisitos sociais típicos do gênero feminino, especialmente aqueles relacionados ao peso e à forma corporal. (AU)

El estudio buscó examinar la actual producción científica sobre los asuntos relacionados a la sexualidad en el contexto de los trastornos alimenticios (TAs). La búsqueda fue realizada en las bases de datos PubMed, LILACS, CINAHL y PsycINFO, incluyendo artículos publicados entre 2008 y 2018, con los siguientes descriptores: trastornos alimenticios, feminidad, sexualidad y comportamiento sexual. Diecinueve estudios fueron seleccionados. Los datos fueron sistematizados en dos categorías principales y demostraron, de manera general, que la feminidad puede ser considerada como un factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de TAs. Los estudios indicaron que asumir un rol de género socialmente considerado discrepante del sexo biológico, independientemente de si se trata del género femenino o masculino, está relacionado con la sintomatología de TAs. Además, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal se muestra positivamente correlacionada con la disfunción sexual. Se enfatiza la necesidad de incluir temas relacionados a sexualidad, en intervenciones direccionadas a la prevención de TAs, abordando las posibles consecuencias negativas de adherirse a los estereotipos y requisitos sociales típicos del género femenino, especialmente aquellos relacionados a peso y forma corporal. (AU)

Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Sexualidade/psicologia , Feminilidade , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093306


Background: Gender roles impact different spheres of life and lead women to behavioral patterns and lifestyle habits associated with femininity, generating important differences between men and women in health. The present study analyzed relationships between conformity to the feminine norms and different lifestyle indicators: Educational level, marital status, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumption, sleeping hours, social support, and physical activity. Additionally, cluster analysis was developed in order to identify different patterns of gender role conformity. Methods: The sample was made up of 347 women age 18-70 from Spain. Data collection was conducted during 2014. Results: Multiple logistic regression analyses produced odds ratios showing that women with lower feminine role conformity were more likely to use tobacco and alcohol, but less likely to share their lives with someone. Cluster analysis found four different profiles of gender role conformity related to different patterns of alcohol consumption and marital status. Conclusions: Conformity to feminine norms was associated with basic affective conditions such as sharing life with others and with alcohol and tobacco consumption, but not with physical activity, social support, and sleep duration. Whereas tobacco and alcohol use have important health implications, public health systems should pay attention to gender-related variables in order to design and implement specific prevention programs.

Feminilidade , Estilo de Vida , Conformidade Social , Normas Sociais , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
J Cosmet Dermatol ; 19(2): 553-555, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141304


The desire for a more youthful appearance is that for which men and women often present for consideration of aesthetic interventions. For the female patient who is contemplating facial cosmetic enhancement, a true myriad of possible treatments exist. These options include neuromodulators, light-based therapies, and soft tissue fillers, and are often touted as restoring a more "youthful" appearance to an otherwise aged-appearing face. Perhaps it is not only youth that is being restored, but femininity, which in turn is appraised as being more beautiful.

Beleza , Técnicas Cosméticas , Feminilidade , Rejuvenescimento , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade , Resultado do Tratamento
J Adv Nurs ; 76(1): 191-198, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588580


BACKGROUND: In most parts of the world, nursing historically has been considered an occupation for women. Gender stereotypes are associated with the nursing profession. AIM: The aim was to describe and compare the self-reported competence in female and male nursing students. The students were also compared according to their different background college educations. The theoretical framework of hegemonic masculinity and femininity was used. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design with a questionnaire was used at two points in time, 2012 and 2017. METHODS: Nursing students completed a questionnaire on graduation from a 3-year university nursing program from 12 universities/university colleges in Sweden. In total, 1810 students were participating, 1577 female and 227 male students. The Nurse Professional Competence scale was used for data collection. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in the self-reported competence between female and male students (t tests and ANOVAs). These differences are in agreement with the patterns of hegemonic masculinity and femininity. Female students estimated their competence in giving value-based nursing care as higher than males. Male students estimated their competence in development and leadership higher than females. CONCLUSION: The pattern of hegemonic masculinity and femininity could be identified. This indicates a difference in power between female and male students. IMPACT: The study addresses the self-reported competence of female and male nursing students. The results indicated that male students possibly looked on themselves as superior to the female students. In order to change the image of nursing as a woman´s work, the self-images should be discussed in nursing education as well as in college education. Women interested in development, research, and leadership and men interested in nursing care and administration must feel that nursing is a suitable profession for them. The stereotypical image of nursing as a women's work is a barrier to nurses' professional development.

Competência Clínica , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(5): 443-469, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342802


Drawing on a decade of research on terrorism in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, we show how subjective "rational choices" motivate some women to engage in terrorist activism. Focusing on the motives of young women who engage in terrorism is consistent with feminist theory's insistence on women's agency-even at the extremes. In addition to the well-established motivations for terrorism reported in the literature, interviews with young women involved in terrorism reveal mixed personal motives for their gender-defying choices, including thrill-seeking and some conscious rebellion. However, we contend that women's subjective rationale for participation in such violent behavior needs to be contextualized. A cost-benefit approach, we maintain, highlights the strategic considerations supporting the deployment of women as combatants by Palestinian terrorist organizations. We argue that the inclusion of women in terrorist activism in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict exposes a major fault line in attitudes to the role and proper place of women in what remains largely a patriarchal culture. This social ambivalence accounts for why, on all measures, women fare worse than their male counterparts. The implications of the findings for feminist research as well as policy are discussed.

Árabes/psicologia , Identidade de Gênero , Motivação , Terrorismo/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Características da Família , Feminino , Feminilidade , Feminismo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
J Homosex ; 67(8): 1097-1117, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042114


We propose that feminine gay men are targets of essentialist beliefs that cast them as less natural and more entitative than masculine gay men, and that this pattern of low-naturalness/high-entitativity beliefs fuels increased sexual prejudice toward, and discomfort with, feminine gay men. Data from two studies support these hypotheses. In Study 1, feminine versus masculine gay men were rated lower in naturalness and higher in entitativity, while masculine versus feminine lesbians did not elicit this pattern of beliefs. Study 2 replicated the effects of gay men's gender expression on essentialist beliefs, and demonstrated that feminine gay men arouse more prejudice and discomfort than masculine gay men because they are perceived as socially constructed (low in naturalness) and deeply homogeneous (high in entitativity). Discussion considers the implications of these findings for reducing the stigma of femininity in gay men and outlines directions for future research.

Feminilidade , Homofobia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Adulto , Atitude , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina , Homossexualidade Masculina/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Estigma Social , Adulto Jovem