Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 46.368
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 612-622, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903750

RESUMO

Corn (Zea mays L.) growth and development is often limited by the availability of phosphate. We thus hypothesized that phosphate fertilization may increase the contents of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols (vitamin E) in corn grains. Corn plants cultivated on a soil fertilized with 44 kg phosphorus/ha were compared to plants grown on soil with low plant-available phosphate (1.6 mg CAL-P/100 g of soil), each sown early (April) and late (May) in a randomized field experiment. HPLC-DAD-(HR)-ESI-MSn revealed 19 soluble and 10 insoluble (poly)phenols, comprising phenolic acids, phenolic amines, diferulic, and triferulic acids in corn grains. Contents of individual (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in whole grains were significantly (p < 0.05) increased by sowing time, but not by phosphate fertilization. In conclusion, low phosphate availability did not impair the biosynthesis of (poly)phenols, carotenoids, and tocochromanols in corn grains.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Polifenóis/análise , Sementes/química , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 203: 111768, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931383

RESUMO

In vitro callus cultures of Verbena officinalis L. were maintained on solid Murashige and Skoog medium, enriched with 1 mg dm-3 BA and 1 mg dm-3 IBA under LED lights (red, blue, red/blue 70%/30%), in darkness and under control fluorescent lamps. The measurements of 2 phenylpropanoid glycosides (verbascoside and isoverbascoside) and 23 phenolic acids were performed in methanolic extracts from the biomass collected after 2-, 3- and 4-week growth cycles using the HPLC-DAD method. The presence of verbascoside, isoverbascoside and additionaly 7 phenolic acids (protocatechuic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic, ferulic, o-coumaric and m-coumaric acids) was confirmed in all extracts. Blue and red/blue lights stimulated the accumulation of verbascoside (max. of 6716 and 6023 mg 100 g-1 DW after a 4-week growth cycle) and isoverbascoside (max. 333 and 379 mg 100 g-1 DW also after 4 weeks). The maximum amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside were respectively 1.8- and 7.0-fold higher than under the control conditions. Phenolic acids were accumulated in different amounts, and the maximum total amounts ranged from 36 to 65 mg 100 g-1 DW. LED lights also stimulated their accumulation in comparison with darkness and control. The main phenolic acids included: m-coumaric acid (max. 39 mg 100 g-1 DW), ferulic acid (max. 12 mg 100 g-1 DW), and protocatechuic acid (max. 13 mg 100 g-1 DW). Additionally, the quantities of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids) were estimated in acetonic extracts using spectrophotometry. Red/blue light stimulated the biosynthesis of pigments (max. total content 287 µg g-1 FW after 4-week growth cycles). This is the first study describing the effect of LED lights on the production of phenylpropanoid glycosides and phenolic acids in V. officinalis callus cultures. Very high amounts of verbascoside and isoverbascoside are interesting from a practical point of view.


Assuntos
Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Luz , Fenóis/metabolismo , Verbena/metabolismo , Biomassa , Carotenoides/análise , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Glucosídeos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão , Espectrofotometria
3.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125286, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896186

RESUMO

Bisphenol-B (BPB), an analogue of bisphenol-A is used in the plastic industry. It has been found to leach from plastic containers leading to its contamination in canned food products. Moreover, it has also been detected in human samples such as sera and urine. BPB is recognized as a potential endocrine disrupting chemical owing to its estrogenic and anti-androgenic nature. Therefore, it was pertinent to study the effect of BPB exposure during the adolescence age (5-6 weeks old) in male mice. Weekly intraperitoneal injections of 5, 10 and 15% LD50 of BPB were given for 2 weeks to acute exposure groups and for 4 weeks to sub-acute exposure groups. BPB exposure induces change in enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers in sperm samples. DNA damage was also observed in sperm cells on acute and sub-acute exposures. Furthermore, BPB exposure led to a marked decline in sperm count and compromised sperm morphology. Computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant decrease in sperm quality and progressive motility. Thus, both the acute and sub-acute exposures of adolescent male mice to BPB adversely affect the sperms' quality, functions and morphology.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Oxirredução , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Espermatozoides/patologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 1126-1135, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891261

RESUMO

Phenylpropanoid (PPPN) compounds are widely used in agriculture, medical, food, and cosmetic industries because of their multiple bioactivities. Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus isolated from grape, is a new natural source of PPPNs. However, the PPPN biosynthesis pathway in MG1 tends to be suppressed under normal growth conditions. Starvation has been reported to stimulate the PPPN pathway in plants, but this phenomenon has not been well studied in endophytic fungi. Here, metabolomics analysis was used to examine the profile of PPPN compounds, and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of key genes in the PPPN biosynthesis pathway under starvation conditions. Starvation treatment significantly increased the accumulation of shikimate and PPPN compounds and upregulated the expression of key genes in their biosynthesis pathways. In addition to previously reported PPPNs, sinapate, 4-hydroxystyrene, piceatannol, and taxifolin were also detected under starvation treatment. These findings suggest that starvation treatment provides an effective way to optimize the production of PPPN compounds and may permit the investigation of compounds that are undetectable under normal conditions. Moreover, the diversity of its PPPNs makes strain MG1 a rich repository of valuable compounds and an extensive genetic resource for future studies.


Assuntos
Alternaria/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Vitis/microbiologia , Alternaria/genética , Alternaria/isolamento & purificação , Vias Biossintéticas , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Fenóis/metabolismo , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/biossíntese , Metabolismo Secundário , Estilbenos/metabolismo
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 927-942, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910006

RESUMO

Nuts contain a vast array of phenolic compounds having important biological properties. They include substances allocated into the five major groups named phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic lignans, and stilbene derivatives. The complexity in composition does not allow for setting a universal extraction procedure suitable for extraction of all nut phenolics. The use of non-conventional extraction techniques, such as those based on microwave, ultrasound, and compressed fluids, combined with generally recognized as safe solvents is gaining major interest. With regard to the latter, ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixtures have proven to be effective as extracting solvents and allow for clean, safe, and low-cost extraction operations. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in biological properties of natural phenolic compounds, especially on their role in the prevention of several diseases in which oxidative stress reactions are involved. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on nut phenolic extraction and their chemical profiles and bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Nozes/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1257-1265, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927919

RESUMO

Bedaquiline (TMC-207) is a recently approved drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Moreover, there is a present and growing concern for natural-product-mediated drug interaction, as these are inadvertently taken by patients as a dietary supplement, food additive, and medicine. In the present study, we investigated the impact of 20 plant-based natural products, typically phenolics, on in vivo oral bedaquiline pharmacokinetics, as previous studies are lacking. Three natural phenolics were identified that can significantly enhance the oral exposure of bedaquiline upon coadministration. We further investigated the possible role of all of the phytochemicals on in vitro P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction and inhibition and CYP3A4 inhibition in a single platform as bedaquiline is the substrate for both P-gp and CYP3A4. In conclusion, curcumin, CC-I (3',5-dihydroxyflavone-7-O-ß-d-galacturonide-4'-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside), and 6-gingerol should not be coadministered with bedaquiline to avoid untoward drug interactions and, subsequently, its dose-dependent adverse effects.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacocinética , Diarilquinolinas/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Interações Alimento-Droga , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/metabolismo , Diarilquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo
7.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125236, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896187

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known ubiquitous chemical found in polycarbonate, polysulfone and epoxy resins, used in mass production for many consumer products. BPA exhibits endocrine disruptor properties that can potentially induce adverse health effects. In aquatic environments, it can react with chlorine to produce chlorinated derivatives (ClxBPAs). ClxBPAs exhibit oestrogenic activity 10 to 105 times higher than BPA itself. Assessing human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals is mandatory to assess health risk. Blood, as well as urine matrix, are commonly used to perform human biomonitoring. We therefore developed, fully validated and applied a method based on Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography couples to a Triple Quad Mass Spectrometer to determine BPA, monochlorobisphenol A (MCBPA), dichlorobisphenol A (DCBPA), trichlorobisphenol A (TCBPA) and tetrachlorobisphenol A (TTCBPA) in human blood plasma. The European Medicines Agency guidelines for bioanalytical method validation have been applied. Precision and trueness of the method were <15% at medium and high levels of quality control and <20% at the limits of quantification (LOQs). The LOQs were settled at 0.1 ng/mL for BPA, 0.02 ng/mL for TTCBPA and 0.005 ng/mL for MCBPA, DCBPA, and TCBPA. The analytical method was applied to ten patients suffering from end stage renal disease. BPA was quantified in all ten patients while MCBPA, DCBPA and TTCBPA were determined in three and TCBPA in four. In conclusion, we have successfully developed a highly sensitive method to determine BPA and ClxBPAs in human plasma. Thanks to this method, for the first time, we could demonstrate ClxBPAs occurrence in human blood.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/sangue , Fenóis/sangue , Cloro , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Halogenação , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
8.
Water Res ; 172: 115494, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954934

RESUMO

Microbial degradation is an elimination method for removal of organic contaminants from soil and water. However, the main factor limiting its practical application is high bacterial sensitivity to environmental factors such as pH, toxicity, and mass transfer. In this study, biochar was produced pyrolytically from peanut shells at 350 °C, 550 °C, and 750 °C (referred to as BC350, BC550, and BC750, respectively) and their promotion on phenol biodegradation in wastewater by the bacterium Pseudomonas citronellolis was investigated. Higher initial phenol concentration (>400 mg L-1) showed obvious inhibition on biodegradation with the removal efficiencies being less than 46%, and even the bacterium failed to survive at the phenol concentrations of higher than 1000 mg L-1. With biochar incorporated, the removal efficiencies of phenol increased from below 46% to up to 99% at the initial concentrations of 400-1200 mg L-1. Immobilization of strains in biochar by calcium alginate further increased the microbial tolerance to high concentrations of phenol (i.e., 63% removal at 1200 mg L-1). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that biochar acted as shelter to support the bacterium to struggle with extreme conditions. The initial adsorption of phenol by biochar alleviated the initial toxicity of phenol to bacterium and the subsequent gradual desorption controlled the bioavailability of phenol. In this regard, BC350 showed a comparable sorption capacity with BC550 and BC750, while a higher desorption potential than them, thus balanced better the toxicity and bioavailability of phenol to microbes. Alkalinity of BC550 and BC750 played important roles in rescuing the microbes from being damaged by pH shock via neutralizing the fast generation of acidic intermediates. The extractable organic substances in BC350 could be consumed by bacterium as substrates, which was confirmed by incubating the strains in water-extractable solution. Results of this study indicate that incorporation of microbes with biochar could promote the biodegradation of high concentration organic wastewater.


Assuntos
Fenol , Águas Residuárias , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenóis , Pseudomonas
9.
Environ Technol ; 41(3): 322-328, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29978766

RESUMO

Nonylphenol, an endocrine disrupter, is widely released to the aquatic environment, which is accumulative and extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Here, we report a simple and cost-effective large-scale green synthesis of water-soluble highly fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs) from marine biowaste (offshore washed algae) which gets quenched strongly in the presence of nonylphenol. These CQDs were around 20-40 nm in size and exhibit fluorescence constantly at 360 nm. The XRD profile depicted the interlayer spacing in the particle as 0.284 nm with a humped peak around 14 degrees showing the amorphous nature of the CQDs. FTIR spectra showed the stretching vibration of the hydroxyl groups (OH), asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of the carboxylate anions (COO-). The fluorescence quantum yield of the CQDs is up to 68% and nonyl phenol detection limit is less than 0.1 µM. Furthermore, the CQDs were found to be stable at a wide pH range which makes it a suitable nonylphenol sensor for a variety of environmental samples. We functionalized these CQDs on an agarose gel matrix to develop a convenient sensor for the rapid detection of nonylphenol.


Assuntos
Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Fenóis , Sefarose
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(2): 485-502, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805232

RESUMO

In this study we report a detailed investigation of the polyphenol composition of Protea pure (P. cynaroides and P. neriifolia) and hybrid cultivars (Black beauty and Limelight). Aqueous methanol extracts of leaf and bract tissues were analyzed by ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography hyphenated to photodiode array and ion mobility-high resolution mass spectrometric (UHPLC-PDA-IM-HR-MS) detection. A total of 67 metabolites were characterized based on their relative reversed phase (RP) retention, UV-vis spectra, low and high collision energy HR-MS data, and collisional cross section (CCS) values. These metabolites included 41 phenolic acid esters and 25 flavonoid derivatives, including 5 anthocyanins. In addition, an undescribed hydroxycinnamic acid-polygalatol ester, caffeoyl-O-polygalatol (1,5-anhydro-[6-O-caffeoyl]-sorbitol(glucitol)) was isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR for the first time. This compound and its isomer are shown to be potential chemo-taxonomic markers.


Assuntos
Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteaceae/genética
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 978-985, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sorghum grain is rich in phenolic compounds and has the potential to be developed into functional beverages such as sorghum grain tea, in which the health benefits and flavour are the important quality attributes to be considered in tea product development. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of grain tea processing steps on the phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and aroma profile (volatile compounds) of MR-Buster (red-coloured) and Shawaya Short Black 1 (black-coloured) sorghum and the results compared with those for our previously reported Liberty (white-coloured) sorghum. RESULTS: Tea processing had significant impacts on sorghum polyphenols and volatile compounds, but the effect and level varied among sorghum varieties. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity in these three sorghum varieties were consistent in both raw grain and grain tea samples and in the order Shawaya Short Black 1 > MR-Buster > Liberty. However, the volatile profiles (both individual and grouped volatiles) were significantly different between sorghum varieties, and the abundance and diversity of the volatile compounds of the tea samples were in the order Liberty > MR-Buster > Shawaya Short Black 1. CONCLUSIONS: Black-coloured sorghum with high phenolic content and antioxidant activity is more suitable for making sorghum tea considering the health benefits. In terms of the aroma intensity and diversity, white-coloured sorghum could be the ideal material. However, future study is needed to determine the key volatile compounds that positively contribute to the aroma. This work provides important insights into the selection of grain materials for sorghum grain tea production. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Bebidas/análise , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorghum/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Manipulação de Alimentos , Sorghum/classificação
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1185-1194, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. Don) Exell, one of the problem weeds in some rice-producing countries, was studied to determine its allelopathic potential based on the effects of aqueous extracts of its tissues (leaves, roots and stem) on seedling growth of selected weeds and rice. The major phenolic compound of its leaves was also isolated and characterized. RESULTS: L. hyssopifolia aqueous leaf extract showed significant inhibition of shoot growth and biomass accumulation of weeds (Amaranthus spinosus L., Dactyloctenium aegyptium L., Cyperus iria L.) while maintaining less adverse effects on rice (crop) compared to other aqueous extracts of roots and stem. Phytochemical screening showed that phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and coumarins are found in its leaf aqueous extract. The Folin-Ciocalteu method revealed that its leaves contain 26.66 ± 0.30 mg GAE g-1 leaf. The extract was then acid-hydrolyzed to liberate the phenolics (25 mg phenolics g-1 leaf). The major compound was isolated via preparative thin-layer chromatography using formic acid-ethyl acetate-n-hexane (0.05:4:6) solvent system. It had maximum UV absorption at 272 nm while its Fourier transform infrared spectrum revealed phenol, carboxylic acid and ether functionalities. This also had similar chromatographic mobility when run together with syringic acid in two-dimensional paper chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. CONCLUSIONS: L. hyssopifolia has potential allelopathic activity and its leaf aqueous extract showed the highest phytotoxic activity (P ≤ 0.05) indicating its potential as a bioherbicide. The most probable identity of the major phenolic compound is syringic acid. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/química , Onagraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Taninos/química , Taninos/farmacologia
13.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 34(1): e4705, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629370

RESUMO

Lithocarpus polystachyus leaves exhibit antidiabetic activity and is consumed as a herbal tea in China. In this study, phytochemical profiles of L. polystachyus leaves were identified and characterized by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight-MS in both positive and negative ion modes. A total of 17 compounds were tentatively characterized and identified by accurate mass and characteristic fragment ions. The total phenolic contents in the leaf extracts ranged from 9.0 to 13.4 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g of dry weight (DW). In addition, the effect of these extracts on inhibiting the activities of α-glucosidase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were evaluated. L. polystachyus extracts demonstrated significant inhibition of α-glucosidase (more than 88.1% at a concentration of 1.25 mg/mL) and acarbose (93.6% at a concentration of 5 mg/mL) while the PTP1B inhibition rate was over 84.3%. The antioxidant capacities of the leaf extracts were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS, and ferric reducing ability of plasma methods and ranged from 50.5 to 72.5 g trolox, from 43.2 to 77.7 g trolox, and from 5.0 to 10.6 g butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT; equaling trolox or BHT per 100 g of DW), respectively. Based on these results, L. polystachyus can be considered as a functional food owing to its antidiabetic and antioxidative activities, which are attributed to its rich phenolic and dihydrochalcone contents.


Assuntos
Fagaceae , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110941, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697970

RESUMO

Bamboo leaves soups were subjected to in vitro digestion (including separated oral, gastric and small intestinal digestions, and complete digestion containing above three stages), and their phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined. Compared to control groups, total phenolic content (TPC) in treated groups (including undigested and digested groups) increased at gastric digestion stage but decreased at other digestion stages, and the decrease in small intestinal digestion stage (19.97%) was nearly the same with that in complete digestion stage (19.39%). The antioxidant activity in digested groups almost changed accordingly to their TPC but with no significant difference (p > 0.05) as compared with undigested groups; similar results were found in four main individual phenolics including cryptochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and isoorientin, and their contents were negatively correlated to the pH value of digestion buffers (-0.68 < r < -0.80, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the change of phenolic content and antioxidant activity in digested bamboo leaves soups mainly resulted from the pH of digestion buffers rather than digestive enzymes. In addition, the decrease of phenolics may mainly occur at small intestinal digestion stage where the pH value is the highest in the digestive system.


Assuntos
Digestão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise
15.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 242-249, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733320

RESUMO

Humans are typically exposed to mixtures of substances, whereby their bioactivity can be significantly altered by co-occurring compounds. Thus, over the last years, research on combinatory effects has gained increasing attention. In particular, several xenoestrogens have been recently reported to interact synergistically, among them alternariol (AOH) and zearalenone (ZEN), two toxins produced by molds which contaminate crops or food commodities. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a potential food contaminant arising from its use in plastics and represents a well-known xenoestrogen, acting as an endocrine disruptor. However, little research was yet conducted on its impact on the bioactivity of other xenoestrogens, and vice versa. Thus, in this study, we focused on combinatory estrogenic effects of BPA with AOH and ZEN in Ishikawa cells, which represent a well-established, estrogen-sensitive human cell model. Estrogenic stimuli of the single compounds and binary combinations in constant concentration ratios were measured by assessing the activity of alkaline phosphatase, a natural reporter gene for estrogen receptor activation. In parallel, cytotoxicity was monitored by neutral red assay. For statistical analysis of combinatory effects the "combination index" model was applied. In combination with ZEN, BPA was found to cause additive estrogenic effects. Mixtures of BPA with AOH expressed moderately antagonistic to nearly additive combinatory effects, depending on the concentration ratio. Although no synergistic effects were measured in the applied chemical mixtures, additive estrogenic stimuli were observed, underlining the importance to consider the cumulative impact of endocrine active factors out of different sources and structural classes.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Lactonas/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Fosfatase Alcalina/análise , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações de Medicamentos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Endométrio/citologia , Feminino , Humanos
16.
Water Res ; 169: 115273, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733622

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), are of increasing concerns for many years. This paper presents the elimination of BPA under visible light (VL) (λ ≥ 420 nm) irradiated solutions containing fulvic acid (FA) and MnSO4 (Mn(II)), and examines the possible effects of TBBPA on the transformation of BPA. After 72 h of reaction time, the removal efficiency of BPA in the studied system was 69%. Results of different experiments to identify oxidative species suggested the dominate role of soluble manganese (III) (Mn(III)) in the conversion of BPA. The transformation of BPA by the VL/FA/Mn(II) system was through self-oligomerization in absence of co-existence of TBBPA. In the co-existence of BPA with TBBPA, the removal of BPA was largely inhibited due to the competition with available Mn(III) and the possible occurrence of cross-coupling reactions between the two EDCs. This phenomenon was further elucidated by product analyses and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The energy difference (ΔE) for generating a cross-coupling product was calculated as -23.4 kJ mol-1, much lower than the positive values of ΔE for self-coupling products of BPA or TBBPA, demonstrating that cross-coupling reactions between BPA and TBBPA likely occurred easier than the respective self-coupling reactions. The toxicity test showed that the overall estrogenic activity of BPA reaction solution was significantly decreased by the VL/FA/Mn(II) system. In general, our study provided new insights into the transformation of co-existing EDCs by in situ formed Mn(III) in aqueous solution.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Fenóis , Benzopiranos , Bifenil Polibromatos
17.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 202: 111678, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734433

RESUMO

Potted herbs such as basil are in high year-round demand in Central Europe. To ensure good quality in winter, artificial light is required. Many horticulturists, who want to replace their high-pressure­sodium (HPS) lamps with light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to save electricity energy, struggle with high investment costs. In addition, switching to LEDs can overwhelm many smaller horticultural enterprises since there is a requirement of adjusting individual light recipes and furthermore cultivation problems can occur due to the lack of infrared radiation. In this study, the influence of light from microwave plasma lamps (MPL), acting as alternative light sources, on secondary metabolites and morphology of basil plants (Ocimum basilicum L.) was tested. Basil plants were grown in a climate chamber with MPL with two different light bulbs emitting either artificial sunlight (AS) or broad white light with increased blue and green light content (sulfur plasma light; SPL). The effect of these new lamp types was compared to standard commercial HPS lamps. In addition to morphological parameters such as height, internode length and fresh weight, plant secondary metabolites were examined. Essential oils and monoterpenes were quantified by GC-MS analysis, whereby phenolic compounds were analyzed calorimetrically. Elongation growth and biomass production was increased under the AS spectrum in comparison to HPS-grown plants. Increased stem elongation was attributed to a higher content of far-red light in the AS spectrum. Furthermore, basil plants grown under the AS spectrum contained the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid content compared to plants grown under the SPL and HPS lamps, probably due to the higher content of UV-A radiation. The lowest content of phenolic compounds was observed when HPS light was used, which was assumed to be caused by a low blue light content in the emission spectrum. An impact of the different light spectra on essential oil composition was determined. A significantly increased content of linalool was found in basil leaves developed under both tested MPL spectra compared to HPS-grown plants. The total yield of the four major essential oils was lowest under HPS treatment.


Assuntos
Luz , Ocimum basilicum/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Gases em Plasma/química , Biomassa , Clorofila/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Micro-Ondas , Ocimum basilicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ocimum basilicum/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1256-1264, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean is widely used in food formulations; however, few studies on fungal or mycotoxin contamination have been undertaken. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant and antifungal potential, were therefore evaluated together with the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in soybeans. RESULTS: The conjugated and bound phenolic soybean extracts were more efficient for the inhibition of the 2,2 diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, the peroxidase enzyme, and the fungal α-amylase enzyme. Aflatoxin B1, detected at low levels (0.96 to 1.67 ng g-1 ), confirmed the protective effect of soybean phenolic compounds against mycotoxigenic contamination. Principal component analysis confirmed that syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric acids and vanillin were essential for antioxidant and antifungal activities. CONCLUSION: This study presented new insights into the functionality of phenolic compounds in soybeans, regarding their potential to protect the crops naturally against fungal contamination, avoiding aflatoxin production, as attested by the correlations between phenolic compounds and antioxidant mechanisms. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/análise , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Soja/química , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Soja/microbiologia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 1301-1310, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grape berries exhibit various beneficial health effects due to the potent antioxidant roles of their phenolic compounds. A new Vitis vinifera grape cultivar (Karaerik) grown in Turkey has attracted growing interest due to its antioxidant phenolic compounds, which have still not been investigated. The phenolic/anthocyanin profile needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential health benefits and market value in the region. The present study therefore involves a detailed characterization of the anthocyanin composition of 'Karaerik' grape berries in conjunction with a determination of the antioxidant capacity value of the phenolics present in the skin and the whole berry. RESULTS: Total phenolic compounds (average 8.56 and 2.88 g gallic acid equivalent kg-1 fresh weight) and anthocyanin (7.48 and 1.66 g mv-3-glc equivalent kg-1 fresh weight) contents varied significantly in the skin and whole berry. Malvidin-based anthocyanins made the highest contribution to the pigment content of the berry. Accordingly, the major anthocyanin in the skin (average 42.08 mol%) and whole berry (39.98 mol%) was malvidin-3-glucoside (mv-3-glc). In addition, we found strong evidence of the occurrence of sometimes reported malvidin-3-pentoside and particularly of the not previously reported feruloyl derivative of malvidin-3-(6″-feruloyl)-glucoside (mv-3-ferglc) for V. vinifera grapes. CONCLUSION: The current study is the first report to profile the anthocyanins of the grape with a detailed description of the rare and novel anthocyanin in V. vinifera grapes. The berry is also a potential source of phenolics/anthocyanins with a high antioxidant capacity value and is worthy of comparison with other V. vinifera grapes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Vitis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas/química , Fenóis/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Turquia
20.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 953-960, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 'Arauco' is the only autochthonous olive cultivar from Argentina. Little has been reported so far regarding the management of this crop. In this work, variations in fruit and chemical characteristics of olives harvested over a wide range of dates and seasons are reported for this cultivar at two sites in Mendoza province in central west Argentina. RESULTS: During the harvest periods studied, fruit oil content on a dry basis remained at its maximum and was stable, but fruit oil content on fresh basis increased as water content decreased with delay in harvest date. Harvest date affected the maturity index of fruits as well as the oxidative stability and phenolic content of oil. In contrast, the fatty acid profile was not consistently affected by harvest date. Environmental conditions, mainly the occurrence and intensity of frosts, strongly influenced oil quality as well as maturity with delay in harvest date. CONCLUSION: The most appropriate harvest time to obtain Arauco oil with a high oil yield and good chemical quality was before mid-May and with maturity index lower than 2. Fruits harvested after mid-May were exposed to minimum temperatures between -1.2 °C and - 4.0 °C, producing oil with low phenolic compounds and oxidative stability. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Azeite de Oliva/química , Argentina , Produção Agrícola , Ácidos Graxos/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olea/química , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Estações do Ano , Temperatura Ambiente , Fatores de Tempo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA