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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(2): 346-357, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016421

RESUMO

Nonylphenol (NP) is considered a major contaminant that must be removed to enable safe and environmentally friendly land application of sewage sludge. Phytoremediation is a technology in which plants are used to remove and/or stabilize organic and inorganic contaminants present in the soil, municipal wastewater, and sewage sludge. In this study, a 391-d large pot experiment was conducted to remove NP from sewage sludge by phytoremediation using Zea mays L. 'Yunshi-5', Lolium perenne L., and co-cropping of the two plants. The fate of NP in the soil under the sewage sludge was assessed at the same time. At the end of the experiment, the NP levels in sludge from the various treatments were as follows: control (38.60%) > L. perenne (31.27%) > Z. mays (16.25%) > co-cropping (15.28%). Degradation followed an availability-adjusted first-order kinetics with a decreasing order of half-lives as follows: control (88.2 d) > L. perenne (87.3 d) > co-cropping (66.2 d) > Z. mays (59.1 d). The results indicated that Z. mays and co-cropping could both degrade NP. The concentrations of NP in tissues of different plants differed significantly. The mean bioconcentration factors for Z. mays and L. perenne were 0.16 and 3.69, respectively. Direct removal of NP from sewage sludge by plant uptake was negligible, as was downward movement of NP in the system. Moreover, NP was not detected in soils in any treatments at harvest.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Fenóis/análise
2.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126916, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957301

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP), a phenolic endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC), is known to have high toxicity to aquatic organisms and humans. The remediation of 4-NP-contaminated marine sediments was studied using red algae-based biochar (RAB) thermochemically synthesized from Agardhiella subulata with simple pyrolysis process under different temperatures of 300-900 °C in CO2 atmosphere. The RAB was characterized by XRD, Raman, FTIR spectroscopy, and zeta potential measurements. The calcium in RAB efficiently activated sodium percarbonate (SPC) to generate reactive radicals for the catalytic degradation of 4-NP at pH 9.0. The oxygen-containing functional groups reacted with H2O2, which increased the generation of reactive radicals under alkaline pH condition. Ca2+ ion was the active species responsible for 4-NP degradation. CaO/CaCO3 on RAB surface enhanced direct electron transfer, increased HO production, and 4-NP degradation in marine sediments. Langmuir‒Hinshelwood type kinetics well described the 4-NP degradation process. Remediation of contaminated sediments using RAB could be a sustainable approach toward closed-loop biomass cycling in the degradation of 4-NP contaminants.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Fenóis/análise , Rodófitas/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomassa , Carbonatos/química , Catálise , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111318, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979806

RESUMO

The retention of polyether sulfone (PES) and bisphenol A (BPA) in wastewater has received extensive attention. The effects of PES and BPA on the removal of organic matter by anaerobic granular sludge were investigated. We also analyzed the changes in the electron transport system and the effects on the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), as well as alternations of the microbial community in the anaerobic granular sludge. In the experimental groups which received BPA, the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were significantly suppressed, which an average removal efficiency of less than 65%, 30% lower than that of the control group. In the loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS) excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra, the absorption peak of tryptophan disappeared when the BPA pollutants was added, which it was present in the control group without added pollutants. The addition of PES and BPA also affected protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 activities in the anaerobic granular sludge. Especially, the coenzyme F420 reduced from 0.0045 to 0.0017 µmol/L in the presence of PES and BPA. The relative abundance of Spirochaetes decreased in the presence of PES and BPA, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased from 12.98% to 22.87%. At the genus level, in the presence of PES and BPA, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter increased from 2.20% to 9.64% and Hydrogenophaga decreased sharply from 15.58% to 0.12%.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polímeros/química , Sulfonas/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Plásticos , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111093, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805502

RESUMO

Phenolic Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have drawn more and more interest due to their prevalence and persistence in aquatic environment. To study the adsorption of various phenolic EDCs on river sediments under natural conditions, we first sought to analyze the distribution characteristics of phenol and bisphenol A (BPA) in sediment from the Bahe River. The static adsorption experiments contained either single- or dual-contaminant of phenol and/or BPA in the system; they were conducted to characterize the adsorption of these two pollutants in the surface sediments and the main factors affecting the adsorption processes of the dual-contaminant system, including particle size, humic acid (HA) concentration, pH, and temperature. Results showed that in certain seasons, there was a significant correlation between the levels of phenol and BPA in Bahe sediments. When comparing the adsorption behaviors of phenol and BPA on sediments in single- and dual-contaminant systems, we found that the phenol adsorption behavior varied, while that of BPA remained consistent across the different systems. Moreover, different effects were observed with regards to a single factor and the interaction of multiple factors on the adsorption of pollutants. Of the four single factors, only HA concentration had a significant effect on the phenol adsorption in sediment. When considering the interaction of multiple factors, the interaction between HA concentration and temperature significantly promoted the adsorption of phenol. The influence of factors on the adsorption of BPA was in the following order: particle size > HA concentration > pH > temperature. Particle size significantly inhibited BPA adsorption in the sediment, while the interaction between particle size and pH increased BPA adsorption.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Poluentes Ambientais , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise , Rios/química , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111064, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738625

RESUMO

Very limited studies have evaluated the impact of rainfall on the fate of endocrine-disrupting micropollutants in lacustrine systems. This yearlong study investigated monthly fluctuation of bisphenol A (BPA) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) concentrations in both water and sediment samples from Taihu Lake and evaluated the impact of rainfall on their spatiotemporal distribution and partition trends. Results showed that BPA concentration in water was negatively correlated to rainfall while NP concentrations in both phases were positively related to rainfall. The spatial distribution of NP in the lake water was season specific with the lakeshore area higher than the central area during the wet season and a reversed pattern during the dry season. The spatial distributions of sediment-associated NP and BPA in both phases were not significantly different among seasons. Contrary partition tendencies were observed for BPA and NP that BPA tended to desorb from sediment and NP tended to be adsorbed during the wet season while the trends were reversed during the dry season. This study suggests that rainfall could affect the occurrence, distribution and environmental fate of micropollutants and should be considered in the monitoring program and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/química , Fenóis/análise , Chuva/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Medição de Risco , Estações do Ano , Análise Espaço-Temporal
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110939, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800222

RESUMO

Pulp and paper mill wastewater (PPMWW) contains high concentrations of recalcitrant compounds that cause toxicity to organisms. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have the ability to degrade these compounds and reduce overall toxicity. Physicochemical characterization and Lactuca sativa toxicity test were conducted to compare the effectiveness of two post-treatments: UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. A comparison of four phytotoxicity indexes was carried out. PPMWW from a Brazilian treatment plant was characterized by high values of phenols, color, integrated spectral area (ISA), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and caused significant inhibition to seedling development. The use of both post-treatments allowed the removal of over 75% of phenols, color, ISA, and COD. Although UV/H2O2 was more effective in removing phenols and ISA, photo-Fenton better reduced phytotoxicity. The most sensitive phytotoxicity indexes were RGIC0.8 and GIC80%, whereas SGC0, REC-0.25 and REC-0.50 better showed the effectiveness of the post-treatments. We suggest the combined use of two phytotoxicity indexes: one that evaluates the effects on seed germination and, another, on root elongation, e.g., SGC0 and RGIC0.8. Additionally, we recommend the use of ISA for monitoring programs of wastewater treatments because it is a cost-effective approach that allows narrowing down the search and identification of compounds present in complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Papel , Fenóis/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Brasil , Cor , Corantes/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química
8.
J Chromatogr A ; 1627: 461423, 2020 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823118

RESUMO

A novel stationary phase co-modified with N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIPAM) and 3-aminophenylboronic acid copolymer on the silica was synthesized through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) reaction for performing mixed-mode and boronate affinity chromatography. The prepared functionalized silica was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), elemental analysis (EA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements. The prepared column named Sil-PBA-NIPAM showed great separation performance for hydrophobic, hydrophilic, positional isomer, acidic and alkaline compounds. Besides, the mixture of cis-diol and non-cis-diol compounds was used to prove that the developed column also has potential to capture and enrich cis-diol compounds. The prepared column possesses merits of time-saving, high selectivity to cis-diol compounds and molecular-planarity selectivity compared with two commercial single-mode columns. The theoretical plates of material can reach to 57472 and the column has good hydrolysis stability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. In summary, the prepared column possesses good hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, molecular-planarity selectivity and boronate affinity abilities for the analysis of various compounds.


Assuntos
Acrilamidas/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Ácido Benzoico/análise , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Hidrólise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fenóis/análise , Polimerização , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Dióxido de Silício/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termogravimetria
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237844, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834013

RESUMO

The feasibility of the production of germinated rice extracts using indigenous rice from Southern Thailand, including Khemtong (KHT) and Khai Mod Rin (KMR) from a single location at the Pak Phanang River Basin in Nakhon Si Thammarat, was investigated. The nutritional composition and bioactivity of the germinated rice extracts from both cultivars were evaluated. Optimum germination time for both rices was 96 h, leading to the highest GABA, thiamine, free amino acid, total sugar, and α-amylase activity (p<0.05). Germinated KHT had a higher α-amylase activity than germinated KMR at all germination times. Mashing at 60°C/pH 5.5 rendered the extract with the highest GABA content (p<0.05) and desirable contents of other nutrients. In comparison with germinated Sungyod (local colored rice) and Jasmine (commercial Thai rice) extracts, KHT and KMR showed a higher scavenging activity against DPPH•, OH•, and H2O2 (p<0.05) with a comparable ABTS•+ inhibition. For metal chelation, reducing power and ACE inhibitory activity, the germinated Sungyod extract was greater than KHT/KMR. The results demonstrated the potential use of germinated local Thai rice for the production of functional beverages.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/análise , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Estudos de Viabilidade , Flavonoides/análise , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácido Fítico/análise , Picratos/química , Açúcares/análise , Tiamina/análise , Fatores de Tempo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
10.
J Environ Manage ; 274: 111141, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818827

RESUMO

A simplified modelling approach for illustrating the fate of emerging pollutants can improve risk assessment of these chemicals. Once released into aquatic environments, these pollutants will interact with various substances including suspended particles, colloidal or nano particles, which will greatly influence their distribution and ultimate fate. Understanding these interactions in aquatic environments continues to be an important issue because of their possible risk. In this study, bisphenol A (BPA) in the water column of Bentong River, Malaysia, was investigated in both its soluble and colloidal phase. A spatially explicit hydrological model was established to illustrate the associated dispersion processes of colloidal-bound BPA. Modelling results demonstrated the significance of spatial detail in predicting hot spots or peak concentrations of colloidal-bound BPA in the sediment and water columns as well. The magnitude and setting of such spots were system based and depended mainly on flow conditions. The results highlighted the effects of colloidal particles' concentration and density on BPA's removal from the water column. It also demonstrated the tendency of colloidal particles to aggregate and the impact all these processes had on BPA's transport potential and fate in a river water. All scenarios showed that after 7.5-10 km mark BPA's concentration started to reach a steady state with very low concentrations which indicated that a downstream transport of colloidal-bound BPA was less likely due to minute BPA levels.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Malásia , Fenóis/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 331: 127361, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650229

RESUMO

A low cost hand-held spectral analytical system was developed for in situ screening of phenolics and flavonoids in puff dried Ziziphus jujuba (Z. Jujuba) samples. Standards of gallic acid, caffeic acid, l-epicatechin, phloridzin and cianidanol were used to quantify the individual phenolics and flavonoids using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The synergy interval partial least square with ant colony optimization (Si-ACO-PLS) was attempted to optimize and capture informative variables for the prediction of target compounds. The model performance was evaluated using correlation coefficients of prediction (Rp); root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD). The Si-ACO-PLS yielded optimal performance, 0.8540 ≤ Rc ≤ 0.9250, 0.8360 ≤ Rp ≤ 0.9056, 0.84 ≤ RMSEP ≤ 16.30 and 2.03 ≤ RPD ≤ 2.26. The hand-held spectral analytical system coupled with Si-ACO-PLS proved to the reliable, rapid and cost-effective method to quantify the phenolics and flavonoids in Z. Jujuba.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ziziphus/química , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Espectral/instrumentação , Análise Espectral/métodos
12.
Food Chem ; 333: 127506, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679417

RESUMO

Artichoke floral stems (AFS) food waste by-products were examined for their phytochemical constituents and their in vitro and in vivo biological activities. Although that the highest total phenol content and total flavonoid content were found in ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract possessed the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and showed the highest reducing ferric antioxidant power (FRAP). The anti-acetylcholinesterase activity was higher in butanol extract, whereas the ethyl acetate extract had the highest inhibitory effect on heat-induced protein denaturation. In alloxan-induced diabetic mice, the AFS methanol extract (AFSE) rich in caffeoylquinic acids and flavones reduced blood glucose, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and improved liver, and renal antioxidative status. Administration of AFSE to diabetic mice reduced total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) suggesting its hypolipidemic action. Overall, AFS could be considered as attractive source of health-promoting ingredients.


Assuntos
Cynara scolymus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alanina Transaminase , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/análise , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cynara scolymus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Flores/química , Flores/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
13.
Food Chem ; 333: 127515, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683260

RESUMO

The nutritional and commercial value of the sweet cherry provides it a great economic importance in Italy. The aim of this study was to characterize 35 sweet cherry cultivars and one of sour cherry, by analyzing values of different pomological and nutraceutical traits, identifying cultivars with antioxidant activity and total anthocyanins content closest to those present in literature for Ferrovia (largely diffused in Italy). To this goal, a multivariate metric index through the Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy analyzing an artificial dataset and testing a real one, two hierarchical clustering and a principal component analysis, were performed. The multivariate analyses result simultaneously investigated all the variables highlighting cvs. Sylvia, Graffione nero Col di Mosso, Ferrovia, Mora della Punta, Bianchetta Nuchis and Sandra to be more similar to literature data of Ferrovia. This matrix index was a useful tool, to select the most commercial promising varieties.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Prunus avium/classificação , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Análise por Conglomerados , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Itália , Molibdênio/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Prunus avium/química , Prunus avium/metabolismo , Compostos de Tungstênio/química
14.
Food Chem ; 333: 127527, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683263

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a novel fermented soybean food (FSF) using selected Bacillus subtilis GD1, Bacillus subtilis N4, Bacillus velezensis GZ1, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Hansenula anomala, as well as to assess its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity. These Bacillus strains had excellent enzyme producing and soybean transformation capacity. FSF showed the highest peptide, total phenol, total flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and suitable organic acid and biological amine content. In intense exercise mice, FSF treatment markedly increased hepatic glycogen level, decreased metabolite accumulation, improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in serum and liver, respectively. Furthermore, FSF treatment increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent gene expression. Together, the selection of microbial starter culture and mixed culture fermentation are essential for the effective enrichment of bioactive compounds, and FSF has stronger antioxidant and anti-fatigue activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bacillus/metabolismo , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Fadiga/metabolismo , Fadiga/patologia , Flavonoides/análise , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Soja/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 37645-37649, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608004

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high production volume chemical that has wide industrial applications, especially as a color developer in thermal papers. The present study focused on the determination of levels of BPA in thermal receipts collected from different locations in Akure, Nigeria, and the estimation of daily intake of BPA through dermal absorption. Thermal receipts were collected from different locations, and the levels of extracted BPA were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. The daily intake of BPA was estimated, and the amount was compared with the reference value. BPA was detected in all the samples analyzed with levels ranging from 1.50 to 3.16 mg/g. These values were lower than the values detected in thermal receipts obtained from other countries. The estimated mean daily intakes of BPA by dermal absorption due to handling of thermal receipts were 0.20 and 9.89 µg/day for the general population and the occupationally exposed individuals, respectively, and were much lower than the reference value of 50 µg/kg bw/day provided by the European Food Safety Authority. This indicates that dermal exposure to BPA is not a serious health risk to the population.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Papel , Humanos , Nigéria , Fenóis/análise
16.
Food Chem ; 332: 127385, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623125

RESUMO

A promising way of processing Baltic herring, Clupea harengus membras, is turning the fish into boneless mince. However, Baltic herring is prone to lipid oxidation, which possesses a challenge for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to study the efficacy of press cakes from Finnish berries and a supercritical CO2 plant extract to limit lipid oxidation during frozen storage of Baltic herring mince and to determine the impact of these additions on consumer acceptance in a fish product. Peroxide value, formation of volatile oxidation products and loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids showed that the tested natural additives decreased oxidation to a greater or similar extent as conventional antioxidants during 10-month storage. While potential of berry press cakes and plant extracts as "green label antioxidants" was shown, consumer study indicated need for further research to reach both optimal antioxidative efficacy and sensory properties.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Peixes , Congelamento , Lipídeos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39402-39412, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642904

RESUMO

The present study focused on the full valorization of the tomato by-product, also known as tomato pomace consisting mainly of tomato peels and tomato seeds, by recovering natural antioxidants and edible oil, and subsequently reutilizing the leftover solid residues for the production of low-cost biosorbent. The tomato peel extract recovered using ethanol as food-grade solvent contained high phenol and flavonoid contents (199.35 ± 0.35-mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 102.10 ± 0.03-mg quercetin equivalent (QE)/g, respectively). Even its lower content of lycopene (3.67 ± 0.04 mg/100 g), tomato peel extract showed potent antioxidant activity and can be therefore used as natural antioxidants either for food or cosmetic applications. High nutritional quality edible oil (17.15%) was extracted from tomato seeds and showed richness in unsaturated fatty acids (74.62%), with linoleic acid being the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid (49.70%). After recovery of these valuable compounds, the extraction solid leftovers were used to produce low-cost biosorbent tested for dye removal. Results showed that the highest biosorption yields were increasingly attributed to the acidic, direct, anthraquinone, then reactive dyes. Overall, the obtained results strongly support the complete utilization of tomato pomace for the recovery of valuable compounds and the sequential production of low-cost biosorbent.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Antioxidantes , Licopeno , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Sementes/química
18.
Food Chem ; 332: 127392, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623126

RESUMO

The present work describes a novel and rapid approach for evaluating total phenolic compounds (TPCs) in tea and fruits using colorimetric spots and the digital image-based (DIB) method. Colorimetric spots were formed by reacting diazotized aminobenzenes namely sulfanilic acid, sulfanilamide, or aniline with TPCs in the extract to form an azo dye. The limit of detection (LOD) was 6.5, 5.5, or 5.1 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent) L-1 and the analytical range was 25-500, 20-500, or 18-200 mg GAE L-1, respectively. Correlation with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay was significant (Pearson coefficient, R = 0.970-0.991) while the antioxidant activity assay was moderate to high (R = 0.737-0.977). The method developed was successfully applied to the analysis of tea and fruits and showed RSD (n = 3) not exceeding 9.6, 8.5, and 9.7%, respectively. Ecologically, the DIB method developed could determine the variation of TPCs within cultivars and was found to be strongly dependent on the growing environment.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Limite de Detecção
19.
Food Chem ; 333: 127423, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659660

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to study the effect of thickness of samples, air velocity and infrared power on the drying kinetics and quality attributes of blanched eggplant slices during infrared drying. The drying experiments were made by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken design (BBD). Experiments were conducted at a thickness of 3, 5, and 7 mm, air velocity of 0.5, 1.25, and 2 m/s, as well as at infrared power 1000, 1500, and 2000 W. The drying time was affected by operating parameters. The drying processes increased total phenolic content and potassium content, significantly. The total color difference (ΔE) was in the range of 10.22-25.14. In the end, this process was optimized for reaching the best experimental condition.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Solanum melongena/química , Fenóis/análise , Potássio/análise
20.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682131

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the dynamics and their ecological risks for aquatic species of lipid regulator, nervous stimulant, anti-inflammatory and endocrine disrupters in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), submerged aerated biological filters (SABF) and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) reactors that treat swine wastewater. Four organic loads of swine wastewater (SW) were used according to changing the chemical oxygen demand. 13 contaminants were quantified, standing out the endocrine disruptors, lipid regulator and anti-inflammatory. In phase III, 8318.4 ng L-1 of 4-ocylphenol was found at the influent of the UASB reactor and removal from 1877.1 to 13.7 ng L-1 in the bisphenol A system. With the maximum organic load, there was a reduction among all the treatment units, with concentrations between 1877.1 and 13.7 ng L-1 of bisphenol A and had naproxen removal of 94.5% and 2,7 ng L-1 after treating phases II and III. It was found that 24.6% of the contaminants presented a high ecological risk, with maximum values of 27.4 (4-nonylphenol, phase II), 24.6 and 5.9 (17ß-estradiol, phase IV and I, respectively), 13.4 (4-ocylphenol, phase III) and 4.4 (estrone, phase IV) in the influent system. The reduction of ecological risk potentials was optimized by SABF and HSSF-CW. The effect oxygen availability and microbiological activities optimized the reduction of ecological risks on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and cnidarian (Hydra attenuata) species, moreover, the reduction of mass flows and ecological risks of the emerging contaminants are associated with the use of biological reactors in series and organic stabilizations.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Anaerobiose , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ecologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estradiol , Estrona , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/normas , Áreas Alagadas , Peixe-Zebra
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