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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416000

RESUMO

Four jams were made using two wild species of Physalis spp., two containing seeds (P1WS and P2WS) and two without seeds (P1WHS and P2WHS). Physicochemical, nutraceutical and rheological properties of the jams were determined and a sensory evaluation made. P1WS and P2WS jams had lower carbohydrates contents, reducing sugars and calories, and higher fiber contents than P1WHS and P2WHS. The presence of seeds in the jams increased phenols and flavonoids. However, the seedless jams had better sensory acceptance. The dynamic rheological testing indicated a gel-like behavior (G'>G'') in whole jams. Also, shearing flow testing showed shear-thinning and thixotropic behaviors, which are shared characteristics with others fruit jams, such as mango or gabiroba. The presence of seeds in the jam affected directly yield stress, apparent viscosity, hysteresis area, and viscoelastic parameters, which were described in the sensory analysis as a "less desirable texture". The use of seeds from wild species of Physalis spp., increased the nutritional value of jam. However, it would be necessary to improve consumer acceptance through technological processes prior to marketing.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Physalis/química , Reologia , Sementes/química , Paladar , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
2.
Se Pu ; 37(11): 1185-1192, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642271

RESUMO

A method was developed for the rapid determination of bisphenol A (BPA) and eight structural analogs in children's plastic water bottles by online enrichment coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The correlation coefficients of the nine bisphenols were greater than 0.998. The limits of detection (LOQs) ranged from 0.13 ng/L to 66.7 ng/L. The recoveries ranged from 90.7% to 112.4% (RSD<11.3%, n=6). This method was applied to monitor nine bisphenols in children's water bottles. The results showed that except 4,4'-(9H-fluoren-9-ylidene)bisphenol (BPFL), all the remaining eight bisphenols were detected in different water bottles. The amounts of bisphenols leached increased with the increase of soaking time, and decreased after washing several times at 100℃. The proposed strategy is rapid, sensitive, reliable and eco-friendly, and is suitable for the simultaneous analysis of new bisphenols in water samples.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Água Potável/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos , Fenóis/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(39): 10968-10976, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487165

RESUMO

Food contact materials (FCMs) may release their chemical components into food and thus raise safety concerns. This paper attempted to study the presence of four major groups of FCM-related endocrine disruptors in fatty food: dialkyl phthalates, bisphenols, printing ink photoinitiators, and polyfluoroalkyl substances. All 41 target compounds were analyzed simultaneously by means of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sample preparation was significantly streamlined to reduce analysis costs by employing acetonitrile extraction, extract modification by water, and refrigeration at 5 °C. The new method was validated and applied to 60 real samples, including edible oils, butter, and chocolate, where 16 target compounds were measured at levels ≤13000 ng/g. The study also described the blank level increase and sensitivity loss caused by impurities present in the HPLC methanol solvent.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6628-6637, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have confirmed a wide variation in the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of beers. However, when commercial beers are studied, there is usually no information available on the brewing technology applied. In this study, technological parameters were varied systematically to influence the antioxidant content of beer with a view to improving its flavor stability. High-throughput assays, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were investigated as fast analytical methods to evaluate the influence of brewing technology on antioxidant activity. RESULTS: Beers (n = 12) were brewed with systematic technological variations (malt modification, hopping regime) to influence the antioxidant potential. A late hop addition resulted in significantly higher phenolic content (high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection - HPLC-DAD) and antioxidant activity. Raw protein content and malt modification significantly influenced phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of beers hopped at the beginning of wort boiling. Samples were stored under forced and natural conditions and were evaluated by a sensory panel. The decline of bitter iso-α-acids as an analytical marker for oxidative aging was significantly lower in beers brewed from malts with high raw protein content. These samples also had higher antioxidant activity values. Panelists gave higher ratings for beer quality to aged beers with a late hop addition. However, late hopping resulted in enhanced hoppy aroma attributes and therefore an altered aroma profile. CONCLUSIONS: Both antioxidant capacity methods were well suited as fast methods to evaluate brewing raw material and technological influence on antioxidant activity. The appropriate choice of barley malt and the malting regime could be promising tools to enhance the antioxidant activity of traditionally hopped beers. © 2019 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Cerveja/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Paladar , Humanos , Humulus/química , Capacidade de Absorbância de Radicais de Oxigênio , Fenóis/análise
5.
Food Chem ; 301: 125170, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398671

RESUMO

The technological and polyphenolic parameters of grapes for juice processing obtained from successive harvests were studied in semi-arid tropical viticulture. Red grapes "BRS Violeta" and "Isabel Precoce" were harvested during the same year and analyzed based on a multivariate approach that included climatic variations. The grapes were marked by variations in flavonoid compounds, particularly anthocyanins. Temperature, global radiation, air velocity and evapotranspiration rates were associated with higher accumulation of bioactive polyphenols in grape berries and juices. The temperatures in February were associated with higher antioxidant activity in grape peels, while the highest thermal amplitude in August and November favored the accumulation of anthocyanins up to 564 mg kg-1. Flavanols and procyanidin compounds were more abundant in seeds when the maximum thermal amplitude was 13.8 °C. The climatic data together with the polyphenolic results point out useful information about appropriate periods for harvesting grapes with high phenolic content in tropical areas.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Frutas/química , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Biflavonoides/análise , Brasil , Catequina/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise , Clima Tropical
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900327, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441583

RESUMO

Three seaweeds (Halimeda tuna, Codium bursa and Cystoseira barbata) and one seagrass (Cymodocea nodosa) were collected from the Coast of Montenegro, Gulf of Boka Kotorska and their chemical analysis was performed. In seagrass C. nodosa, three phenolic compounds were identified (diosmetin 7-sulfate, caftaric and coutaric acid). The content of ß-glucan, fatty acids, sterols and micro- and macro-elements were investigated among all samples. The highest content of ß-glucan was detected in C. nodosa seagrass (13.04±0.42 g/100 g). The highest polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) level was reported in C. barbata, the brown alga (7.157 mg/g), which also had the significant sterol content (fucosterol, 21.76±0.1 µg/g). Green algae, C. bursa and H. tuna, showed the highest level of sterols (ß-sitosterol, 95.21±0.16 µg/g and 73.90±0.08 µg/g, respectively). H. tuna had the highest content of calcium (Ca) in amount of 55125 µg/g. In C. bursa, C. barbata and C. nodosa, the Na/K ratio was low (0.43, 0.46 and 0.69, respectively).


Assuntos
Alismatales/química , Fenóis/análise , Alga Marinha/química , Estrutura Molecular , Montenegro
7.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 137, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432268

RESUMO

The presence of very high concentrations of organic pollutants, phenols, tannins and heavy metals mainly chromium in wastewater discharged from leather industries, tags it as one of the most polluting industries. The phenolic syntans discharged from tanning units have an adverse effect on living organisms and cause serious environmental pollution, thereby making it very imperative to remove it. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environment friendly. The present study aims at the remediation of phenolic syntan used in the leather industry employing individual as well as co-culture of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at varying syntan concentration in the medium. Parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), total phenol content (TPC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicating biodegradation were analyzed. Promising results were observed with P. aeruginosa, which exhibited a reduction in TPC by 62-72% in all the concentrations of syntan tested just within 12 h of inoculation, whereas about 67 and 83% reduction in COD and TOC respectively was observed for 2000 ppm concentration at the end of 5 days. B. cereus also demonstrated very good reduction in the above parameters however; percentage was less as compared to P. aeruginosa. In the case of co-culture, the TPC reduction was higher than B. cereus but lesser than P. aeruginosa. The percentage reduction in TOC and COD was highest for 500 ppm which eventually decreased for subsequent concentrations.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/metabolismo , Resíduos Industriais , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Bacillus cereus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Biotransformação , Carbono/análise , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fenóis/análise , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
8.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 693-707, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367970

RESUMO

Crop domestication and selective breeding have altered plant defense mechanisms, influencing insect-plant interactions. A reduction in plant resistance/tolerance against herbivory is generally expected in domesticated species, however, limited efforts have been made to compare inducibility of plant defenses between wild and domesticated genotypes. In the present study, the inducibility of several plant defense mechanisms (e.g. defensive chemicals, trichomes, plant volatiles) were investigated, and the performance and preference of the herbivore Helicoverpa zea were measured in three different tomato genotypes; a) wild tomato, Solanum pimpinellifolium L. (accession LA 2093), b) cherry tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. cerasiforme (accession Matts Wild Cherry), and c) cultivated tomato, S. lycopersicum L. var. Better Boy). Enhanced inducibility of defensive chemicals, trichomes, and plant volatiles in the cultivated tomato, and a higher level of constitutive plant resistance against herbivory in the wild genotype was observed. When comparing the responses of damaged vs. undamaged leaves, the percent reduction in larval growth was higher on damaged leaves from cultivated tomato, suggesting a higher induced resistance compared to other two genotypes. While all tomato genotypes exhibited increased volatile organic compound (VOCs) emissions in response to herbivory, the cultivated variety responded with generally higher levels of VOCs. Differences in VOC patterns may have influenced the ovipositional preferences, as H. zea female moths significantly preferred laying eggs on the cultivated versus the wild tomato genotypes. Selection of traits during domestication and selective breeding could alter allocation of resources, where plants selected for higher yield performance would allocate resources to defense only when attacked.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Mariposas/fisiologia , Solanum/química , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Herbivoria , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Solanum/genética , Solanum/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6572-6581, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a pretreatment before drying, the purpose of osmotic dehydration (OD) is to reduce the initial water content of samples and shorten the drying time. When OD is combined with pulse vacuum, the mass transfer is enhanced. Furthermore, the properties of materials, which affect the absorption and dissipation of microwaves, can be changed by OD. In this work, pulsed vacuum osmotic dehydration (PVOD) with sucrose solution was adopted before microwave freeze-drying (MFD). The effects of PVOD on the drying characteristics and quality of dried products were studied. RESULTS: Results showed that the unfrozen water content was increased by PVOD, which made the dielectric constant and loss factor of Chinese yam larger than that of untreated samples, and the difference amplified with the increasing temperature. Thus, the shortened drying time (up to 38.5%) and increased average drying rate (up to 16.8%) were achieved by MFD combined with PVOD. While in traditional freeze-drying, PVOD resulted in slightly shortened drying time but decreased drying rate. The mechanism of PVOD on improving drying rate of MFD was analyzed from the perspective of unfrozen water content and dielectric properties. Furthermore, the quality assessments indicated that PVOD treatment retained a better color and improved the total phenolic content of dried yams compared to untreated and dried samples. CONCLUSION: PVOD using sucrose solution was an effective method to change the characteristics of yam, enhancing the MFD rate and improving the product qualities. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Dioscorea/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Tubérculos/química , Água/análise , Cor , Dessecação/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Liofilização , Micro-Ondas , Osmose , Fenóis/análise
10.
Food Chem ; 300: 125243, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357015

RESUMO

Fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and tocopherols of Coratina, Bosana, Semidana, and Tonda di Cagliari virgin olive oils, were measured over a 45-day harvest period. Phenolic composition was the primary factor distinguishing Bosana, Tonda di Cagliari, and Semidana, whereas fatty acids differentiated Coratina and the other cultivars. Harvest period principally influenced oleacein, oleocanthal, oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, and flavonoids. High phenolic content was observed for Coratina (1039-688 mg/kg) and Bosana (788-592 mg/kg). A drastic decrease in phenolic content was observed in Semidana (529-134 mg/kg) and Tonda di Cagliari (507-142 mg/kg) during the harvest period. These two cultivars also had low MUFA/PUFA (6.0-4.0 and 4.9-3.2 respectively), suggesting that these varieties should be harvested earlier in the season. These results provide information to producers for improved management of the harvesting process, which is strongly affected by varietal factors.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Azeite de Oliva/química , Agricultura , Aldeídos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Glucosídeos/análise , Iridoides/análise , Itália , Olea/química , Fenóis/análise , Piranos/análise , Especificidade da Espécie , Tocoferóis/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 300: 125251, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357018

RESUMO

Targeted ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) profiling of phenolic compounds was utilised for varietal differentiation of 173 wines made from four red and six white grape varieties. Among 58 identified phenols many were found relevant as exclusive or partial discriminators between wines. Successful differentiation models were built by linear discriminant analysis with the percentage of correct classification higher than 95% in all cases, with peonidin 3-(6″-acetyl)-glucoside and taxifolin as the most potent differentiators between red, and cis-piceid between white monovarietal wines. Diverse typical colour attributes among the monovarietal wines were tentatively ascribed to the variations in the composition of monomeric anthocyanins. Plavac mali red wine exhibited the most specific composition, and its most typical samples were distinguished by the abundance in trans-fertaric acid, isorhapontin, phlorizin, quercetin 3-rhamnoside, and myricitrin. Despite positive correlations with particular astringent flavonols, the typical astringency of Plavac mali wine remained unresolved.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Vinho/análise , Adulto , Cor , Análise Discriminante , Feminino , Flavonóis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paladar , Vitis/química
12.
Food Chem ; 299: 125120, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288162

RESUMO

Although coffee beans have been widely studied, application of coffee flower (CF) has not been previously investigated. Here, we evaluated the use of CF for the production of bioactive compounds, melanoidins, and bio-sugars through the green process. Pressurized hot water extraction was found to be the most appropriate method for extracting bioactive compounds from CF, which contain high values of total phenolic content and have antioxidant properties. Caffeine and trigonelline were the main compounds in CF with yields of 1070.8 mg and 1092.8 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Melanoidins were also identified and quantified in the CF extracts that is approximately 30.2% were efficiently recovered in the initial extracts of CF. Bio-sugar was also obtained from cellulase and pectinase at a 92.8% conversion rate. The aim of this study is to promote a novel approach using high amounts of CFs in the production of functional healthy foods and beverages.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Flores/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Alcaloides/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cafeína/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fenóis/análise
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2337-2346, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294468

RESUMO

Unopened flower buds of Capparis spinosa L. (capers), generally used in the Mediterranean area as food flavoring, are known to be a good source of bioactive compounds. The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutraceutical value of salt-fermented capers collected from different areas of Pantelleria Island (Italy), testing their methylglyoxal and glyoxal trapping capacity and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), [2,2-azinobis(3-ethylben- zothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] diammonium salt (ABTS), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Hydrophilic extracts were also characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Among 24 detected compounds, several flavonol derivatives and glucosinolates were identified. The levels of kaempferol and quercetin derivatives varied considerably among the five accessions considered (6.46 to 267.93 and 22.39 to 367.14 mg kaempferol and quercetin equivalent /g fresh weight, respectively), with kaempferol derivatives more representative than quercetin ones. Person's coefficient indicated a high correlation between total phenolic content and anti-DPPH radical capacity (R2 = 0.665), as well as between total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity (by ORAC assay; R2 = 0.888) and between total flavonoid content and glyoxal and methylglyoxal trapping capacity (R2 = 0.918). Results indicate that capers from Pantelleria Island represent a rich source of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical relevance. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The findings of this study highlight the health benefits of Pantelleria capers consumption due to their composition in antioxidants and their biological properties (antiradical and alpha-dicarbonyls trapping) correlated with the development of a high number of chronic-degenerative diseases. These results are also important for the agricultural and commercial sectors involved in the production of capers from Pantelleria, which received the Protected Geographical Indications recognition.


Assuntos
Capparis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Itália , Quempferóis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Quercetina/análise , Sementes/química
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6350-6363, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273796

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies report that Ascophyllum nodosum extracts, once applied on the canopy of different crops, deliver positive effects, increasing yield, inducing tolerance to biotic stress, and improving the quality of products. However, the mechanisms of action are still unclear. In this research, vines subjected to multiple foliar applications of an A. nodosum extract (ANE) at label doses were compared with untreated vines (NTV) in accordance with a comparative approach. The investigation coupled a field experiment with a second trial conducted under semi-controlled conditions, to clarify the mechanisms of action involved. RESULTS: The biostimulant did not affect soluble solids or the acidity of grapes; instead, it improved their anthocyanin and phenolic concentrations and the respective profiles. At the time of harvest, anthocyanin, and phenolic concentration were increased by 10.4% and 14.5%, respectively, when compared to the NTV. These effects correlated with a specific modulation of genes involved in the flavonoid metabolic pathways. Moreover, grapes from ANE vines witnessed a significant reduction in the spreading of gray mold when they were either assessed in field conditions or in vitro, compared to the grapes of NTV vines. This was related to a significant upregulation of the defense-related genes of the plant. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results showed that A. nodosum extracts can be valuable tools in viticulture considering the emergence of challenging environmental conditions; hence, the regulation of specific metabolic pathways is the mechanism of action that leads to an increased tolerance of biotic stress and of changes in the content of grape metabolites. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ascophyllum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitis/metabolismo , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1767-1773, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342700

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn berries and leaves are two medicinal parts derived from the same primitive plant,mostly used as ethnic medicine,which have a long history in Mongolian and Tibetan. This paper reviews the studies on the chemical composition and differences between sea buckthorn berries and leaves. They have the same or similar composition and content of flavonoids,triterpenes,steroids,organic acids and volatile oils,also have some differences. The main differences are as follows: the flavonoids content in the sea buckthorn leaves is greater than that of the sea buckthorn berries,but the species of flavonoids in the berries are higher than leaves. The species and content of steroids and organic acids in the berries are higher than that of the leaves. The berries contain abundant volatile oil,and the leaves contain many phenolic compounds. Finally,the main problems and the prospect of the next research are put forward.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Hippophae/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Flavonoides/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Fenóis/análise , Plantas Medicinais/química
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(9): 1774-1780, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342701

RESUMO

To compare the polysaccharides( LBLP),total flavonoids( LBLTF) and total phenols( LBLTP) of Lycium barbarum leaves from 14 production areas from Ningxia,Qinghai and Gansu at different harvesting time. Our results showed that there were significant difference of LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP among different production areas. The LBLP collected from Xiangride township production area,Dulan,Qinghai was as high as 15. 02%. The LBLTF collected from Dagele township production area,Geermu,Qinghai was as high as28. 63%. The LBLTP collected from Keluke township production area,Delingha,Qinghai was as high as 16. 7%. There were also significant difference of these 3 components between different harvest periods. The average LBLP in May( 10. 20%) was significantly higher than that in June( 8. 49%). However,the average LBLTF( 17. 71%) and LBLTP( 12. 77%) in June was significantly higher than that in May( 14. 15%,11. 19%). The LBLTF and LBLTP have a positive correlation with the altitude of production areas,but there was no significant association between LBLP and altitude. The LBLP,LBLTF and LBLTP in different production areas and harvesting time was significant difference,the results provide some references for furthermore development and utilization of L. barbarum leaves.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Lycium/química , Fenóis/análise , Polissacarídeos/análise , Análise de Variância , China , Geografia , Folhas de Planta/química , Estações do Ano
17.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 759-767, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344538

RESUMO

Despite high production and usage of parabens and bisphenols, little is known about their spatiotemporal distribution in the marine environment. In this study, we determined the concentrations of several parabens and their metabolites as well as bisphenol analogues in sediment collected from coastal areas of northern China. All sediment samples, including surface sediment and sediment cores, contained at least one of the parabens analyzed, and the total concentrations of parabens (ΣPBs; sum of six parabens) ranged from 1.37 to 24.2 ng/g dw (geometric mean: 3.30-6.09 g/g dw), which was comparable to or slightly higher than those found for the total concentrations of five detectable bisphenols (ΣBPAs; geometric mean: 2.18-4.61 ng/g dw). 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, a common metabolite of parabens, was found in all samples at concentrations in the range of 6.85-437 ng/g dw, which was one order of magnitude lower than those found for benzoic acid. Methyl-, ethyl-, and propyl-parabens were the predominant paraben analogues, collectively accounting for >88% of ΣPBs. Bisphenol A and bisphenol F were the two major bisphenols, collectively accounting for >86% of ΣBPAs. We also examined vertical profiles in concentrations of target analytes in sediment cores. The sediment core from the Shandong Peninsula showed a gradual increase in the concentrations of several parent and metabolic parabens as well as bisphenols during the past decade. Relatively higher concentrations of parabens and bisphenols were found in sediment cores collected from industrialized areas. Significant positive correlations were found among the concentrations of parabens in sediment, which suggested the existence of similar sources for these compounds. Overall, our findings suggest that the Bohai Sea coast is moderately contaminated with parabens and bisphenols in comparison to other coastal areas in China or elsewhere.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Parabenos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China
18.
Food Chem ; 299: 125092, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280001

RESUMO

The health-promoting functions of fruit phenolic compounds are mainly attributed to their metabolites. The organic cultivation of fruits is becoming increasingly popular. Thus, this study evaluates whether the differences in red Grenache grapes derived from organic culture conditions influence the bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds in rats. Organic and nonorganic (conventional) red Grenache grapes (OG and CG, respectively) were characterized and administered to Wistar rats (65 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg bw). Serum was recollected at different time points, and the phenolic metabolites were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that organic cultivation increased the oligomeric proanthocyanidin and anthocyanidin contents and decreased the content of free flavanols and dietary fiber. The serum profile of OG-administered rats showed higher metabolite concentrations at 2 h and reduced metabolite concentration at 24 h compared with the CG-administered rats. Thus, this particular serum kinetic behavior might influence the bioactivity of their phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Agricultura Orgânica , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Food Chem ; 300: 125195, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326676

RESUMO

Presence of pungent gingerols in ginger oleoresin makes it an ideal natural flavoring candidate for the food industry. The study reports its incorporation for synergistic enhancement of flavor and nutraceutical portfolio of candied mango. The process is systematically optimized at bench-scale for gingerols infusion and subsequent candying treatment in a range of hypo and hypertonic osmotic solutions for critical transport properties. After that, optimization of the drying process and the scale-up study was conducted with a 200 folds increase in the batch size. Collated effects of multistep optimization resulted in 85.6, 76.8, 60.2% retention in ß-carotene, total phenolics, Vitamin C, respectively, along with minor color difference and significant improvement in sensory scores over fresh mango. Mass transfer and quality parameters were comparable in both scales, implying excellent repeatability and scalability of the process. Compared with a similar commercial product, substantial improvement in quality characteristics along with 376.7% reduction in overall processing time was achieved.


Assuntos
Doces , Catecóis/química , Álcoois Graxos/química , Aromatizantes/química , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Mangifera/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Cor , Dessecação/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Paladar , beta Caroteno/análise , beta Caroteno/química
20.
Food Chem ; 298: 124745, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260966

RESUMO

The chemical and sensory profiles of wines prepared from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes at different ripening stages vary greatly. Here, the soluble cell wall carbohydrate (SCWC) and phenolic profiles of wines were analyzed in parallel with the sensory evaluation of their mouthfeel and taste characteristics. Both SCWCs and phenolic compounds correlated with wine mouthfeel. When analyses were extended to specific classes of cell wall carbohydrates, it was shown that rhamnogalacturonan I/II, arabinan, arabinogalactan types I and II and xyloglucan from grapes were the key determinants of overall mouthfeel descriptors, particularly viscosity, astringency and roughness, whereas heteromannan from grapes was associated with mouth coating and chalkiness. A perceived sour taste was notably associated with higher homogalacturonan contents. This finding provides insights into the contributions of non-phenolic compounds to wine mouthfeel. The data provide opportunities for the development of simple monosaccharide marker assays to monitor major mouthfeel characteristics in red wines.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/análise , Parede Celular/química , Paladar , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Adstringentes/análise , Galactanos/análise , Humanos , Peso Molecular , Boca , Pectinas/análise , Fenóis/análise
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