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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338845, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482871

RESUMO

The comprehensive analysis of phenolic compounds from natural products comprises critical steps, including quantitative extraction, extract preparation, and chromatographic procedure. Performing these steps off-line requires a long time to obtain results, besides being laborious and more error-prone. This work discusses the concept and presents the details of assembling and validating a new system to comprehensively analyze phenolic compounds in natural products. The system is based on a bidimensional separation through the combination of pressurized liquid extraction with in-line solid-phase extraction coupled online with HPLC-PDA. The system proved to be able to perform a bidimensional separation to characterize the sample and ensure quantitative extraction of all detected components using the most appropriate extraction solvent gradient depending on the raw sample analyzed. The 1st dimension separation is achieved by PLE-SPE with a solvent gradient and differential interactions of extracted compounds with the adsorbent. The 2nd dimension presents the HPLC-PDA separation. The extraction/separation process can be monitored in real-time, and kinetic extraction curves for individual compounds can also be obtained to ensure quantitative extraction. Thus, the 2D PLE-SPE × HPLC-PDA may provide fast and precise comprehensive analyses of a large plethora of phenolic compounds, finding relevant applications in the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural fields.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fenóis/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Solventes
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9270-9286, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347467

RESUMO

The in vitro anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activity and the content and profile of bioaccessible (poly)phenols and catabolites of raw and sous-vide-cooked red cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) were investigated during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Raw cardoon after in vitro GI digestion had 0.7% bioaccessible (poly)phenols, which protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by counteracting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 secretions in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Contrarily, GI-digested sous vide cardoon showed higher (poly)phenol bioaccessibility (59.8%) and exerted proinflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells. (Poly)phenols were highly metabolized during the first 8 h of in vitro fermentation, and nine catabolites were produced during 48 h of fermentation. Colonic-fermented raw and sous-vide-cooked cardoon did not show anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells but presented potential prebiotic activity, comparable to the commercial prebiotic FOS, by stimulating health-promoting bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. and by increasing the production of total SCFAs, especially acetate.


Assuntos
Cynara , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Colo/química , Humanos , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361551

RESUMO

Honey is a well-known natural sweetener and is rich in natural antioxidants that prevent the occurrence of oxidative stress, which is responsible for many human diseases. Some of the biochemical compounds in honey that contribute to this property are vitamins and phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids and flavonoids. However, the extent to which these molecules contribute towards the antioxidant capacity in vitro is inconsistently reported, especially with the different analytical methods used, as well as other extrinsic factors that influence these molecules' availability. Therefore, by reviewing recently published works correlating the vitamin, total phenolic, and flavonoid content in honey with its antioxidant activities in vitro, this paper will establish a relationship between these parameters. Based on the literature, vitamins do not contribute to honey's antioxidant capacity; however, the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids has an impact on honey's antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Vitaminas/análise , Humanos
4.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110462, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399462

RESUMO

The present work aims to evaluate the effect of different excitation frequency (200, 500 and 800 Hz) of cold plasma technique as a pretreatment for drying tucumã. SEM images showed changes on the pretreated tucumã's surface, favoring the drying rate and diffusivity of water as well as reducing the drying time. Marginal variation of color and reduced drying time were observed in the samples treated using 200 and 800 Hz. The pretreatment improved the concentration of phenolic (45.3 mg GAE g-1) and antioxidant compounds (799.8 µM ET) (p-value < 0.05). Carotenoids were more sensitive to the drying time, presenting significant degradation at 500 Hz. For this reason, the propose pretreatment based on the application of cold plasma technique for drying foods can preserve/improve their nutritional quality.


Assuntos
Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Antioxidantes , Dessecação , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise
5.
Food Res Int ; 147: 110553, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399530

RESUMO

Stingless bees are native to tropical and subtropical countries, such as Brazil. The wide variety of species, the sources of food collection (nectar and pollen), and the climate conditions strongly affect the chemical composition of the honey, making this a unique product with peculiar characteristics. Stingless bee honey presents higher water content, higher acidity, and a lower sugar concentration when compared to Apis mellifera honey. Moreover, there is a wide variety of microorganisms in stingless bees' environment, which leads their honey to go through a natural fermentative process during its production in the hive. Besides, fermentation and hydrolysis are effective ways to convert glycosides into aglycones, thus increasing the bioavailability of compounds. In this sense, stingless bee honey may possess a greater concentration of phenolic compounds aglycones than glycosides, which would increase its potential benefits. Therefore, this review aims to compile the most recent studies of stingless bee honey phenolic profile and its biological potential (antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities) and a possible connection to its natural fermentation process.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Antioxidantes , Abelhas , Glicosídeos , Mel/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pólen/química
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(35): 10246-10259, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428045

RESUMO

An increase in bushfires and wildfires globally and consequent smoke exposure of grapevines has seen an elevated need for remediation options to manage the impact of smoke taint in the wine industry. Two commercially available activated carbons (PS1300 and CASPF) were evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 g/L with juice from smoke-affected Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes. PS1300 and CASPF treatments removed up to 75 and 92% of the phenolic glycosides in the smoke-affected Pinot Noir rosé juice, respectively, and both carbons removed virtually all (i.e., 98-99%) of the phenolic glycosides in the smoke-affected Chardonnay juice at the highest dose rate (4 g/L). The free volatile phenols in the wines were similarly lower in concentration following treatment. Sensory analysis confirmed that the wines made from carbon fined juice had reduced smoke aroma and flavor compared to those from the nontreated controls. However, desirable sensory properties such as color and fruity attributes were also negatively affected by the treatment. The dose rate should be optimized in industry practice to find a balance between reducing the intensity of smoke-related sensory attributes while maintaining or enhancing positive attributes.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Carvão Vegetal , Aromatizantes , Fenóis/análise , Vinho/análise
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450874

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a continuously growing interest in antioxidants by both customers and food industry. The beneficial health effects of antioxidants led to their widespread use in fortified functional foods, as dietary supplements and as preservatives. A variety of analytical methods are available to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of food extracts and beverages. However, most of them are expensive, time-consuming, and require laboratory instrumentation. Therefore, simple, cheap, and fast portable sensors for point-of-need measurement of antioxidants in food samples are needed. Here, we describe a smartphone-based chemosensor for on-site assessment of TAC of aqueous matrices, relying on the antioxidant-induced formation of gold nanoparticles. The reaction takes place in ready-to-use analytical cartridges containing an hydrogel reaction medium preloaded with Au(III) and is monitored by using the smartphone's CMOS camera. An analytical device including an LED-based lighting system was developed to ensure uniform and reproducible illumination of the analytical cartridge. The chemosensor permitted rapid TAC measurements of aqueous samples, including teas, herbal infusions, beverages, and extra virgin olive oil extracts, providing results that correlated with those of the reference methods for TAC assessment, e.g., oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ouro , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis , Smartphone
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 4154381, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337009

RESUMO

The present study is aimed at investigating the variation of phenolics (bound and free), minerals, and antioxidant potentials of the wild edible fruits (fresh and dry) native from Far North Region of Cameroon. The results showed significant (p < 0.01) differences among fruits and species for all parameters. Bound phenolic content (mgGAE/100 g) of dry fruits (DF) ranged from 95.58 to 407.72; however, the contents were varied from 28.97 to 306.04 in fresh fruits (FF). Free phenolic content varied from 46.43 to 344.73 in DF and fold from 119.54 to 315.79 for those FF. Flavonoids (4.27-256.87 mg QE/100 g), tannins (3.24-63.42 mg CE/100 g), and anthocyanin content (8.65-168.10 mg C3GE/100 g) in fruits varied also significantly in respect with DF and FF. The mineral content analysis indicates that the wild fruits are rich in valuable macro- and trace elements. For antioxidant activities, except high 2.2-diphenyl-1-picyhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity obtained with free phenolics, the bound phenolics of FF and DF had significantly high ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzylthiozoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) scavenging activity. Furthermore, free and bound phenolic content was highly and positively correlated with ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP activities confirmed by the principal component analysis (F1×F2: 60.17%). The present study revealed that the wild edible fruits of twenty-three species investigated are important sources of bioactive compounds, natural antioxidants, and nutraceutical potential to prevent/to treat chronic diseases which could be benefits for the consumers.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Camarões , Etnofarmacologia , Geografia , Polifenóis/análise , Análise de Componente Principal , Taninos/análise
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361625

RESUMO

This study aimed at assessing the composition of bioactive compounds, including ascorbic acid, carotenoids and polyphenols, the volatile compound profile and the antioxidant activity of red arils (RAs) of Taxus baccata L. grown in diverse locations in Poland. Among the carotenoids assayed in high quantities (3.3-5.42 µg/g), the lycopene content (2.55-4.1 µg/g) was remarkably higher than that in many cultivated fruits. Samples collected from three sites were distinguished by higher amounts of ascorbic acid (125 mg/100 g, on average) than those found in many cultivated berries. Phenylpropanoids quantitatively dominated among the four groups of phenolic compounds. Chromatographic separation enabled the detection of two phenylpropanoid acids: ferulic and p-coumaric. Irrespectively of the growth site, RAs contained substantial amounts of (-)-epicatechin (1080 µg/100 g, on average). A higher ability to scavenge DPPH● and ABTS●+ radicals was found in the hydrophilic fraction of RAs from two sites (Warsaw and Koszalin) compared with the other two sites. The volatile compound profile of RAs was dominated by alcohols, followed by ketones, esters and aldehydes. The presence of some volatiles was exclusively related to the specific growth site, which may be regarded as a valuable indicator. The combination of bioactive and volatile compounds and the fairly good antioxidant potential of RAs render them an attractive source for preparing functional foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Taxus/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Frutas/química , Polônia
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443333

RESUMO

The latest data link the chronic consumption of large amounts of fructose present in food with the generation of hypertension and disturbances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, which promote the development of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. This effect is possible after fructose is absorbed by the small intestine cells and, to a lesser extent, by hepatocytes. Fructose transport is dependent on proteins from the family of glucose transporters (GLUTs), among which GLUT5 selectively absorbs fructose from the intestine. In this study, we examined the effect of four phenolic-rich extracts obtained from A. graveolens, B. juncea, and M. chamomilla on fructose uptake by Caco-2 cells. Extracts from B. juncea and M. chamomilla most effectively reduced fluorescent fructose analogue (NBDF) accumulation in Caco-2, as well as downregulated GLUT5 protein levels. These preparations were able to decrease the mRNA level of genes encoding transcription factors regulating GLUT5 expression-thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP). Active extracts contained large amounts of apigenin and flavonols. The molecular docking simulation suggested that some of identified phenolic constituents can play an important role in the inhibition of GLUT5-mediated fructose transport.


Assuntos
Dieta , Frutose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
11.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443310

RESUMO

There are a significant number of analytical methodologies employing different techniques to determine phenolic compounds in beverages. However, these methods employ long sample preparation processes and great time consumption. The aim of this paper was the development of a simple method for evaluating the phenolic compounds' presence in Brazilian craft beers without a previous extraction step. Catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, hydrated rutin, trans-ferulic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, and formononetin were analyzed in fifteen different craft beers. The method showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9966). The limit of detection ranged from 0.08 to 0.83 mg L-1, and limits of quantification were between 0.27 and 2.78 mg L-1. The method showed a satisfactory precision (RSD ≤ 16.2%). A good accuracy was obtained by the proposed method for all phenolic compounds in craft beer (68.6% ˂ accuracy ˂ 112%). Catechin showed higher concentrations (up to 124.8 mg L-1) in the samples, followed by epicatechin (up to 51.1 mg L-1) and caffeic acid (up to 8.13 mg L-1). Rutin and formononetin were observed in all analyzed samples (0.52 mg L-1 to 2.40 mg L-1), and kaempferol was less present in the samples. The presence of plant origin products was determinant for the occurrence of the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds in Brazilian craft beers.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Brasil , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443458

RESUMO

Adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs in diabetes therapy has prompted the search for novel natural lead compounds with little or no side effects. Effects of phenolic compounds from Carpobrotus edulis on carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes through in vitro and in silico methods were assessed. Based on the half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50), the phenolic extract of the plant had significant (p < 0.05) in vitro inhibitory effect on the specific activity of alpha-amylase (0.51 mg/mL), alpha-glucosidase (0.062 mg/mL) and aldose reductase (0.75 mg/mL), compared with the reference standards (0.55, 0.72 and 7.05 mg/mL, respectively). Molecular interactions established between the 11 phenolic compounds identifiable from the HPLC chromatogram of the extract and active site residues of the enzymes revealed higher binding affinity and more structural compactness with procyanidin (-69.834 ± 6.574 kcal/mol) and 1,3-dicaffeoxyl quinic acid (-42.630 ± 4.076 kcal/mol) as potential inhibitors of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase, respectively, while isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (-45.398 ± 4.568 kcal/mol) and luteolin-7-O-beta-d-glucoside (-45.102 ± 4.024 kcal/mol) for aldose reductase relative to respective reference standards. Put together, the findings are suggestive of the compounds as potential constituents of C. edulis phenolic extract responsible for the significant hypoglycemic effect in vitro; hence, they could be exploited in the development of novel therapeutic agents for type-2 diabetes and its retinopathy complication.


Assuntos
Aizoaceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Enzimas/metabolismo , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Suínos , Termodinâmica
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443462

RESUMO

Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 µg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 µg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 µg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 µg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 µg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.


Assuntos
Ajuga/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Regeneração , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Elementos Químicos , Flavonoides/análise , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/química , Hidróxidos/química , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fenóis/análise , Picratos/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299004

RESUMO

Plant production technologies based solely on the improvement of plants themselves face obstacles resulting from the natural limitations of the biological potential of varieties. Therefore, new substances are sought that positively influence the growth and development of plants and increase resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, which also translates into an increase in obtained yields. The exogenous application of various phytoprotectants shows great promise in terms of cost effectiveness compared to traditional breeding methods or transgenic approaches in relation to increasing plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. Quercetin is a strong antioxidant among phenolic compounds, and it plays a physiological and biochemical role in plants. As such, the aim of this research was to assess the effect of an aqueous solution of a quercetin derivative with potassium, applied in various concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%), on the efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus and biochemical properties of maize. Among the tested variants, compared to the control, the most stimulating effect on the course of physiological processes (PN, gs, ci, CCI, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, PI) in maize leaves was found in 3.0 and 5.0% aqueous solutions of the quercetin derivative. The highest total antioxidant capacity and total content of polyphenolic compounds were found for plants sprayed with 5.0% quercetin derivative solution; therefore, in this study, the optimal concentration could not be clearly selected.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Potássio/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/química , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila/química , Fluorescência , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/química , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/fisiologia
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299612

RESUMO

At present the olive oil industry produces large amounts of secondary products once considered waste or by-products. In this paper, we present, for the first time, a new interesting olive by-product named "dried destoned virgin olive pomace" (DDVOP), produced by the pomace oil industry. The production of DDVOP is possible thanks to the use of a new system that differs from the traditional ones by having the dryer set at a lower temperature value, 350 °C instead of 550 °C, and by avoiding the solvent extraction phase. In order to evaluate if DDVOP may be suitable as a new innovative feeding integrator for animal feed, its chemical characteristics were investigated. Results demonstrated that DDVOP is a good source of raw protein and precious fiber; that it is consistent in total phenols (6156 mg/kg); rich in oleic (72.29%), linoleic (8.37%) acids and tocopherols (8.80 mg/kg). A feeding trial was, therefore, carried out on sheep with the scope of investigating the influence of the diet on the quality of milk obtained from sheep fed with DDVOP-enriched feed. The resulting milk was enriched in polyunsaturated (0.21%) and unsaturated (2.42%) fatty acids; and had increased levels of phenols (10.35 mg/kg) and tocopherols (1.03 mg/kg).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Azeite de Oliva/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dessecação , Indústria Alimentícia , Fenóis/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Ovinos , Resíduos/análise
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148556, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328961

RESUMO

This study determined the distribution of phenol derivatives in the organisms of waterbirds and the factors influencing their bioaccumulation and affinity to specific tissues. Concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were determined in the brains, subcutaneous fat, kidneys, livers and pectoral muscles of goosanders Mergus merganser (GO), long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis (LO) and razorbills Alca torda (RA). The birds came from the winter by-catch (2014-2016) in the Southern Baltic. Different distribution routes of individual phenol derivatives in the birds were established, most likely due to their ability to bind to proteins and/or dissolve in lipids. BPA and 4-NP accumulated most in the muscles (BPA <2.0-223.0 ng.g-1 dw, 4-NP 26.0-476.4 ng.g-1 dw), livers (BPA <2.0-318.2 ng.g-1 dw, 4-NP 60.7-525.8 ng.g-1 dw), and kidneys (BPA <2.0-836.1 ng.g-1 dw, 4-NP 29.3-469.2 ng.g-1 dw), while 4-t-OP was stored mainly in the brains (2.6-341.1 ng.g-1 dw), subcutaneous fat (0.7-173.7 ng.g-1 dw) and livers (<0.5-698.8 ng.g-1 dw). The liver was the only organ where all compounds showed a positive correlation with each other and alkylphenols were also positively correlated with each other in tissues with high fat content (brains and subcutaneous fat), and negatively in muscles. Despite the different trophic levels of birds, the concentrations of phenol derivatives in the tissues between individual species in most cases did not differ significantly. However, between the species on a similar trophic level, the higher biomagnification coefficient was calculated for LO feeding on benthos, and the lower for RA feeding on pelagic fish (p < 0.05). The good condition of birds, resulting in large intestinal fat stores, promoted on the one hand the penetration of phenol derivatives from the intestine to the liver, and on the other hand their accumulation in subcutaneous fat, thereby protecting the brain.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Patos , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fenóis/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 76(3): 311-318, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264452

RESUMO

Vegetal wastes are currently a source of pollution due to the excess of organic compounds in the environment. Seeds are the main by-product of the avocado industry and represent 16-22% of the total weight and it is considered a waste without applications. Despite the seed stands out for its high content of phenolic compounds, lack of knowledge regarding of the best processing state using non-invasive and short-time methods are required to take advantage of these nutraceutical compounds. This research aimed to find correlations from physicochemical analysis, color, hardness, and firmness of the whole avocado seeds with its nutraceutical properties as long as the ripeness increased, providing information for further industrial use of this waste. The results indicated that 'Hass' avocado fruit ripening positively correlates with the improvement of the physicochemical parameters involved in the fruit processing and the increase of nutraceutical compounds in the seed. The ripeness process decreased moisture (%) and hardness (N) parameters in the seeds (27.69 and 16.4%, respectively), facilitating its processing. Moreover, the ripening increased the antioxidant capacity by DPPH* around 7%, due to the concentration of phenolic compounds in the seed. Seed's phenolic compounds were positively correlated with the Hue angle at increasing ripeness, becoming a potential physicochemical indicator for the industry. The prediction of changes in nutraceutical compounds and physicochemical properties, as ripening occurred, may reduce analysis times, processes, and guidance to use avocado seeds as a by-product. These results facilitate the seed processing and open up opportunities for its use in the industry.


Assuntos
Persea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Sementes/química
18.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113226, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252852

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are primarily studied regarding endocrine-mediated effects in mammals and fish. However, EDCs can cause toxicity by mechanisms outside the endocrine system, and, as they are released continuously into soils, they may pose risks to terrestrial organisms. In this work, the plant Allium cepa and the earthworm Eisenia foetida were used as test systems to evaluate the toxicity and cyto-/geno-toxicity of three environmental phenols known as EDCs (Bisphenol A - BPA, Octylphenol - OP, Nonylphenol - NP). The tested phenols were evaluated in environmentally relevant concentrations (µg/L) and in single forms and mixture. BPA, OP, and NP did not inhibit the seed germination and root development in A. cepa in their single forms and mixture. However, all single forms of the tested phenols caused cellular and DNA damages in A. cepa, and although these effects persist in the mixtures, the effects were verified at lower levels. These phenols caused acute toxicity to E. foetida after 48 h of exposure and at both conditions evaluated (single forms and mixture); however, unlike A. cepa, in earthworms, mixtures and single forms presented the same level of effects, indicating that interspecies physiological different might influence the mixture toxicity. In summary, our results suggest that BPA, OP, and NP are toxicants to earthworm and cyto-/geno-toxicants to monocotyledonous plants at low concentrations. However, interaction among these phenols reduces the magnitude of their individual effects (antagonistic effect) in the plant test system. Therefore, this study draws attention to the need to raise knowledge about the ecotoxicity of phenolic compounds to help predict their ecological risks and protect non-target terrestrial species.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Oligoquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 792-803, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229015

RESUMO

Chitosan/montmorillonite (CTS/MMT) and chitosan­gold nanoparticles/montmorillonite (CTS-Au/MMT) composites were prepared, characterized through Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and utilized as support for immobilization of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). PPO was immobilized on CTS/MMT (IPPO) and CTS-Au/MMT (IPPO-Au) by physical adsorption, respectively. In order to achieve simultaneous maximization of immobilization efficiency and enzyme activity, the immobilization process parameters were optimized by Taguchi-Grey relational analysis (TGRA) approach. Under the optimal immobilization condition, the immobilization efficiency and enzyme activity reached at 50.16% and 1.46 × 104 U/mg for IPPO, and 63.35% and 3.01 × 104 U/mg for IPPO-Au, respectively. The isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamics of PPO adsorption were investigated in detail. The adsorption process was better explained by Toth isotherm and Fractal-like pseudo second order model, respectively. Intra-particle diffusion and film diffusion were involved in the adsorption process and intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. The adsorption of PPO was exothermic, physical and spontaneous at the investigated temperature range. The immobilized PPO were used to oxidize phenolic compounds. All investigated phenolic compounds showed the higher conversion as catalyzed by IPPO-Au. For both IPPO and IPPO-Au, the conversion of substituted phenols was higher than that of phenol.


Assuntos
Catecol Oxidase/química , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Adsorção , Bentonita/química , Quitosana/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Ouro/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
20.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203808

RESUMO

This work represents a comparative metabolomic study of extracts of wild grapes obtained from six different places in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories (Far East Russia) and extracts of grapes obtained from the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (St. Petersburg). The metabolome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed the presence of 118 compounds in ethanolic extracts of V. amurensis grapes. In addition, several metabolites were newly annotated in V. amurensis. The highest diversity of phenolic compounds was identified in the samples of the V. amurensis grape collected in the vicinity of Vyazemsky (Khabarovsk Territory) and the floodplain of the Arsenyevka River (Primorsky Territory), compared to the other wild samples and cultural grapes obtained in the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Frutas/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Federação Russa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
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