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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237545, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764829

RESUMO

Pierce's disease is of major concern for grapevine (Vitis vinifera) production wherever the bacterial pathogen Xylella fastidiosa and its vectors are present. Long-term management includes the deployment of resistant grapevines such as those containing the PdR1 locus from the wild grapevine species Vitis arizonica, which do not develop Pierce's disease symptoms upon infection. However, little is understood about how the PdR1 locus functions to prevent disease symptom development. Therefore, we assessed the concentrations of plant defense-associated compounds called phenolics in healthy and X. fastidiosa-infected PdR1-resistant and susceptible grapevine siblings over time. Soluble foliar phenolic levels, especially flavonoids, in X. fastidiosa-infected PdR1-resistant grapevines were discovered to be significantly lower than those in infected susceptible grapevines. Therefore, it was hypothesized that PdR1-resistant grapevines, by possessing lowered flavonoid levels, affects biofilm formation and causes reduced X. fastidiosa intra-plant colonization, thus limiting the ability to increase pathogen populations and cause Pierce's disease. These results therefore reveal that differences in plant metabolite levels might be a component of the mechanisms that PdR1 utilizes to prevent Pierce's disease.


Assuntos
Infecções/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Xylella/efeitos dos fármacos , Xylella/patogenicidade , Progressão da Doença , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Infecções/metabolismo , Infecções/microbiologia , Mutação , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Xylella/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231612, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810139

RESUMO

The recent focus is on the analysis of biological activities of extracts from thirteen folk medicinal plants from arid and semi-arid zones of Balochistan, Pakistan. Only a small proportion of them have been scientifically analyzed. Therefore the present investigation explores the biochemical and bioactive potential of different plant parts. Superoxide dismutase was detected maximum in Fagonia indica, (184.7±5.17 units/g), ascorbate peroxidase in Tribulus pentandrus (947.5±12.5 units/g), catalase and peroxidase were higher in Peganum harmala (555.0±5.0 and 2597.8±0.4 units/g, respectively). Maximum esterase and α-amylase activity was found in Zygophyllum fabago (14.3±0.44 and 140±18.8 mg/g, respectively). Flavonoid content was high in T. pentandrus (666.1±49 µg/ml). The highest total phenolic content and tannin was revealed in F. olivieri (72125±425 and 37050±1900 µM/g, respectively). The highest value of ascorbic acid was depicted in F. bruguieri (F.b.N) (448±1.5 µg/g). Total soluble proteins and reducing sugars were detected higher in P. harmala (372.3±54 and 5.9±0.1 mg/g, respectively). The maximum total antioxidant capacity was depicted in Tetraena simplex (16.9±0.01 µM/g). The highest value of lycopene and total carotenoids exhibited in T. terrestris (7.44±0.2 and 35.5±0.0 mg/g, respectively). Chlorophyll contents were found maximum in T. pentandrus var. pterophorus (549.1±9.9, 154.3±10, and 703.4±20.2 ug/g, respectively). All taxa exhibited anti-inflammatory activity and anti-diabetic potential. Z. eurypterum seeds exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory potential (96%), along with other taxa indicated (96-76%) activity when compared with the standard drug diclofenac sodium (79%). Seeds of T. pentandrus (85%) exhibited the highest anti-diabetic activity. The other taxa also exhibited inhibitory activity of α-amylase ranging from (85-69%) compared with Metformin (67%) standard drug. Phytochemical screening revealed that selected taxa proved to be the potential source of natural antioxidants and could further be explored for in-vivo studies and utilized in pharmaceutical industries as potent therapeutic agents validating their ethno-pharmacological uses.


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Paquistão , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Plantas Medicinais/química
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236450, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706792

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss and optic neuropathy, both hallmarks of glaucoma, have been shown to involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of Philanthotoxin (PhTX)-343 in NMDA-induced retinal injury to alleviate ensuing visual impairments. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three; Group I was intravitreally injected with phosphate buffer saline as the control, Group II was injected with NMDA (160 nM) to induce retinal excitotoxic injury, while Group III was injected with PhTX-343 (160 nM) 24 h prior to excitotoxicity induction with NMDA. Rats were subjected to visual behaviour tests seven days post-treatment and subsequently euthanized. Rat retinas and optic nerves were subjected to H&E and toluidine blue staining, respectively. Histological assessments showed that NMDA exposure resulted in significant loss of retinal cell nuclei and thinning of ganglion cell layer (GCL). PhTX-343 pre-treatment prevented NMDA-induced changes where the RGC layer morphology is similar to the control. The numbers of nuclei in the NMDA group were markedly lower compared to the control (p<0.05). PhTX-343 group had significantly higher numbers of nuclei within 100 µm length and 100 µm2 area of GCL (2.9- and 1.7-fold, respectively) compared to NMDA group (p<0.05). PhTX-343 group also displayed lesser optic nerve fibres degeneration compared to NMDA group which showed vacuolation in all sections. In the visual behaviour test, the NMDA group recorded higher total distance travelled, and lower total immobile time and episodes compared to the control and PhTX-343 groups (p<0.05). Object recognition tests showed that the rats in PhTX-343 group could recognize objects better, whereas the same objects were identified as novel by NMDA rats despite multiple exposures (p<0.05). Visual performances in the PhTX-343 group were all comparable with the control (p>0.05). These findings suggested that PhTX-343 inhibit retinal cell loss, optic nerve damage, and visual impairments in NMDA-induced rats.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/tratamento farmacológico , Nervo Óptico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis , Poliaminas , Células Ganglionares da Retina/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , N-Metilaspartato/toxicidade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Nervo Óptico/patologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Óptico/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Poliaminas/farmacologia , Poliaminas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Visão Ocular/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127302, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615389

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effects of Centella asiatica phenolics (CAP) on bovine serum albumin glycoxidation in a BSA-glucose model in vitro. The impact of the phenolic extract on the formation of total fluorescent advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and Amadori adducts were determined. Dityrosine, N-formylkynurenine, kynurenine and protein-carbonyls were quantified as markers of protein oxidation. Protein structural perturbations were determined by Congo red binding and FTIR analysis. Chemical characterization and CAP phytoconstituent profile was obtained by colorimetric and UHPLC-ESI-qTOF-MS analysis, respectively. Our data show that CAP attenuated the formation of fluorescent AGEs (38.5%), Dityrosine (44.6%), N-formylkynurenine (42.9%), Amadori products, and resisted structural alterations of BSA subjected to glycation. These effects could be due to the antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of CAP mediated by the presence of phenolics and triterpenoids. The results collectively suggest that CAP possesses antiglycative properties with potentials for nutraceutical applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Centella/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução
5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 329: 109202, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717189

RESUMO

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly metastatic and lacks effective therapeutic targets among several subtypes of breast cancer. Cancer metastasis promotes the malignancy of TNBC and is closely related to the poor prognosis of the TNBC patients. We aim to explore novel agents that effectively inhibit cancer metastasis to treat TNBC. In our study, 2-Methoxy-5((3,4,5-trimethosyphenyl)seleninyl) phenol (SQ), a CA-4 analogue, could inhibit cell motility and invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the mechanism is closely associated to the inhibition of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Meanwhile, SQ significantly inhibited the expression and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, the conditioned medium from SQ-treated MDA-MB-231 cells significantly inhibited the motility and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which was correlated with the inhibition of EMT process in HUVECs. In addition, exogenous application of VEGF reversed the occurrence of EMT in HUVECs which stimulated by conditioned medium from SQ-treated cells. Furthermore, SQ inhibited vasculogenic mimicry (VM) formation in MDA-MB-231 cells, which was associated with VE-cadherin and EphA2 down-regulation. This study indicates that SQ inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell metastasis through suppressing EMT and VEGF, thereby implicating this compound might be a potential therapeutic agent against metastatic TNBC.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Meios de Cultivo Condicionados/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Organosselênicos/química , Fenóis/química , Receptor EphA2/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108694, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521373

RESUMO

This study evaluated if coatings with chitosan (Chi) and phenolic-rich extract from acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C., PEA) or jabuticaba (Plinia jaboticaba (Vell.) Berg, PEJ) processing by-products are effective to control the development of rot caused by Lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, L. viticola, L. euphorbicola, L. theobromae and L. hormozganensis in papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit. Effects of formulated coatings on some physicochemical parameters indicative of postharvest quality of papaya were investigated. Twenty-six different phenolics were found in PEA and PEJ, including flavonoids, stilbenes, tannins and phenolic acids. Chi (1-5 mg/mL), PEA and PEJ (25-100 mg/mL) separately caused mycelial growth inhibition on all isolates. Combinations of Chi (3 and 4 mg/mL) and PEA (50 and 75 mg/mL) or PEJ (75 and 100 mg/mL) had additive interactions. Coatings with Chi (4 mg/mL) and PEA (50 or 75 mg/mL) or PEA (75 or 100 mg/mL) inhibited rot development in papaya fruit infected with Lasiodiplodia isolates during 8 days of room temperature storage. Coatings with 4 mg/mL Chi and 75 mg/mL PEA or 100 mg/mL PEJ were the most effective to control rot development. These coatings did not affect negatively physicochemical parameters indicative of postharvest quality of papaya fruit during storage. Coatings with combined Chi and PEA or PEJ could be novel strategies to control postharvest rot caused by Lasiodiplodia in papaya fruit.


Assuntos
Carica/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Malpighiaceae/química , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia
7.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517266

RESUMO

In late 2019, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, the capital of the Chinese province Hubei. Since then, SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for a worldwide pandemic resulting in over 4 million infections and over 250,000 deaths. The pandemic has instigated widespread research related to SARS-CoV-2 and the disease that it causes, COVID-19. Research into this new virus will be facilitated by the availability of clearly described and effective procedures that enable the propagation and quantification of infectious virus. As work with the virus is recommended to be performed at biosafety level 3, validated methods to effectively inactivate the virus to enable the safe study of RNA, DNA, and protein from infected cells are also needed. Here, we report methods used to grow SARS-CoV-2 in multiple cell lines and to measure virus infectivity by plaque assay using either agarose or microcrystalline cellulose as an overlay as well as a SARS-CoV-2 specific focus forming assay. We also demonstrate effective inactivation by TRIzol, 10% neutral buffered formalin, beta propiolactone, and heat.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ensaio de Placa Viral/métodos , Inativação de Vírus , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Celulose , Chlorocebus aethiops , Meios de Cultura/química , Formaldeído , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Pandemias , Fenóis/farmacologia , Propiolactona/farmacologia , Sefarose , Células Vero
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574221

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties of the extracts and subfractions of various polarities from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves and the related phenolic compound profiles. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed the most potent radical-scavenging activity for DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals, and superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals as well as the highest reducing power of the fractions tested; the n-butyl alcohol fraction (BAF) was the most effective in scavenging hydroxyl radical (OH·), and the dichloromethane fraction (DMF) exhibited the highest ferrous ion chelating activity. Twelve phenolic components were identified from the EAF of C. cyrtophyllum. Additionally, acteoside (1) was found to be a major component (0.803 g, 0.54%) and show DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 79.65±3.4 and 23.00±1.5 µg/ml, indicating it is principally responsible for the significant total antioxidant effect of C. cyrtophyllum. Our work offers a theoretical basis for further utilization of C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural, green antioxidants derived from plants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clerodendrum/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428000

RESUMO

Ziziphus lotus L. (Lam.) and Z. mauritiana Lam., as a widespread species in Tunisia, are well known for their medicinal and food uses. The aim of the present study was to screen the content of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins together with the radical scavenging capacity and the antimicrobial activity of leaves, fruits and seeds extracts of Z. lotus and Z. mauritiana from different localities. Results showed that leaves extracts presented the highest phenolic compounds content for both species. Furthermore, LC-ESI-MS analysis allowed the identification of 28 bioactive compounds regardless of species and organs, with the predominance of quinic acid and rutin. Leaves extract of Z. mauritiana possessed the highest total antioxidant capacity. The antimicrobial tests showed that leaves extracts of Z. mauritiana and Z. lotus from Oued Esseder exhibited the highest activity against four bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli). The main results showed that the studied species of Ziziphus genus are an excellent source of natural bioactive molecules that could be an interesting material for industrial and food purposes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia
10.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 399: 115030, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387340

RESUMO

Plasticizers released from microplastic are increasingly viewed with concern. While adverse health effects induced by bisphenol A and its analogues on marine animals are well documented in the literature, the endocrine potential of bisphenolic compounds on human health remains elusive. We applied next generation sequencing (NGS) with the estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 treated with 17-ß-estradiol (E2), bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol Z (BPZ) and tetramethyl bisphenol A (4MeBPA). We used molecular docking, microscale thermophoresis, ERα activation assay, and cell cycle experiments on MCF-7 and ERα overexpressing HEK293 cells to verify the impact of the compounds on ERα. 14 genes were found upregulated (ADORA1, DDIT4, CELSR2, FOSL2, JUN, HSPA13, IER3, IGF1R, PGR, RUNX2, SLC7A11, SLC7A2, SLC7A5, STC2) and 3 genes were downregulated (BCAS3, PHF19, PRKCD) in almost all samples. These genes are associated with cell growth, invasion, migration, apoptosis and cancer development. We further confirmed the binding, activation and proliferative effect of BPA, BPB, BPZ, and 4MeBPA on ERα. We provide evidence for the endocrine potential of bisphenolic compounds and give insights into their molecular effects in MCF-7 cells.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Disruptores Endócrinos/farmacologia , Estradiol/genética , Estrogênios/genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Plastificantes/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231948, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369483

RESUMO

In our search for bioactive mushrooms native to British Columbia, we determined that the ethanol extracts from fruiting bodies of the terrestrial polypore Albatrellus flettii had potent anti-cell viability activity. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we successfully isolated three known compounds (grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin). These compounds represent the major anti-cell viability components from the ethanol extracts of A. flettii. We also identified a novel biological activity for these compounds, specifically in down-regulating KRAS expression in two human colon cancer cell lines. Relatively little is known about the anti-cell viability activity and mechanism of action of confluentin. For the first time, we show the ability of confluentin to induce apoptosis and arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase in SW480 human colon cancer cells. The oncogenic insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IMP1) has been previously shown to regulate KRAS mRNA expression in colon cancer cells, possibly through its ability to bind to the KRAS transcript. Using a fluorescence polarization assay, we show that confluentin dose-dependently inhibits the physical interaction between KRAS RNA and full-length IMP1. The inhibition also occurs with truncated IMP1 containing the KH1 to KH4 domain (KH1to4 IMP1), but not with the di-domain KH3 and KH4 (KH3&4 IMP1). In addition, unlike the control antibiotic neomycin, grifolin, neogrifolin and confluentin do not bind to KRAS RNA. These results suggest that confluentin inhibits IMP1-KRAS RNA interaction by binding to the KH1&2 di-domains of IMP1. Since the molecular interaction between IMP1 and its target RNAs is a pre-requisite for the oncogenic function of IMP1, confluentin should be further explored as a potential inhibitor of IMP1 in vivo.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Resorcinóis/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921276, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Cartilage degeneration during osteoarthritis (OA) most adversely affects the quality of life by hindering the movement. The present study investigated the role of verbascoside in the protection of cartilage degeneration induced by osteoarthritis. MATERIAL AND METHODS The enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) and western blot assays were used for determination of inflammatory cytokine secretion in serum and cartilage tissues, respectively. RESULTS Treatment of the OA rats with verbascoside inhibited overproduction of interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and IL-1ß in serum as well as cartilage tissues. The expression of P2X7R and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was much higher in the rats induced with OA. However, administration of verbascoside reversed the OA-induced upregulation of P2X7R and MMP-13 expression in the cartilage tissues. The OA-mediated increase in substance P (SP) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression was also reduced in the cartilage tissues by the verbascoside treatment. Western blot assay revealed that verbascoside treatment markedly decreased the activation of IkappaBalpha and NF-kappaB p65 in the OA rats. CONCLUSIONS Thus, verbascoside inhibited inflammatory cytokine secretion in the OA rats by targeting P2X7R expression, production of matrix metalloproteinase, PGE2 and downregulation of NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Therefore, verbascoside may be used as potent agent for osteoarthritis treatment.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/farmacologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ratos
13.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(3-4): 121-128, 2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267249

RESUMO

Plants of the Plantago genus are widely used in Turkish folk medicine especially for the treatment of wound, abscess, and inflammation. The aqueous extract and five phenylethanoid glycosides acteoside (1), arenarioside (2), echinacoside (3), isoacteoside (4), and leucosceptoside A (5) isolated from the aerial parts and roots of Plantago holosteum Scop. (Plantaginaceae) were tested for their possible inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase, elastase, and collagenase, related to wound pathogenesis. Even though the aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts (36.26%) and roots (47.01%) and the isolated compounds acteoside (29.13%), echinacoside (28.73%), and isoacteoside (31.69%) exerted a notable inhibition, arenarioside and leucosceptoside A were found inactive in the hyaluronidase enzyme inhibition test. Similar results were obtained from the collagenase enzyme inhibition test. The aqueous extract prepared from the aerial parts (31.09%) and roots (35.17%), echinacoside (25.13%), and isoacteoside (23.85%) exerted a notable inhibition in this test. However, none of the extracts and isolated compounds displayed elastase enzyme inhibitory activity. The experimental data demonstrated that P. holosteum displayed a remarkable enzyme inhibitory activity against hyaluronidase and collagenase. This paper is the first report regarding the in vitro enzyme inhibitory activity of P. holosteum.


Assuntos
Colagenases/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Elastase Pancreática/antagonistas & inibidores , Plantago/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/química , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Turquia
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1513-1522, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243587

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of Chinese wild blueberry extract and its fractions against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Chinese wild blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) crude extract (BBE) was obtained using methanol extraction, and sugars plus organic acids (F1), phenolics fraction (F2), and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins (F3) fractions were separated using C-18 Sep-Pak columns. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of each fractional component were determined using a two-fold-serial dilution method. Nucleic acid leakage (OD260 nm ) and protein release (Bradford protein assay) were determined by spectrophotometry, to evaluate the permeability of the cell membrane. F3 was found to exhibit the greatest antimicrobial activity against the four tested strains, followed by F2, F1, and BBE. V. parahaemolyticus was the most sensitive to the all fractions, followed by S. Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus. Survival curve analysis showed that the number of bacteria decreased from six log colony-forming units (CFU) to less than 10 CFU after bacteria were treated with fractions for 12 hr, which demonstrated the bactericidal effect of blueberry fractions. Furthermore, when the pathogens were treated with fractions for 2 hr, the OD260 nm and OD595 nm values increased significantly (P < 0.01), which indicated the significant release of nucleic acid and protein. The results from this study indicated that blueberry fractions, especially F3, inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens by damaging their cell membrane, and may be developed as a natural preservative to prevent and control foodborne pathogens. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A blueberry crude extract and its sugars plus organic acids, phenolics, and anthocyanins plus proanthocyanidins fractions, inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens by destroying their cell membrane. Therefore, Chinese wild blueberries have potential as a natural preservative to prevent and control foodborne pathogens.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enteritidis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Food Chem ; 322: 126742, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305872

RESUMO

Almond hulls, the main by-product of almond production, are considered a valuable source of bioactive phenolic compounds. This study aimed to characterize the phenolic composition, bioavailability of the phenolic-rich extracts from almond hulls (PEAH), and their protective effect on oxidative stressed Caco-2 cells induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH). The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) analysis detected 11 phenolic compounds in the PEAH with high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Oxidative Caco-2 cell damage was reduced by PEAH, especially at 5 µg/mL, through scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulating the cellular endogenous antioxidant system and cell redox at a predictable status. Also, in vitro digestion influenced the phenolic compounds' composition and antioxidant power of PEAH. These results suggested that almond hulls, rich in phenolic compounds, can meliorate the oxidative stressed Caco-2 cells and restore its impaired redox balance, and ultimately improve health benefits.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Prunus dulcis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectrometria de Massas , Oxirredução , Fenóis/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacocinética , Prunus dulcis/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , terc-Butil Hidroperóxido/toxicidade
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343717

RESUMO

The Amazon region is rich in genetic resources such as oilseeds which have potentially important local commercial exploitation. Despite its high concentration of bioactive compounds, cacay (Caryodendron orinocense Karst.) oil is poorly investigated and explored. Thus, this study focuses on the physicochemical characterization (moisture, density, and saponification, iodine, and acidity values), fatty acid composition as determined by gas chromatograph mass spectrometry (GC/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay) of cacay oil, coconut oil and a coconut/cacay oil blend, also known as cacay butter. The antibacterial activity of cacay oil was additionally evaluated. Our study demonstrated that cacay oil presents a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (58.3%) with an emphasis on linoleic acid and a lower acidity value (2.67 ± 0.01 cg I2/g) than butter and coconut oil, indicating a low concentration of free fatty acids. In contrast, cacay butter and coconut oil presented higher saturated fatty acid percentages (69.1% and 78.4%, respectively) and higher saponification values (242.78 and 252.22 mg KOH/g, respectively). The samples showed low moisture and relative density between 912 and 916 kg/m3. The hydrophilic fraction of cacay oil was highlighted in the quantification of TPC (326.27 ± 6.79 mg GAE/kg) and antioxidant capacity in vitro by DPPH radical scavenging assay (156.57 ± 2.25 µmol TE/g). Cacay oil inhibited the growth of Bacillus cereus (44.99 ± 7.68%), Enterococcus faecalis (27.76 ± 0.00%), and Staphylococcus aureus (11.81 ± 3.75%). At long last, this is the first study reporting the physicochemical characterization and bioactive properties of cacay butter. Coconut oil and cacay butter showed great oxidative stability potential due to higher contents of saturated fatty acids. Moreover, cacay oil presents as an alternative source of raw materials for cosmetic and biotechnology industries due to its high concentration of PUFA and for being a rich source of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Óleo de Coco/química , Euphorbiaceae/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Óleo de Coco/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/química , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
17.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(2): 296-310, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145138

RESUMO

AIMS: A multidisciplinary approach was used to compare phenolic composition, radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity of propolis samples from different geographical localities, and plant resin against various microorganisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using UHPLC-qqqMS quantitative analysis, 28 phenolic compounds were determined. Caffeic and p-coumaric acids were identified as main phenolic acids in poplar propolis samples, except samples from Russia (P6) and China (P7). Radical scavenging activity (applying DPPH spectrophotometric assay) showed the highest activity of Serbian (40·51%) and Chinese (53·21%) propolis samples. Broth microdilution method was used for the oral cavity, fungal phytopathogenic and human vaginal isolates which have been identified at a molecular level. The most sensitive bacterial isolates were Lactobacillus acidophilus (MIC of 0·03-0·13 mg ml-1 ) and the oral streptococci isolates (MIC values of 0·19-0·13 mg ml-1 ). The most sensitive fungal phytopathogenic isolate was Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 0·003 mg ml-1 ). All samples, except propolis from Serbia (P4) and Turkey (P5), showed a strong antifungal activity against Fusarium sporotrichioides, Fusarium subglutinans and Fusarium proliferatum. CONCLUSION: The results of various tests indicate good radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity against important human and plant pathogens. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: A detailed propolis analysis is important when proposing a preparation of new biological antimicrobial products which have a positive impact on human health and reduce antibacterial resistance.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Populus/química , Própole/química , Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Feminino , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Boca/microbiologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Própole/farmacologia , Vagina/microbiologia
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 64, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pressed juice of Barley Grass (BG) has become very popular among people for various assumed benefits along with many testimonies of people who have been healed from various ailments such as anemia, cancer, GI problems by consuming BG. The aim of our research was to validate the claims of its medicinal values such as chemo-protective action, high anti-oxidants, RBC membrane stabilization activity, and toxicity level. METHODS: Extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were quantitatively estimated for total phenolic contents (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC). The same extracts were assessed for their antioxidative potentials with the use of DPPH free radical scavenging assay followed by determination of HRBC membrane stabilization method, Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) and GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: All the extracts showed high TPC and TFC along with the stronger correlation with the antioxidant activity of the extracts suggesting phenolics and flavonoids contents of the extract might be attributed to showing antioxidant activity. The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of the plant also showed remarkable anti-inflammatory activity where methanolic extracts had the lowest EC50. During Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay, all extracts of BG were found to be bioactive and the degree of lethality was found to be concentration dependent. The GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extract of BG revealed 23 compounds which are reported to possess different biological activities. CONCLUSION: The study reveals the strong antioxidant and RBC membrane stabilization activity of BG. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay found extracts to be bioactive suggesting extracts as a promising candidate for plant-derived anti-tumor compounds. Further, studies are needed to validate the data on cancer cell lines.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hordeum/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia , Cromatografia Gasosa , Flavonoides/toxicidade , Hordeum/toxicidade , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química
19.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 85, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32178659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Honey is a versatile and complex substance consisting of bioactive chemicals which vary according to many bee and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the physical and antimicrobial properties of five honey samples obtained from three species of bees; two stingless bees, Frieseomelitta nigra and Melipona favosa and one stinging bee, Apis mellifera (fresh and aged honey). Samples were acquired from apiaries across Trinidad and Tobago. An artificial honey, made from sugar, was also used for comparison. METHODS: Physical properties such as appearance, pH, moisture content, sugar content and specific gravity were determined. Antimicrobial activity was assessed utilizing the agar diffusion assay and comparison to a phenol equivalence. The broth microdilution test was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the five honey samples against four common pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae. RESULTS: All honey samples were acidic, with pH values ranging from 2.88 (M. favosa of Tobago) to 3.91 (fresh A. mellifera). Sugar content ranged from 66.0 to 81.6% with the highest values detected in stinging bee honeys of the A. mellifera (81.6 and 80.5°Bx). Moisture content ranged from 16.9% for aged A. mellifera honey (from Trinidad) to 32.4% for F. nigra honey (from Tobago). The MICs (2 to 16%) and MBCs (2 to 32%) of stingless bee honeys were lower than that of stinging bee and artificial honeys (16 to > 32%). Stingless bee honeys also exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms with higher phenol equivalence values (4.5 to 28.6%) than the A. mellifera honeys (0 to 3.4%) against the isolates tested. M. favosa honey of Tobago displayed the greatest antimicrobial activity as indicated by the high phenol equivalence and low MIC and MBC values. CONCLUSIONS: Stingless bee honeys from Tobago showed the greatest antimicrobial activity when compared to the other honeys used in this study. M. favosa honey of Tobago showed the most potential for use as medicinal honey.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Mel/análise , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Abelhas , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Trinidad e Tobago
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD005004, 2020 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2009, Issue 3).Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. Teas from the plant Camellia sinensis can be grouped into green, black and oolong tea, and drinking habits vary cross-culturally. C sinensis contains polyphenols, one subgroup being catechins. Catechins are powerful antioxidants, and laboratory studies have suggested that these compounds may inhibit cancer cell proliferation. Some experimental and nonexperimental epidemiological studies have suggested that green tea may have cancer-preventative effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess possible associations between green tea consumption and the risk of cancer incidence and mortality as primary outcomes, and safety data and quality of life as secondary outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched eligible studies up to January 2019 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and reference lists of previous reviews and included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all epidemiological studies, experimental (i.e. randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) and nonexperimental (non-randomised studies, i.e. observational studies with both cohort and case-control design) that investigated the association of green tea consumption with cancer risk or quality of life, or both. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two or more review authors independently applied the study criteria, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of studies. We summarised the results according to diagnosis of cancer type. MAIN RESULTS: In this review update, we included in total 142 completed studies (11 experimental and 131 nonexperimental) and two ongoing studies. This is an additional 10 experimental and 85 nonexperimental studies from those included in the previous version of the review. Eleven experimental studies allocated a total of 1795 participants to either green tea extract or placebo, all demonstrating an overall high methodological quality based on 'Risk of bias' assessment. For incident prostate cancer, the summary risk ratio (RR) in the green tea-supplemented participants was 0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18 to 1.36), based on three studies and involving 201 participants (low-certainty evidence). The summary RR for gynaecological cancer was 1.50 (95% CI 0.41 to 5.48; 2 studies, 1157 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence of effect of non-melanoma skin cancer emerged (summary RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.92; 1 study, 1075 participants; low-certainty evidence). In addition, adverse effects of green tea extract intake were reported, including gastrointestinal disorders, elevation of liver enzymes, and, more rarely, insomnia, raised blood pressure and skin/subcutaneous reactions. Consumption of green tea extracts induced a slight improvement in quality of life, compared with placebo, based on three experimental studies. In nonexperimental studies, we included over 1,100,000 participants from 46 cohort studies and 85 case-control studies, which were on average of intermediate to high methodological quality based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scale 'Risk of bias' assessment. When comparing the highest intake of green tea with the lowest, we found a lower overall cancer incidence (summary RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07), based on three studies, involving 52,479 participants (low-certainty evidence). Conversely, we found no association between green tea consumption and cancer-related mortality (summary RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.07), based on eight studies and 504,366 participants (low-certainty evidence). For most of the site-specific cancers we observed a decreased RR in the highest category of green tea consumption compared with the lowest one. After stratifying the analysis according to study design, we found strongly conflicting results for some cancer sites: oesophageal, prostate and urinary tract cancer, and leukaemia showed an increased RR in cohort studies and a decreased RR or no difference in case-control studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings from experimental and nonexperimental epidemiological studies yielded inconsistent results, thus providing limited evidence for the beneficial effect of green tea consumption on the overall risk of cancer or on specific cancer sites. Some evidence of a beneficial effect of green tea at some cancer sites emerged from the RCTs and from case-control studies, but their methodological limitations, such as the low number and size of the studies, and the inconsistencies with the results of cohort studies, limit the interpretability of the RR estimates. The studies also indicated the occurrence of several side effects associated with high intakes of green tea. In addition, the majority of included studies were carried out in Asian populations characterised by a high intake of green tea, thus limiting the generalisability of the findings to other populations. Well conducted and adequately powered RCTs would be needed to draw conclusions on the possible beneficial effects of green tea consumption on cancer risk.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Chá , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Camellia sinensis/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Polifenóis , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Chá/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Urogenitais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Urogenitais/prevenção & controle
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