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1.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(6): 1353-1368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016104

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease result from absolute or relative insulin secretion deficiency, insulin resistance, or both, and has become a major and growing public healthy menace worldwide. Currently, clinical antidiabetic drugs still have some limitations in efficacy and safety such as gastrointestinal side effects, hypoglycemia, or weight gain. Rosmarinus officinalis is an aromatic evergreen shrub used as a food additive and medicine, which has been extensively used to treat hyperglycemia, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetic wounds. A great deal of pharmacological research showed that rosemary extract and its phenolic constituents, especially carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and carnosol, could significantly improve diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation, exhibiting extremely high research value. Therefore, this review summarizes the pharmacological effects and underlying mechanisms of rosemary extract and its primary phenolic constituents on diabetes and relative complications both in vitro and in vivo studies from 2000 to 2020, to provide some scientific evidence and research ideas for its clinical application.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Abietanos/uso terapêutico , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Cinamatos/uso terapêutico , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosmarinus/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Depsídeos/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1077-1085, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788520

RESUMO

There is growing research interest in the hypocholesterolemic effect of various food components such as polyphenols. In this study, we examined the effects of oligonol-a low-molecular weight polyphenol extracted from lychee fruit-on cholesterol metabolism in rats under short-term administration. Administration of oligonol for 3 days significantly increased cecum weight and decreased cecal n-butyric acid concentrations in rats. Oligonol also significantly lowered the levels of hepatic cholesterol and increased the levels of total neutral steroids excreted in the feces. It also increased fecal ß-muricholic acid significantly, whereas the levels of total acidic steroids remained unchanged. Gene expression of hepatic CYP7A1 (cytochrome P450 family 7 subfamily A member 1) significantly increased following the administration of oligonol. This increase could be ascribed to changes in the expression of farnesoid X receptor, small heterodimer partner, and fibroblast growth factor 15 in ileum. Our data suggest that oligonol induces hypocholesterolemic effects through the inhibition of biliary cholesterol absorption from the intestine and the upregulation of cholesterol catabolism in rats even following short-term administration. Therefore, oligonol may be an important food component for reducing cholesterol level.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Colesterol/metabolismo , Litchi/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Butiratos/metabolismo , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Catequina/farmacologia , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/genética , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Peso Molecular , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127429, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645678

RESUMO

Thermal processing is a traditional method for processing hawthorn into food or medicine. In this study, the compositions of free and bound phenolic compounds in raw hawthorn were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry, and the effect of thermal processing on phenolics and antioxidant activity was determined. Among the phenolics identified in unheated hawthorn, 26 were soluble, while only 10 were insoluble-bound. Thermal processing caused a significant reduction in total soluble phenolics content, but an increase in total insoluble-bound phenolics (p < 0.05). Procyanidin B2 and epicatechin showed the largest decreases in content, and were not detected in well-cooked hawthorn. The antioxidant activity also clearly decreased, with the chlorogenic acid, procyanidin B2, hyperoside, and isoquercetin contents correlating significantly (p < 0.05) with antioxidant activity. In general, the effect of thermal processes on phenolics and antioxidant activity was dependent on the types of phenolics and processing conditions.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Crataegus/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
4.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682131

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the dynamics and their ecological risks for aquatic species of lipid regulator, nervous stimulant, anti-inflammatory and endocrine disrupters in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), submerged aerated biological filters (SABF) and horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland (HSSF-CW) reactors that treat swine wastewater. Four organic loads of swine wastewater (SW) were used according to changing the chemical oxygen demand. 13 contaminants were quantified, standing out the endocrine disruptors, lipid regulator and anti-inflammatory. In phase III, 8318.4 ng L-1 of 4-ocylphenol was found at the influent of the UASB reactor and removal from 1877.1 to 13.7 ng L-1 in the bisphenol A system. With the maximum organic load, there was a reduction among all the treatment units, with concentrations between 1877.1 and 13.7 ng L-1 of bisphenol A and had naproxen removal of 94.5% and 2,7 ng L-1 after treating phases II and III. It was found that 24.6% of the contaminants presented a high ecological risk, with maximum values of 27.4 (4-nonylphenol, phase II), 24.6 and 5.9 (17ß-estradiol, phase IV and I, respectively), 13.4 (4-ocylphenol, phase III) and 4.4 (estrone, phase IV) in the influent system. The reduction of ecological risk potentials was optimized by SABF and HSSF-CW. The effect oxygen availability and microbiological activities optimized the reduction of ecological risks on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and cnidarian (Hydra attenuata) species, moreover, the reduction of mass flows and ecological risks of the emerging contaminants are associated with the use of biological reactors in series and organic stabilizations.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Anaerobiose , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Ecologia , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Estradiol , Estrona , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos , Suínos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/normas , Áreas Alagadas , Peixe-Zebra
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574221

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant properties of the extracts and subfractions of various polarities from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves and the related phenolic compound profiles. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed the most potent radical-scavenging activity for DPPH radicals, ABTS radicals, and superoxide anion (O2·-) radicals as well as the highest reducing power of the fractions tested; the n-butyl alcohol fraction (BAF) was the most effective in scavenging hydroxyl radical (OH·), and the dichloromethane fraction (DMF) exhibited the highest ferrous ion chelating activity. Twelve phenolic components were identified from the EAF of C. cyrtophyllum. Additionally, acteoside (1) was found to be a major component (0.803 g, 0.54%) and show DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities with IC50 values of 79.65±3.4 and 23.00±1.5 µg/ml, indicating it is principally responsible for the significant total antioxidant effect of C. cyrtophyllum. Our work offers a theoretical basis for further utilization of C. cyrtophyllum as a potential source of natural, green antioxidants derived from plants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clerodendrum/química , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/análise , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Radical Hidroxila/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 331: 127311, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569967

RESUMO

A magnetic hydrophilic molecularly imprinted material (MIM) with multiple stimuli-responses was prepared for efficient recognition of bisphenol A (BPA). MIM consisted of a magnetic core, an inner silica dioxide shell and an outer hydrophilic polymer shell, responsive for rapid magnetic separation, protection of the magnetic core and pH-/thermo-sensitivity to BPA, respectively. Controlled adsorption and release of BPA by pH/temperature regulation were realized through the reversible components of poly[N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (NIPAM-DMAEMA)] (PND). The resultant MIM possessed superior affinity, selectivity and kinetics to BPA in aqueous solution. MIM was successfully applied to detect BPA in beverages via dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), exhibiting satisfactory recoveries of 80.70-108.18% with relative standard deviations (RSD) below 6.08%. The limit of detection of BPA was obtained as low as 3.75 nmol/L. The versatile MIM could be a promising alternative for extraction/removal of BPA in complicated samples by multiple-stimuli regulations.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Bebidas/análise , Imãs/química , Impressão Molecular , Fenóis/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/síntese química , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Metacrilatos/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1742-1751, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32449951

RESUMO

Coffee leaves contain various bioactive compounds that are beneficial for human health. However, there are very limited researches related to the extraction of the bioactive phytochemicals from coffee leaves. In the present study, the extraction conditions for bioactive components from coffee leaves were optimized using Taguchi design and response surface methodology (RSM). Taguchi design was used to screen significant factors that affected the yield of phytochemicals including trigonelline, caffeine, chlorogenic acids, mangiferin, and rutin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Sequentially, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Three factors including Liquid-to-solid (L:S) ratio, ethanol concentration, and extraction temperature that significantly affected most of the phytochemical yields and antioxidant activity were selected from the six variables using Taguchi design. The optimal extraction conditions obtained from RSM were 30.3:1 L:S ratio, 54.5% ethanol, and 80 °C when simultaneously considered four responses, including TPC, the yields of mangiferin and 5-CQA and DPPH scavenging capacity. Under the optimal conditions, the experimental results for the above four responses were 62.1 mg gallic acid/g, 4.1 mg/g, 11.4 mg/g, and 356.9 µmol Trolox/g, respectively, which were close to the predicted values. About 97% of phytochemicals can be extracted in the first two times of extraction. In conclusion, the combination of Taguchi design and response surface methodology can be successfully used to screen and optimize the significant factors that affected the bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Coffee leaves, the byproducts of coffee plants, are considered no- or low-value although it has a long history for using them as tea-like beverage and ethnomedicine by locals in the coffee plant growing countries. Bioactive components extracted from coffee leaves can be used as ingredients in functional beverages, functional food, and natural health products. These applications will add values to coffee leaves as well as increase the incomes of coffee farmers and workers.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ultrassom/métodos , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1450-1461, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249418

RESUMO

Bound phenolic compounds have rarely been reported in vegetable oils and this may be due to little research about the extraction. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs), recently applied in the extraction of phenolic compounds as alternatives to organic solvents, were adopted in the extraction of free and bound phenolic compounds from tea seed oil in this work. First, the phenolic compounds were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time-of-flight and triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) for characterization and UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS for quantification and 25 phenolic compounds were found to exist in both free and bound forms. Then, DESs were screened for extraction of free and bound phenolic compounds from tea seed oil as the pretreatment for analysis and the results showed that hydrogen bond donors (HBDs) and temperature significantly affected the extraction efficiency of DESs. Finally, free phenolic compounds (83.91 µg/g) and bound phenolic compounds (25.71 µg/g), extracted by the DES with glycerol as HBD at 50 °C, were 51.0% and 93.2% higher than those extracted by methanol/water (60%, v/v), respectively. This work not only advanced the basic data of phenolic compounds in tea seed oil but also explored an efficient extraction method for scientific analysis of free and bound phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1621: 461045, 2020 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201036

RESUMO

New zwitterionic (ZIC) stationary phases (SPs) are synthesized with the click and conventional bonding of tyrosine to silica gel. Infrared spectra and elemental analysis demonstrate the successful click and conventional bonding of this ZIC group on silica particles by the surface coverage including 2.36 and 0.75 µm m-2, respectively. Given the above-mentioned explanation, the present study evaluated the retention mechanism and chromatographic manners of polar compounds on these new materials under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) conditions. Based on the results, the Click-Tyrosine Stationary Phase provided good HILIC characteristics when it was applied to separate phenolic compounds, amino acids, alkaloids, and nucleobases compared to bare silica gel SP and even conventional tyrosine SPs. Further, this new Click-Tyrosine-SP represented appropriate HILIC features and column efficiency (the theoretical plate number was up to 50,000 plates m-1 for thebaine). Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of solute polarity (the number of the hydroxyl group of phenolic compounds) and hydrophobicity (the number of the side chain of aliphatic amino acids) on retention behaviors. Finally, some important factors were studied as the potential variables for guiding the retention behavior of the polar compound in HILIC condition including solvent composition, salt concentration, and the buffer pH of the mobile phase.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Tirosina/química , Alcaloides/análise , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Aminoácidos/análise , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Química Click , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sílica Gel/química
10.
Food Chem ; 318: 126450, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151921

RESUMO

The objective of this work was the development of an on-line extraction/fractionation method based on the coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction for the separation of phenolic compounds from apple pomace. Several variables of the process were evaluated, including the amount of water of the first stage (0-120 mL), temperature (60-80 °C), solid-phase extraction adsorbent (Sepra, Isolute, Strata X and Oasis) and activation/elution solvent (methanol and ethanol). The best results were observed with the adsorbent Sepra. The temperature had a small effect on recovery, but significant differences were observed for phlorizin and a quercetin derivative. Results indicate that ethanol can be used to replace methanol as an activation, extraction/elution solvent. While using mostly green solvents (water, ethanol, and a small amount of methanol that could be reused), the developed method produced higher or similar yields of acids (2.85 ± 0.19 mg/g) and flavonoids (0.97 ± 0.11 mg/g) than conventional methods.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Malus/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Malus/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Florizina/análise , Florizina/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Pressão , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
11.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 78(1): 111-119, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062829

RESUMO

There are different varieties of mushrooms not yet studied spread all over the planet. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical properties and effects on mitochondrial respiration of eight Basidiomycete mushrooms: Flaviporus venustus EF30, Hydnopolyporus fimbriatus EF41 and EF44, Inonotus splitgerberi EF46, Oudemansiella canarii EF72, Perenniporia sp. EF79, Phellinus linteus EF81, and Pleurotus albidus EF84. Total phenols, ABTS, TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were measured in order to determine the antioxidant capacity. Antimicrobial potential was studied by disc-diffusion and microdilution method. Cytotoxicity was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. The bioenergetic aspects were evaluated by the uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrias. The H. fimbriatus mushroom was the one that presented the most significant results for the antioxidant assays. Three mushrooms presented antimicrobial activity, indicating a potential for formulation of drugs. The results suggest that I. spligerberi has an uncoupling activity, even at the lowest concentration tested, dissipating the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient. On the other hand, P. albidus has effect only on succinate-oxidase activity without influencing mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Therefore, both interfere negatively in mitochondrial respiration. In relation with the cytotoxicity in peritoneal macrophages, O. canarii and F. venustus were cytotoxic in this type of cells.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/química , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneais/citologia , Macrófagos Peritoneais/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Fosforilação Oxidativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Consumo de Oxigênio/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Succínico/química
12.
Food Chem ; 315: 126265, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014668

RESUMO

Protein glycation plays a vital role in the progression of various diabetes complications. Therefore, inhibition of protein glycation could be a key strategy to prevent these diabetic abnormalities. Evaluation of phenolic compositions and their antiglycation activity revealed that p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were major phenolic acids in barnyard millet. These phenolics exhibited multiple antioxidant activities in various mechanisms and protected the oxidative DNA damage and hydroxyl radical-induced protein fragmentation. Millet phenolics were very effective in scavenging >78% reactive carbonyl intermediates in the reaction and protected protein thiol group oxidation. Furthermore, 68.3% inhibition of protein glycation and reduced formation of protein aggregates were also observed with millet phenolics. Besides, fluorescence intensity measurements indicated a significant decrease in advance glycated end products and protection against glycoxidation-induced protein conformational changes at 100 µg/ml phenolics. These results suggest the potential utility of barnyard millet as an ingredient in functional foods for controlling protein glycation associated diabetic complications.


Assuntos
Echinochloa/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutose/metabolismo , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proteínas/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126083, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045753

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine disruptors interferes with the synthesis, release, transport and metabolic activities of hormones, thus impairing human health significantly. Bisphenol A (BpA), an endocrine disruptor, commonly released into the environment by industrial activities and needs immediate attention. This study aims at investigating the process and prospects of deploying bio-electrochemical systems (BES) for the removal of BpA from artificially contaminated soil using Bacillus subtilis HV-3. The BES was setup with desired operating conditions: initial concentration of BpA (80-150 mg/L), pH (3-11) and applied potential voltage (0.6-1.4 V). Under optimized conditions (initial BpA concentration, 100 mg/L; pH 7; and applied voltage 1.0 V), close to 98% degradation of BpA was achieved. The intermediates produced during degradation were analysed using High performance liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry and the possible degradation pathway was elucidated. Phytotoxicity studies in the remediated soil with Phaseolus mungo confirmed the environmental applicability of the BES system.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/isolamento & purificação , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Vigna/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(1-2): 31-39, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031983

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare the biological activities of 35 herbal hydroethanolic extracts and select high potential extract, which showed antioxidative activity and inhibitory activities of α-glucosidase, lipase, and hyaluronidase, and to investigate the isolation, structural elucidation, and biological activities of five phenolic compounds from the selected extracts of Rosa gallica. On the basis of one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance together with the comparison with the literature values, the phenolic compounds were identified as methyl gallate (1), kaempferol-3-O-arabinofuranoside (2), multinoside A acetate (3), kaempferol (4), and quercetin (5), respectively. The results suggest that the extracts from R. gallica show the strongest biological activities in 35 herbal extracts and that 1, 4, and 5 among the five isolated compounds from rose extracts are effective in promoting antioxidative and enzymatic inhibitory activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rosa/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/química , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Quempferóis/química , Quempferóis/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/química , Quercetina/isolamento & purificação
15.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 75(1-2): 51-56, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053496

RESUMO

The leaves of Garcinia epunctata Stapf have furnished two new phenolic glucosides, epunctosides A and B, along with 13 known secondary metabolites identified as lanceoloside A, betulinic acid, lupeol, stigmasterol, ß-sitosterol, ß-sitosterol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, stigmasterol-3-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, quercitin-7-O-glucoside, amentoflavone, robustaflavone, 4'-O-methyl-amentoflavone and 4'-O-methyl-robustaflavone. All structures were established from chemical and spectroscopic evidence including 1D and 2D NMR data as well as by comparing the obtained spectroscopic data with literature. This is the first report of the presence of phenolic glucosides in the genus Garcinia.


Assuntos
Garcinia/química , Glicosídeos/química , Fenóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Biflavonoides/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Metabolismo Secundário/genética , Sitosteroides/química , Estigmasterol/química , Triterpenos/química
16.
Food Chem ; 317: 126387, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086121

RESUMO

The outstanding amount of phenolics and pectins of okra seeds and seedless pods, respectively, is well-known. However, their impact on bread nutritional quality, and particularly on slowing down α-amylase activity during crumb digestion, has never been studied. In this work, the phenolic and carbohydrate fractions of developed fine and coarse flours from okra seeds (OS) and seedless pods (OP) were investigated as well as their impact on wheat bread physical and nutritional quality. The use of okra flours dramatically increased the amount of extractable (EPP) and non-extractable hydrolyzable phenolics (HPP) of wheat breads, attaining up to 210.8 and 2944.8 mg/100 g of EPP and HPP, respectively, with only a 5% replacement with OS. Interestingly, breads made with fine OS and OP exhibited a second digestion rate upon 50 min of digestion, indicating a time-dependence hypoglycemic effect of okra constituents whereby OS-breads presented the slowest digestion rate and extension among all breads.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Pão/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum , Carboidratos/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Hidrólise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 85(3): 673-681, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078761

RESUMO

Soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., are among the most important food crops worldwide. Isoflavones are major bioactive phytochemicals in soybeans, and have a variety of health benefits, including antioxidative, antiatherosclerotic, antiinflammatory, and weak estrogen-like effects. The isoflavone content and composition of soybeans vary according to the cultivar and the extraction solvent conditions. Therefore, we investigated the effects of three different solvent pHs (1.0, 5.5, and 10.0) on the isoflavone, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities of eight soybean cultivars developed in Korea. Twelve isoflavones in soybeans were efficiently separated and identified on a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. The percentage distribution of isoflavones measured by HPLC in the eight soybean cultivars at various extraction pHs decreased as follows: malonyl isoflavones (67.2% to 81.3%) > isoflavone glucosides (16.2% to 29.0%; as nonacylated form) > acetyl isoflavones (1.6% to 5.9%). The highest contents of isoflavone glucosides, malonyl derivatives, and acetyl derivatives were extracted at solvent pHs of 10.0, 1.0, and 5.5, respectively. The solvent extraction at pH 1.0 yielded a lower total isoflavone content than those at pHs 5.5 and 10.0. However, the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were extracted from soybeans at pH 1.0. Soybeans extracted at pH 10.0 displayed the highest antioxidant capacities in the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical assay. Taken together, these results suggest that proper solvent pH adjustment is needed to maximize the extraction of targeted forms of isoflavones from soybeans. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Soybeans contain a variety of bioactive compounds, including isoflavones, which function as antioxidants and weak phytoestrogens. Chemical and instrumental analyses can facilitate the selection of soybean cultivars with high amounts of isoflavones for soybean breeding and isoflavone-enriched product development. Proper solvent pH adjustment allows for the efficient extraction of high amounts of targeted isoflavone subgroups (acetyl and malonyl forms) from soybeans for functional food products.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Isoflavonas/análise , Isoflavonas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Soja/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , República da Coreia , Sementes/química
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(4): 927-942, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910006

RESUMO

Nuts contain a vast array of phenolic compounds having important biological properties. They include substances allocated into the five major groups named phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic lignans, and stilbene derivatives. The complexity in composition does not allow for setting a universal extraction procedure suitable for extraction of all nut phenolics. The use of non-conventional extraction techniques, such as those based on microwave, ultrasound, and compressed fluids, combined with generally recognized as safe solvents is gaining major interest. With regard to the latter, ethanol, water, and ethanol-water mixtures have proven to be effective as extracting solvents and allow for clean, safe, and low-cost extraction operations. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in biological properties of natural phenolic compounds, especially on their role in the prevention of several diseases in which oxidative stress reactions are involved. This review provides an updated and comprehensive overview on nut phenolic extraction and their chemical profiles and bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Nozes/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
19.
Food Chem ; 314: 125959, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991283

RESUMO

Anthocyanins from purple-fleshed sweetpotatoes constitute highly valued natural colorants and functional ingredients. In the past, anthocyanin extraction conditions and efficiencies using a single acidified solvent have been assessed. However, the potential of solvent mixes that can be generated by fermentation of biomass-derived sugars have not been explored. In this study, the effects of single and mixed solvent, time, temperature, sweetpotato genotype and preparation, on anthocyanin and phenolic extraction were evaluated. Results indicated that unconventional diluted solvent mixes containing acetone, butanol, and ethanol were superior or equally efficient for extracting anthocyanins when compared to commonly used concentrated extractants. In addition, analysis of anthocyanidins concentrations including cyanidin (cy), peonidin (pe), and pelargonidin (pl), indicated that different ratios of pn/cy were obtained depending on the solvent used. These results could be useful when selecting processing conditions that better suit particular end-use applications and more environmentally friendly process development for purple sweetpotatoes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ipomoea batatas/química , Solventes/química , Acetona/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/química , Butanóis/química , Etanol/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125780, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945719

RESUMO

In this study, Cu0·5Mn0·5Fe2O4 nanoparticles were synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process, evaluated as highly efficient photo-Fenton catalyst for removal of bisphenol A (BPA). Benefit for its larger surface area and unique chemical composition, the Cu0·5Mn0·5Fe2O4 catalyst exhibited superior catalytic activity toward the degradation of BPA, with a rate constant values ranging from 0.247 to 1.090 min-1 based on different operating parameters (catalyst load, initial solution pH, H2O2 concentration and reaction temperature). Importantly, an excellent BPA removal efficiency exceeding 95.2% were obtained after eight successive runs of photo-Fenton process. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and radical scavenger experiments demonstrated that the hydroxyl radical was the dominant radical in degradation of BPA. A possible BPA degradation pathway was proposed according to the detected intermediates by GC-MS and HPLC. In brief, this work is expected to provide a new heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst for the organic pollutants removal from wastewater.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/isolamento & purificação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Catálise , Cobre , Compostos Férricos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Radical Hidroxila , Compostos de Manganês , Compostos Orgânicos/isolamento & purificação , Óxidos , Fenóis/química
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