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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371979

RESUMO

Grape pomace (GP) is a winemaking by-product rich in polyphenols and fibre. Supplementation with GP extracts has shown potential benefits against oxidative stress- and inflammation-related pathologies. As a new nutritional target, this paper explores the impact of the ingestion of a grape pomace extract on intestinal barrier functionality. A GP extract was sequentially subjected to gastrointestinal and colonic digestion using the dynamic gastrointestinal simulator (simgi®). This generated two simulated fluids: intestinal-digested extract (IDE) and colonic-digested extract (CDE). The effects of these two fluids on paracellular permeability and the expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (i.e., zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) were assessed in Caco-2-cell monolayers grown in Transwell® inserts. The IDE fluid significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the paracellular transport of FITC-dextran with respect to the control, whereas no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found for CDE, which could be due, at least partially, to the pro-leaky effect of the colonic digestion medium. Accordant slight increases in the mRNA levels of both ZO-1 and occludin were observed for IDE, but without statistical significance. Additionally, the colonic fermentation of the GP extract promoted the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenolic metabolites and led to changes in the relative abundance of some bacteria that might affect paracellular permeability. Overall, this paper reports first trends about the effects of grape pomace extracts on intestinal permeability that would require further confirmation in future experiments.


Assuntos
Digestão , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Vitis , Células CACO-2 , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/química , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ocludina/genética , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Vinho , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1
2.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206736

RESUMO

Green tea can influence the gut microbiota by either stimulating the growth of specific species or by hindering the development of detrimental ones. At the same time, gut bacteria can metabolize green tea compounds and produce smaller bioactive molecules. Accordingly, green tea benefits could be due to beneficial bacteria or to microbial bioactive metabolites. Therefore, the gut microbiota is likely to act as middle man for, at least, some of the green tea benefits on health. Many health promoting effects of green tea seems to be related to the inter-relation between green tea and gut microbiota. Green tea has proven to be able to correct the microbial dysbiosis that appears during several conditions such as obesity or cancer. On the other hand, tea compounds influence the growth of bacterial species involved in inflammatory processes such as the release of LPS or the modulation of IL production; thus, influencing the development of different chronic diseases. There are many studies trying to link either green tea or green tea phenolic compounds to health benefits via gut microbiota. In this review, we tried to summarize the most recent research in the area.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catequina/farmacologia , Disbiose/complicações , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá/química
3.
Fitoterapia ; 153: 104988, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246745

RESUMO

Orchidaceae, well known for its fascinating flowers, is one of the largest and most diverse families of flowering plants. There are many kinds of plants in this family; these are distributed practically globally and have high ornamental and medicinal values. Gastrodia elata Blume, a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, is a rootless and leafless achlorophyllous orchid. Phenolic compounds are considered to be the major bioactive constituents in G. elata, with antioxidant, antiangiogenic, neuroprotective, antidepressant, anxiolytic, and sedative activities. In this study, we determined the contents of six main phenolic components in tubers, stems and flowers from G. elata. Meanwhile, the transcriptomes of the tuber, stem and flower tissues of G. elata were obtained using the BGISEQ-500 platform. A total of 58.29 Gb of data and 113,067 unigenes were obtained, of which 74,820 unigenes were functionally annotated against seven public databases. Differentially expressed genes between tuber, stem and flower tissues were identified. A total of 76 DEGs encoding eight key enzymes were identified as candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenolics in G. elata. For further validation, the expression levels of unigenes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results greatly enrich the transcriptomic data of G. elata and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.


Assuntos
Gastrodia/genética , Genes de Plantas , Fenóis/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Flores/genética , Estrutura Molecular , Caules de Planta/genética , Tubérculos/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/genética
4.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200152

RESUMO

Lupin seeds can represent a valuable source of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile was performed on seeds from three Lupinus species, including one cultivar (Lupinus albus) and two wild accessions (Lupinus cossentinii and Lupinus luteus), collected from the northern region of Tunisia. Untargeted metabolomic profiling allowed to identify 249 compounds, with a great abundance of phenolics and alkaloids. In this regard, the species L. cossentinii showed the highest phenolic content, being 6.54 mg/g DW, followed by L. luteus (1.60 mg/g DW) and L. albus (1.14 mg/g DW). The in vitro antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS assay on seed extracts ranged from 4.67 to 17.58 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g, recording the highest values for L. albus and the lowest for L. luteus. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 0.39 to 3.50 mg TE/g. FRAP values varied between 4.11 and 5.75 mg TE/g. CUPRAC values for lupin seeds ranged from 7.20 to 8.95 mg TE/g, recording the highest for L. cossentinii. The results of phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelation showed similarity between the three species of Lupinus. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was detected in each methanolic extract analyzed with similar results. Regarding the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme, it was weakly inhibited by the Lupinus extracts; in particular, the highest activity values were recorded for L. albus (1.74 mg GALAE/g). Overall, our results showed that L. cossentinii was the most abundant source of polyphenols, consisting mainly in tyrosol equivalents (5.82 mg/g DW). Finally, significant correlations were outlined between the phenolic compounds and the in vitro biological activity measured, particularly when considering flavones, phenolic acids and lower-molecular-weight phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lupinus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Tunísia
5.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206169

RESUMO

In addition to the vast diversity of fauna and flora, the Brazilian Amazon has different climatic periods characterized by periods with greater and lesser rainfall. The main objective of this research was to verify the influence of climatic seasons in the Brazilian Amazon (northeast of Pará state) concerning the aromatic and bioactive profiles of fermented and dried cocoa seeds. About 200 kg of seeds was fermented using specific protocols of local producers. Physicochemical analyzes (total titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds, quantification of monomeric phenolics and methylxanthines) and volatile compounds by GC-MS were carried out. We observed that: in the summer, the highest levels of aldehydes were identified, such as benzaldehyde (6.34%) and phenylacetaldehyde (36.73%), related to the fermented cocoa and honey aromas, respectively; and a total of 27.89% of this same class was identified during winter. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Tukey test) in the profile of bioactive compounds (catechin, epicatechin, caffeine, and theobromine), being higher in fermented almonds in winter. This study indicates that the climatic seasons in the Amazon affect the aromatic and bioactive profiles and could produce a new identity standard (summer and winter Amazon) for the cocoa almonds and their products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ecossistema , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Estações do Ano , Sementes , Cacau/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Odorantes , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin that accumulates in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our aim was to explore the effect of chronic exposition of BPA in healthy and injured kidney investigating potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: In C57Bl/6 mice, administration of BPA (120 mg/kg/day, i.p for 5 days/week) was done for 2 and 5 weeks. To study BPA effect on CKD, a model of subtotal nephrectomy (SNX) combined with BPA administration for 5 weeks was employed. In vitro studies were done in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 line). RESULTS: Chronic BPA administration to healthy mice induces inflammatory infiltration in the kidney, tubular injury and renal fibrosis (assessed by increased collagen deposition). Moreover, in SNX mice BPA exposure exacerbates renal lesions, including overexpression of the tubular damage biomarker Hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (Havcr-1/KIM-1). BPA upregulated several proinflammatory genes and increased the antioxidant response [Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), Heme Oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (Nqo-1)] both in healthy and SNX mice. The autophagy process was modulated by BPA, through elevated autophagy-related gene 5 (Atg5), autophagy-related gene 7 (Atg7), Microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B (Map1lc3b/Lc3b) and Beclin-1 gene levels and blockaded the autophagosome maturation and flux (p62 levels). This autophagy deregulation was confirmed in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: BPA deregulates autophagy flux and redox protective mechanisms, suggesting a potential mechanism of BPA deleterious effects in the kidney.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202180

RESUMO

In nature, plants usually produce secondary metabolites as a defense mechanism against environmental stresses. Different stresses determine the chemical diversity of plant-specialized metabolism products. In this study, we applied an abiotic elicitor, i.e., NaCl, to enhance the biosynthesis and accumulation of phenolic secondary metabolites in Melissa officinalis L. Plants were subjected to salt stress treatment by application of NaCl solutions (0, 50, or 100 mM) to the pots. Generally, the NaCl treatments were found to inhibit the growth of plants, simultaneously enhancing the accumulation of phenolic compounds (total phenolics, soluble flavonols, anthocyanins, phenolic acids), especially at 100 mM NaCl. However, the salt stress did not disturb the accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and proper functioning of the PS II photosystem. Therefore, the proposed method of elicitation represents a convenient alternative to cell suspension or hydroponic techniques as it is easier and cheaper with simple application in lemon balm pot cultivation. The improvement of lemon balm quality by NaCl elicitation can potentially increase the level of health-promoting phytochemicals and the bioactivity of low-processed herbal products.


Assuntos
Melissa/fisiologia , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Biomassa , Melissa/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Secundário , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia
8.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070241

RESUMO

Lipoic acid (LA) and melatonin (MT) are pleiotropic molecules participating in plant stress resistance by modulating cellular biochemical changes, ion homeostasis, and antioxidant enzyme activities. However, the combined role of these two molecules in counteracting the detrimental impacts of salinity stress is still unknown. In the present study, we determined the effects of exogenous LA (0.5 µM), MT (1 µM) and their combination (LA + MT) on growth performance and biomass accumulation, photosynthetic pigments, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities, and ions homeostatic in canola (Brassica napus L.) seedlings under salinity stress (0, 100 mM) for 40 days. The results indicate that exogenous application of LA + MT improved the phenotypic growth (by 25 to 45%), root thickness (by 68%), number of later lateral roots (by 52%), root viability (by 44%), and root length (by 50%) under salinity stress. Moreover, total soluble protein, chlorophyll pigments, the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase peroxidase (CAT), and ascorbic peroxidase (ASA) increased with the presence of salt concentration into the growth media and then decreased with the addition of LA + MT to saline solution. Leaf protein contents and the degradation of photosynthetic pigments were lower when LA + MT treatments were added into NaCl media. The proline and phenol contents decreased in the exogenous application of LA + MT treatments more than individual LA or MT treatments under the salinity stress. The incorporation of LA or MT or a combination of LA + MT to saline solution decreased salinity-induced malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage. In conclusion, the alteration of metabolic pathways, redox modulation, and ions homeostasis in plant tissues by the combined LA and MT application are helpful towards the adaptation of Brassica napus L. seedlings in a saline environment. The results of this study provide, for the first time, conclusive evidence about the protective role of exogenous LA + MT in canola seedlings under salinity stress.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Salino , Ácido Tióctico/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomassa , Brassica napus/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Food Funct ; 12(11): 4921-4934, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100470

RESUMO

Chronodisruption leads to obesity and other metabolic disorders that can be alleviated by food-derived potential chronobiotics, such as phytomelatonin (PMT), phenolic compounds (PCs) and dietary fiber rich pistachios. Pistachios with (PN + SC) or without (PN) the seed coat were investigated for their in vitro chronobiotic potential since they are one of the main reported PMT sources. Consequently we evaluated the bioaccessibility, permeability, and biosynthesis of pistachio chronobiotics, particularly PMT, during gastrointestinal and colonic fermentation. The maximum in vitro bioaccessibility and apparent permeability (efflux-prone) of PCs, flavonoids and PMT were sample-specific [∼1.3% (both), 27 and 3.4% (PN + SC)], but additional amounts (flavonoids > PCs > PMT) were released under simulated colonic conditions. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs; 38 mM; >50% butyrate, PN + SC > PN) and some metabolites (e.g., indole, benzaldehyde, phenolic acids, and aliphatic/aromatic hydrocarbons) were detected depending on the sample. The predominant pistachio butyrate production during in vitro colonic fermentation can improve chronodisruption and benefit obese individuals. Pistachio's digestion increases the bioaccessibility and intestinal permeability of potential chronobiotics (PMT and PCs) and the biosynthesis of colonic metabolites (SCFAs, among others) also with chronobiotic potential.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacocinética , Pistacia/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Fenômenos Cronobiológicos , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Melatonina/metabolismo , Nozes/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 350: 30-39, 2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147605

RESUMO

Bisphenol F (BPF) is a member of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). As a substitute of bisphenol A (BPA), BPF is widely used in various consumer products, leading to an increased risk of people's exposure. However, there are few studies on the immunotoxicity and mechanism of BPF. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BPF on the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by macrophages and explore its mechanism. In our study, RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with different concentrations of BPF (0, 5, 10 and 20 µM) for 24 h. The results showed that the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1ß) and the production of lactate were increased in a dose-dependent manner. BPFalso led to the activation of the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway. After pretreatment with glycolysis inhibitor (2-DG) and exposure to BPF (20 µM), the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by BPF was inhibited. PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) and estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182,780) could also inhibit the above effects induced by BPF (20 µM). In conclusion, our results suggested that BPF can enhance glycolysis through ER mediated PI3K-AKT signaling pathway, and the enhanced glycolysis further promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our research provides basic data for future studies on bisphenol exposure and immunotoxicity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imunotoxinas/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
11.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(8): 1415-1427, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109470

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Foliar application of SA cross-talks and induce endogenous nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species to improve innate immunity and vigor of tomato plant against Fusarium oxysporum stress. The present investigation was aimed to demonstrate the efficacy of salicylic acid (SA), as a powerful elicitor or plant growth regulator (PGR) and its cross-talk with nitric oxide (NO) in tomato against the biotic stress caused by wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Different defense-related enzymes and gene expression, phenol, flavonoid, and phenolic acid content along with NO generation and other physiological characters have been estimated after foliar application of SA. Total chlorophyll content was steadily maintained and the amount of death of cells was negligible after 72 h of SA treatment. Significant reduction of disease incidence was also recorded in SA treated sets. Simultaneously, NO generation was drastically improved at this stage, which has been justified by both spectrophotometrically and microscopically. A direct correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and NO has been established. Production of defense enzymes, gene expressions, different phenolic acids was positively influenced by SA treatment. However, tomato plants treated with SA along with NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor or NO scavenger significantly reduce all those parameters tested. On the other hand, NO donor-treated plants showed the same inductive effect like SA. Furthermore, SA treated seeds of tomato also showed improved physiological parameters like higher seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, mean trichome density, etc. It is speculated that the cross-talk between SA and endogenous NO have tremendous ability to improve defense responses and growth of the tomato plant. It can be utilized in future sustainable agriculture for bimodal action.


Assuntos
Fusarium/patogenicidade , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Enzimas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia
12.
Food Chem ; 362: 130193, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082290

RESUMO

Lignin is an important component of the healing tissue in fruits. In this study, we treated muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. cv. "Manao") fruit with exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) to observe and analyze its effect on lignin synthesis and accumulation during healing. Results showed that SNP treatment enhanced the contents of endogenous NO and H2O2, increased the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamate 4 hydroxylase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and peroxidase, and raised the contents of sinapyl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol, coumaryl alcohol, and lignin. SNP augmented the hardness of the healing tissue and decreased its resilience, springiness, and cohesiveness. In addition, SNP treatment effectively reduced the weight loss and disease index of wounded muskmelons. All these results suggest that lignin metabolism mediated by NO play a crucial role in wound healing of muskmelons.


Assuntos
Cucumis melo/química , Cucumis melo/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Lignina/biossíntese , Nitroprussiato/química , Oxirredutases do Álcool , Frutas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/química , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
13.
DNA Res ; 28(3)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129020

RESUMO

Candida subhashii belongs to the CUG-Ser clade, a group of phylogenetically closely related yeast species that includes some human opportunistic pathogens, such as Candida albicans. Despite being present in the environment, C. subhashii was initially described as the causative agent of a case of peritonitis. Considering the relevance of whole-genome sequencing and analysis for our understanding of genome evolution and pathogenicity, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of C. subhashii type strain. Our results show that C. subhashii presents a highly heterozygous genome and other signatures that point to a hybrid ancestry. The presence of functional pathways for assimilation of hydroxyaromatic compounds goes in line with the affiliation of this yeast with soil microbial communities involved in lignin decomposition. Furthermore, we observed that different clones of this strain may present circular or linear mitochondrial DNA. Re-sequencing and comparison of strains with differential mitochondrial genome topology revealed five candidate genes potentially associated with this conformational change: MSK1, SSZ1, ALG5, MRPL9 and OYE32.


Assuntos
Candida/genética , Núcleo Celular/genética , Genoma Fúngico , Genoma Mitocondrial , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Fenóis/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3109-3121, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146408

RESUMO

Inhibition of α-glucosidase can slow carbohydrate metabolism, which is known as an effective strategy for diabetes treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of thermal treatment (50, 60, and 70℃) for 15 days on the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of bitter melon. The results show that the bitter melon heated at 70℃ for 12 days had the best α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. However, the amount of free polyphenols, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF), and the browning degree of bitter melon generally increased with the time (15 days) and temperature of the thermal treatment, which is positively related to their antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. In conclusion, aged bitter melon shows great α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, which may be related to the increased free form of the involved phenolic compounds and Maillard reaction products. This suggests that thermal processing may be a good way to enhance the application of bitter melon for diabetes treatment. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The thermal processing of bitter melon provides an application for diabetes treatment. This study demonstrated that heat-treated bitter melon can lower the blood glucose level; therefore, it can be used as a potential anti-hyperglycemic and functional food.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Momordica charantia/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066922

RESUMO

Human gut microbiota harbors numerous microbial species with molecular enzymatic potential that impact on the eubiosis/dysbiosis and health/disease balances. Microbiota species isolation and description of their specific molecular features remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we focused on the cultivation and selection of species able to tolerate or biodegrade the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), a xenobiotic extensively found in food plastic containers. Chemical xenobiotic addition methods for the directed isolation, culturing, Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS), phylogenomic identification, and specific gene-encoding searches have been applied to isolate microorganisms, assess their BPA metabolization potential, and describe encoded catabolic pathways. BPA-tolerant strains were isolated from 30% of infant fecal microbial culture libraries analyzed. Most isolated strains were phylogenetically related to the operational taxonomic group Bacillus amyloliquefaciens spp. Importantly, WGS analysis of microbial representative strain, Bacillus sp. AM1 identified the four complete molecular pathways involved on BPA degradation indicating its versatility and high potential to degrade BPA. Pathways for Exopolysaccharide (EPS) and Polyhydroxyalkanates (PHA) biopolymer synthesis were also identified and phenotypically confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). These microbial biopolymers could generally contribute to capture and/or deposit xenobiotics.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenóis/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus/citologia , Bacillus/genética , Bacillus/ultraestrutura , Compostos Benzidrílicos/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenóis/química , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
16.
Food Chem ; 361: 130166, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34058658

RESUMO

Use of 'green biomass' of the grapevine is gradually extending into the food industry. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the potential of metabolomic fingerprinting for characterization of grapevine leaves and canes. Our method comprises successive aqueous-methanolic extractions, followed by U-HPLC-HRMS/MS. For data processing, PCA and (O)PLS-DA methods were utilized, and mathematical models were validated. We showed that from all factors investigated, harvesting season explained most of the variability between samples, followed by locality combined with farming system. The identified statistically significant metabolites for harvesting season models mostly represented the groups of fatty acids, fatty phenols, (lyso)phospholipids, flavonoids and organic acids. For models of localities with different farming systems, majority of identified metabolites significant for organic farming belonged to groups of fatty acids and their derivatives, terpenoids, sterols, and fat soluble vitamins, whereas for conventional farming, the only identified significant metabolites were the pesticide residues.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Vitis/metabolismo , Biomassa , Quimioinformática/métodos , República Tcheca , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Orgânica , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Vitis/química
17.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(28): 15632-15640, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955154

RESUMO

The present work describes the reaction of triplet dioxygen with the porphyrinogenic calix[4]pyrrolato aluminates to alkylperoxido aluminates in high selectivity. Multiconfigurational quantum chemical computations disclose the mechanism for this spin-forbidden process. Despite a negligible spin-orbit coupling constant, the intersystem crossing (ISC) is facilitated by singlet and triplet state degeneracy and spin-vibronic coupling. The formed peroxides are stable toward external substrates but undergo an unprecedented oxidative pyrrole α-cleavage by ligand aromatization/dearomatization-initiated O-O σ-bond scission. A detailed comparison of the calix[4]pyrrolato aluminates with dioxygen-related enzymology provides insights into the ISC of metal- or cofactor-free enzymes. It substantiates the importance of structural constraint and element-ligand cooperativity for the functions of aerobic life.


Assuntos
Alumínio/metabolismo , Calixarenos/metabolismo , Flavoproteínas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Pirróis/metabolismo , Alumínio/química , Calixarenos/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Flavoproteínas/química , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Oxigênio/química , Fenóis/química , Pirróis/química
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(6): e2100053, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932088

RESUMO

The Cistaceae family is well represented in Sardinia, and the Cistus genus is widely used in traditional medicine. Nowadays only few studies have been performed on this genus vegetating in Sardinia in spite of its ethnobotanical importance. Moreover, in the past there have been conflicting opinions among botanists for the exact assignment of the species growing in Sardinia. We started several years ago to carried out studies on this genus and in the present study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of several samples of Cistus salvifolius L., Cistus monspeliensis L., and Cistus albidus L. collected in Sardinia as antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and four Candida species and their antioxidant activity using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. Furthermore, the phenolic content and composition of the extracts were first evaluated. Using statistical multivariate analysis on the complete metabolomics profile of all Cistus species growing wild in Sardinia, we confirmed the botanical classification, and we observed an interesting correlation between metabolomics profile and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cistus/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/análise , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Itália , Metabolômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Análise Multivariada , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
19.
Food Chem ; 360: 130051, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020365

RESUMO

Two of the most important Mexican plant-foods are tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and husk tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot.). In this study three objectives were followed: i) to evaluate the bioaccessible phenolic compounds (PC) in T and HT during upper gastrointestinal digestion, ii) to in vitro ferment the indigestible fractions of the samples to evaluate the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production, iii) the microbial metabolites, bioconverted PC and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated during the fermentation. Vanillic acid was the most bioaccessible PC and after 48 h, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the most abundant microbial metabolite identified in both samples. The identification of VOCs belonging to terpenes (and derivatives) group in T and HT can be product of the microbial metabolism of carotenoids. The study shows new knowledge of the in vitro intestinal digestion and fermentation of T and HT final compounds with biological potential which should be evaluated in further studies.


Assuntos
Colo/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenóis/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Digestão , Lycopersicon esculentum , Fenilacetatos/metabolismo , Physalis , Ácido Vanílico/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946760

RESUMO

Fagopyrum tataricum 'Hokkai T10' is a buckwheat cultivar capable of producing large amounts of phenolic compounds, including flavonoids (anthocyanins), phenolic acids, and catechin, which have antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, we revealed that the maize transcription factor Lc increased the accumulation of phenolic compounds, including sinapic acid, 4-hydroxybenzonate, t-cinnamic acid, and rutin, in Hokkai T10 hairy roots cultured under long-photoperiod (16 h light and 8 h dark) conditions. The transcription factor upregulated phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes, yielding total phenolic contents reaching 27.0 ± 3.30 mg g-1 dry weight, 163% greater than the total flavonoid content produced by a GUS-overexpressing line (control). In contrast, when cultured under continuous darkness, the phenolic accumulation was not significantly different between the ZmLC-overexpressing hairy roots and the control. These findings suggest that the transcription factor (ZmLC) activity may be light-responsive in the ZmLC-overexpressing hairy roots of F. tataricum, triggering activation of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis pathways. Further studies are required on the optimization of light intensity in ZmLC-overexpressing hairy roots of F. tataricum to enhance the production of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum/metabolismo , Fagopyrum/efeitos da radiação , Fenóis/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos da radiação , Escuridão , Fagopyrum/genética , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Genes de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos da radiação
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