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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361776

RESUMO

In this study, we examined aqueous extracts of the edible mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) and Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom). Proteome analysis was conducted using LC-Triple TOF-MS and showed the expression of 753 proteins by Pleurotus ostreatus, and 432 proteins by Lentinula edodes. Bioactive peptides: Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor, superoxide dismutase, thioredoxin reductase, serine proteinase and lectin, were identified in both mushrooms. The extracts also included promising bioactive compounds including phenolics, flavonoids, vitamins and amino acids. The extracts showed promising antiviral activities, with a selectivity index (SI) of 4.5 for Pleurotus ostreatus against adenovirus (Ad7), and a slight activity for Lentinula edodes against herpes simplex-II (HSV-2). The extracts were not cytotoxic to normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). On the contrary, they showed moderate cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. Additionally, antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation scavenging and ORAC assays. The two extracts showed potential antioxidant activities, with the maximum activity seen for Pleurotus ostreatus (IC50 µg/mL) = 39.46 ± 1.27 for DPPH; 11.22 ± 1.81 for ABTS; and 21.40 ± 2.20 for ORAC assays. This study encourages the use of these mushrooms in medicine in the light of their low cytotoxicity on normal PBMCs vis à vis their antiviral, antitumor and antioxidant capabilities.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antivirais/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Pleurotus/química , Proteoma/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Aminoácidos/química , Aminoácidos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Antivirais/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Misturas Complexas/química , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/classificação , Proteínas Fúngicas/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lectinas/química , Lectinas/isolamento & purificação , Leucócitos Mononucleares/citologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/isolamento & purificação , Serina Proteases/química , Serina Proteases/isolamento & purificação , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/isolamento & purificação , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/química , Tiorredoxina Dissulfeto Redutase/isolamento & purificação , Vitaminas/química , Vitaminas/isolamento & purificação , Água/química
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361742

RESUMO

The biological activities of propolis samples are the result of many bioactive compounds present in the propolis. The aim of the present study was to determine the various chemical compounds of some selected propolis samples collected from Palestine and Morocco by the High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection (HPLC-PDA) method, as well as the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of this bee product. The chemical analysis of propolis samples by HPLC-PDA shows the cinnamic acid content in the Palestinian sample is higher compared to that in Moroccan propolis. The results of antioxidant activity demonstrated an important free radical scavenging activity (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and reducing power assays) with EC50 values ranging between 0.02 ± 0.001 and 0.14 ± 0.01 mg/mL. Additionally, all tested propolis samples possessed a moderate antibacterial activity against bacterial strains. Notably, Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) values ranged from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/mL for Gram-negative bacterial strains and from 0.09 to 0.125 mg/mL for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The S2 sample from Morocco and the S4 sample from Palestine had the highest content of polyphenol level. Thus, the strong antioxidant and antibacterial properties were apparently due to the high total phenolic and flavone/flavonol contents in the samples. As a conclusion, the activities of propolis samples collected from both countries are similar, while the cinnamic acid in the Palestinian samples was more than that of the Moroccan samples.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Cinamatos/química , Fenóis/química , Própole/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Cinamatos/isolamento & purificação , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oriente Médio , Marrocos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Polifenóis , Análise de Componente Principal , Própole/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361753

RESUMO

The popularity and consumption of fermented milk products are growing. On the other hand, consumers are interested in health-promoting and functional foods. Fermented milk products are an excellent matrix for the incorporation of bioactive ingredients, making them functional foods. To overcome the instability or low solubility of many bioactive ingredients under various environmental conditions, the encapsulation approach was developed. This review analyzes the fortification of three fermented milk products, i.e., yogurt, cheese, and kefir with bioactive ingredients. The encapsulation methods and techniques alongside the encapsulant materials for carotenoids, phenolic compounds, omega-3, probiotics, and other micronutrients are discussed. The effect of encapsulation on the properties of bioactive ingredients themselves and on textural and sensory properties of fermented milk products is also presented.


Assuntos
Queijo/análise , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Kefir/análise , Leite/metabolismo , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Carotenoides/administração & dosagem , Carotenoides/química , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Fermentação , Aditivos Alimentares/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactobacillaceae/fisiologia , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , Fenóis/administração & dosagem , Fenóis/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443460

RESUMO

Synthetic heterocyclic compounds have incredible potential against different diseases; pyridines, phenolic compounds and the derivatives of azo moiety have shown excellent antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-melanogenic, anti-ulcer, anticancer, anti-mycobacterial, anti-inflammatory, DNA binding and chemosensing activities. In the present review, the above-mentioned activities of the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds (pyridines), hydroxyl (phenols) and azo derivatives are discussed with reference to the minimum inhibitory concentration and structure-activity relationship, which clearly indicate that the presence of nitrogen in the phenyl ring; in addition, the hydroxyl substituent and the incorporation of a diazo group is crucial for the improved efficacies of the compounds in probing different diseases. The comparison was made with the reported drugs and new synthetic derivatives that showed recent therapeutic perspectives made in the last five years.


Assuntos
Compostos Azo/uso terapêutico , Fenóis/uso terapêutico , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Compostos Azo/síntese química , Compostos Azo/química , Imageamento Tridimensional , Fenóis/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443605

RESUMO

Extracts derived from the Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob) tree have been widely studied for their ability to prevent many diseases mainly due to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In this study, we explored, for the first time, the anti-cancer properties of Cypriot carobs. We produced extracts from ripe and unripe whole carobs, pulp and seeds using solvents with different polarities. We measured the ability of the extracts to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in cancer and normal immortalized breast cells, using the MTT assay, cell cycle analysis and Western Blotting. The extracts' total polyphenol content and anti-oxidant action was evaluated using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and the DPPH assay. Finally, we used LC-MS analysis to identify and quantify polyphenols in the most effective extracts. Our results demonstrate that the anti-proliferative capacity of carob extracts varied with the stage of carob maturity and the extraction solvent. The Diethyl-ether and Ethyl acetate extracts derived from the ripe whole fruit had high Myricetin content and also displayed specific activity against cancer cells. Their mechanism of action involved caspase-dependent and independent apoptosis. Our results indicate that extracts from Cypriot carobs may have potential uses in the development of nutritional supplements and pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Solventes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Frutas/química , Humanos , Sementes/química
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443310

RESUMO

There are a significant number of analytical methodologies employing different techniques to determine phenolic compounds in beverages. However, these methods employ long sample preparation processes and great time consumption. The aim of this paper was the development of a simple method for evaluating the phenolic compounds' presence in Brazilian craft beers without a previous extraction step. Catechin, caffeic acid, epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, hydrated rutin, trans-ferulic acid, quercetin, kaempferol, and formononetin were analyzed in fifteen different craft beers. The method showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9966). The limit of detection ranged from 0.08 to 0.83 mg L-1, and limits of quantification were between 0.27 and 2.78 mg L-1. The method showed a satisfactory precision (RSD ≤ 16.2%). A good accuracy was obtained by the proposed method for all phenolic compounds in craft beer (68.6% ˂ accuracy ˂ 112%). Catechin showed higher concentrations (up to 124.8 mg L-1) in the samples, followed by epicatechin (up to 51.1 mg L-1) and caffeic acid (up to 8.13 mg L-1). Rutin and formononetin were observed in all analyzed samples (0.52 mg L-1 to 2.40 mg L-1), and kaempferol was less present in the samples. The presence of plant origin products was determinant for the occurrence of the highest concentrations of phenolic compounds in Brazilian craft beers.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Brasil , Limite de Detecção , Fenóis/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361630

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to investigate the chemical components and biological activities of Musella lasiocarpa, a special flower that is edible and has functional properties. The crude methanol extract and its four fractions (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions) were tested for their total antioxidant capacity, followed by their α-glucosidase, acetylcholinesterase, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Among the samples, the highest total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were found in the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction (224.99 mg GAE/g DE) and crude methanol extract (187.81 mg QE/g DE), respectively. The EtOAc fraction of Musella lasiocarpa exhibited the strongest DPPH· scavenging ability, ABTS·+ scavenging ability, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 22.17, 12.10, and 125.66 µg/mL, respectively. The EtOAc fraction also showed the strongest ferric reducing antioxidant power (1513.89 mg FeSO4/g DE) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ability (524.11 mg Trolox/g DE), which were higher than those of the control BHT. In contrast, the aqueous fraction demonstrated the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 10.11 µg/mL), and the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory ability (IC50 = 5.23 µg/mL) was observed from the crude methanol extract as compared with allopurinol (24.85 µg/mL). The HPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS analyses further revealed an impressive arsenal of compounds, including phenolic acids, fatty acids, esters, terpenoids, and flavonoids, in the most biologically active EtOAc fraction. Taken together, this is the first report indicating the potential of Musella lasiocarpa as an excellent natural source of antioxidants with possible therapeutic, nutraceutical, and functional food applications.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Magnoliopsida , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Magnoliopsida/enzimologia
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361727

RESUMO

Enzymatic pretreatment of seeds is a novel approach that enhances the health benefits of the extracted oil. The study investigated the influence of the enzymatic pretreatment of seeds on the quality of oil from different pomegranate cultivars. The quality of the ultrasound-assisted (and ethanol-extracted) oil was studied, with respect to the refractive index (RI), yellowness index (YI), conjugated dienes (K232), peroxide value (PV) ρ-anisidine value (AV), total oxidation value (TOTOX), total carotenoid content (TCC), total phenolic compounds (TPC), fatty acid composition, phytosterol composition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The seeds of three different pomegranate cultivars ('Wonderful', 'Herskawitz', and 'Acco') were digested with an equal mixture of Pectinex Ultra SPL, Flavourzyme 100 L, and cellulase crude enzymes, at a concentration, pH, temperature, and time of 1.7%, 4.5, 40 °C, and 5 h, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment of PS increased oil yield, PV, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity, but decreased the YI. The levels of K232, AV and TOTOX, fatty acids, phytosterols, RI, and FRAP, were not significantly affected by enzymatic pretreatment of PS. Principal component analysis (PCA) established that oil extracted from the 'Acco' seed after enzymatic pretreatment had higher yield, TPC, TCC, and DPPH radical scavenging capacity. Therefore, enzyme-pretreated 'Acco' pomegranate fruit seed is a source of quality seed oil with excellent antioxidant properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Hidrolases/química , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Romã (Fruta)/química , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Carotenoides/química , Carotenoides/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Etanol/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Humanos , Oxirredução , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Óleos Vegetais/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Solventes/química , Sonicação/métodos
9.
Inorg Chem ; 60(17): 12870-12882, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370470

RESUMO

Diheme cytochromes, the simplest members in the multiheme family, play substantial biochemical roles in enzymatic catalysis as well as in electron transfer. A series of diiron(III) porphyrin dimers have been synthesized as active site analogues of diheme cytochromes. The complexes contain six-coordinated iron(III) having thiophenol and imidazole at the fifth and sixth coordination sites, respectively. The iron centers in the complexes have been found to be in a low-spin state, as confirmed through solid-state Mössbauer and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic investigations. Mössbauer quadrupole splitting of complexes having mixed ligands is substantially larger than that observed when both axial ligands are the same. Rhombic types of EPR spectra with narrow separation between gx, gy, and gz clearly distinguish heme thiolate coordination compared to bis(imidazole)-ligated low-spin heme centers. The redox potential in diheme cytochromes has been found to be tuned by interheme interactions along with the nature of axial ligands. The effect of mixed-axial ligation within the diiron(III) porphyrin dimers is demonstrated by a positive shift in the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox couple upon thiophenolate coordination compared to their bis(imidazole) analogues. The pKa of the imidazole also decides the extent of the shift for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple, while the potential of the mixed-ligated diiron(III) porphyrin dimer is more positive compared to their monomeric analogue. A variation of around 1.1 V for the Fe(III)/Fe(II) redox potential in the diiron(III) porphyrin dimer can be achieved with the combined effect of axial ligation and a metal spin state, while such a large variation in the redox potential, compared to their monomeric analogues, is attributed to the heme-heme interactions observed in dihemes. Moreover, theoretical calculations also support the experimental shifts in the redox potential values.


Assuntos
Imidazóis/química , Metaloporfirinas/química , Fenóis/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Citocromos/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Heme/química , Ferro/química , Ligantes , Metaloporfirinas/síntese química , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Mossbauer
10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255807, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407100

RESUMO

The use of saliva for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 has shown to be a good alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS), since it permits self-collection, avoids the exposure of healthy persons to infected patients, reduces waiting times, eliminates the need of personal protective equipment and is non-invasive. Yet current saliva testing is still expensive due to the need of specialized tubes containing buffers to stabilize the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 and inactivate the virus. These tubes are expensive and not always accessible in sufficient quantities. We now developed an alternative saliva testing method, using TRIzol for extraction, viral inactivation, and storage of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, combined with RT-qPCR, which was comparable in its performance to NPS. Paired saliva samples and NPS were taken from 15 asymptomatic healthcare workers and one patient with SARS-CoV-2. Further 13 patients with SARS-CoV-2 were only saliva-tested. All the tests were performed according to CDC 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel. Saliva (4 mL) was taken in sterile 50 mL tubes, 1.5 mL TRIzol were added and mixed. Our results show that 5 µL of saliva RNA extracted with TRIzol allow for an adequate detection of the virus in patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 and was equally sensitive to NPS in TRIzol. We conclude that saliva testing using TRIzol is a recommendable method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 since it has several advantages over currently used saliva tests: it can be done with normal sterile tubes, does not need cold-chain handling, is stable at room temperature, is non-invasive and less costly, making it more accessible for low-income countries. Cheaper saliva testing using TRIzol is especially relevant for low-income countries to optimize diagnosis and help define quarantine durations for families, healthcare workers, schools, and other public workplaces, thus decreasing infections and mortality caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/economia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Guanidinas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Fenóis/química , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Manejo de Espécimes/economia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279404

RESUMO

Herein, we present the synthesis and crystal structures determination of five 4-(1-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)phenol derivatives containing halogen atoms, 6a-e, which may be used as an excellent mimic of steroids in the drug development process. Good quality crystals obtained for all of the synthesized compounds allowed the analysis of their molecular structures. Subsequently, the determined crystal structures were used to calculate the Hirshfeld surfaces for each of the synthesized compounds. Furthermore, results of our docking studies indicated that synthesized derivatives are able to bind effectively to the active sites of selected enzymes and receptors involved in the hormone biosynthesis and signaling pathways, analogously to the native steroids.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/síntese química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Triazóis/síntese química , Aromatase/química , Aromatase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalização , Halogênios/química , Fenóis/química , Ligação Proteica , Triazóis/farmacologia
12.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206169

RESUMO

In addition to the vast diversity of fauna and flora, the Brazilian Amazon has different climatic periods characterized by periods with greater and lesser rainfall. The main objective of this research was to verify the influence of climatic seasons in the Brazilian Amazon (northeast of Pará state) concerning the aromatic and bioactive profiles of fermented and dried cocoa seeds. About 200 kg of seeds was fermented using specific protocols of local producers. Physicochemical analyzes (total titratable acidity, pH, total phenolic compounds, quantification of monomeric phenolics and methylxanthines) and volatile compounds by GC-MS were carried out. We observed that: in the summer, the highest levels of aldehydes were identified, such as benzaldehyde (6.34%) and phenylacetaldehyde (36.73%), related to the fermented cocoa and honey aromas, respectively; and a total of 27.89% of this same class was identified during winter. There were significant differences (p ≤ 0.05, Tukey test) in the profile of bioactive compounds (catechin, epicatechin, caffeine, and theobromine), being higher in fermented almonds in winter. This study indicates that the climatic seasons in the Amazon affect the aromatic and bioactive profiles and could produce a new identity standard (summer and winter Amazon) for the cocoa almonds and their products.


Assuntos
Cacau , Ecossistema , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Estações do Ano , Sementes , Cacau/química , Cacau/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Odorantes , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo
13.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200152

RESUMO

Lupin seeds can represent a valuable source of phenolics and other antioxidant compounds. In this work, a comprehensive analysis of the phytochemical profile was performed on seeds from three Lupinus species, including one cultivar (Lupinus albus) and two wild accessions (Lupinus cossentinii and Lupinus luteus), collected from the northern region of Tunisia. Untargeted metabolomic profiling allowed to identify 249 compounds, with a great abundance of phenolics and alkaloids. In this regard, the species L. cossentinii showed the highest phenolic content, being 6.54 mg/g DW, followed by L. luteus (1.60 mg/g DW) and L. albus (1.14 mg/g DW). The in vitro antioxidant capacity measured by the ABTS assay on seed extracts ranged from 4.67 to 17.58 mg trolox equivalents (TE)/g, recording the highest values for L. albus and the lowest for L. luteus. The DPPH radical scavenging activity ranged from 0.39 to 3.50 mg TE/g. FRAP values varied between 4.11 and 5.75 mg TE/g. CUPRAC values for lupin seeds ranged from 7.20 to 8.95 mg TE/g, recording the highest for L. cossentinii. The results of phosphomolybdenum assay and metal chelation showed similarity between the three species of Lupinus. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity was detected in each methanolic extract analyzed with similar results. Regarding the butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzyme, it was weakly inhibited by the Lupinus extracts; in particular, the highest activity values were recorded for L. albus (1.74 mg GALAE/g). Overall, our results showed that L. cossentinii was the most abundant source of polyphenols, consisting mainly in tyrosol equivalents (5.82 mg/g DW). Finally, significant correlations were outlined between the phenolic compounds and the in vitro biological activity measured, particularly when considering flavones, phenolic acids and lower-molecular-weight phenolics.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Lupinus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sementes/química , Alcaloides/química , Alcaloides/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lupinus/metabolismo , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Tunísia
14.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200718

RESUMO

Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açai) is a native palm from the Amazon region. There are various chemical constituents of açai with bioactive properties. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and cytotoxic effects of açai seed extract on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) was applied to identify chemical compounds present in açai seed extract. LC-MS/MS and molecular networking were employed to detect the phenolic compounds of açai. The antioxidant activity of açai seed extract was measured by DPPH assay. MCF-7 breast cancer cell line viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell death was evaluated by flow cytometry and time-lapse microscopy. Autophagy was evaluated by orange acridin immunofluorescence assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by DAF assay. From the molecular networking, fifteen compounds were identified, mainly phenolic compounds. The açai seed extract showed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7, induced morphologic changes in the cell line by autophagy and increased the ROS production pathway. The present study suggests that açai seed extract has a high cytotoxic capacity and may induce autophagy by increasing ROS production in breast cancer. Apart from its antioxidant activity, flavonoids with high radical scavenging activity present in açai also generated NO (nitric oxide), contributing to its cytotoxic effect and autophagy induction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
15.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203808

RESUMO

This work represents a comparative metabolomic study of extracts of wild grapes obtained from six different places in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories (Far East Russia) and extracts of grapes obtained from the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (St. Petersburg). The metabolome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed the presence of 118 compounds in ethanolic extracts of V. amurensis grapes. In addition, several metabolites were newly annotated in V. amurensis. The highest diversity of phenolic compounds was identified in the samples of the V. amurensis grape collected in the vicinity of Vyazemsky (Khabarovsk Territory) and the floodplain of the Arsenyevka River (Primorsky Territory), compared to the other wild samples and cultural grapes obtained in the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Frutas/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Federação Russa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
16.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204227

RESUMO

Anneslea fragrans Wall., commonly known as "Pangpo Tea", is traditionally used as a folk medicine and healthy tea for the treatment of liver and intestine diseases. The aim of this study was to purify the antioxidative and cytoprotective polyphenols from A. fragrans leaves. After fractionation with polar and nonpolar organic solvents, the fractions of aqueous ethanol extract were evaluated for their total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) and antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays). The n-butanol fraction (BF) showed the highest TPC and TFC with the strongest antioxidant activity. The bio-guided chromatography of BF led to the purification of six flavonoids (1-6) and one benzoquinolethanoid (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by NMR and MS techniques. Compound 6 had the strongest antioxidant capacity, which was followed by 5 and 2. The protective effect of the isolated compounds on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells revealed that the compounds 5 and 6 exhibited better protective effects by inhibiting ROS productions, having no significant difference with vitamin C (p > 0.05), whereas 6 showed the best anti-apoptosis activity. The results suggest that A. fragrans could serve as a valuable antioxidant phytochemical source for developing functional food and health nutraceutical products.


Assuntos
Ericales/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia
17.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204777

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds are currently the most investigated class of functional components in quinoa. However, great variability in their content emerged, because of differences in sample intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics; processing-induced factors; as well as extraction procedures applied. This study aimed to optimize phenolic compound extraction conditions in black quinoa seeds by Response Surface Methodology. An ultrasound-assisted extraction was performed with two different mixtures; and the effect of time; temperature; and sample-to-solvent ratio on total phenolic content (TPC) was investigated. Data were fitted to a second-order polynomial model. Multiple regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine the fitness of the model and optimal conditions for TPC. Three-dimensional surface plots were generated from the mathematical models. TPC at optimal conditions was 280.25 ± 3.94 mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) 100 g-1 dm upon extraction with aqueous methanol/acetone, and 236.37 ± 5.26 mg GAE 100 g-1 dm with aqueous ethanol mixture. The phenolic profile of extracts obtained at optimal conditions was also investigated by HPLC. The two extracting procedures did not show different specificities for phenolic compounds but differed in the extraction yield.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ultrassom/métodos
18.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209531

RESUMO

Sorghum is a major cereal food worldwide, and is considered a potential source of minerals and bioactive compounds. Its wide adaptive range may cause variations in its agronomic traits, antioxidant properties, and phytochemical content. This extensive study investigated variations in seed characteristics, antioxidant properties, and total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC) of sorghum collected from different ecological regions of 15 countries. The antioxidant potential of the seed extracts of various sorghum accessions was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. Significant variations in TPC were observed among the sorghum accessions. All 78 sorghum accessions used in this study exhibited significant variations in TFC, with the lowest and highest amount observed in accessions C465 and J542, respectively. DPPH scavenging potential of the seed extracts for all the accessions ranged from 11.91 ± 4.83 to 1343.90 ± 81.02 µg mL-1. The ABTS assay results were similar to those of DPPH but showed some differences in the accessions. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a wide variation range in the correlation between antioxidant activity and TPC, as well as TFC, among the sorghum accessions. A wide diversity range was also recorded for the seed characteristics (1000-seed weight and seed germination rate). A dendrogram generated from UPGMA clustering, based on seed traits, antioxidant activity, TPC, and TFC was highly dispersed for these accessions. Variations among the accessions may provide useful information regarding the phytoconstituents, antioxidant properties, and phytochemical contents of sorghum and aid in designing breeding programs to obtain sorghum with improved agronomic traits and bioactive properties.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Flavonoides , Fenóis , Sementes/química , Sorghum/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205329

RESUMO

The content of plant secondary metabolites is not stable, and factors such as the region/location effect and seasonal variations have an impact on their chemical composition, especially in parasitic plants. Research in this area is an important step in the development of quality parameter standards of medicinal plants and their finished products. The effects of the time and place of harvest and the host tree species on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of mistletoe extracts were investigated. Statistical tools were used to evaluate the results of the spectrophotometric and LC-ESI-MS/MS studies of the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity. The investigations indicate that the qualitative and quantitative composition, influencing the biological activity of mistletoe extracts, largely depends on the origin of the plant. The mistletoe extracts exhibited a rich phenol profile and high antioxidant activity. The chemometric analysis indicated that mistletoe collected from conifers (Viscum abietis and Viscum austriacum) had the most advantageous chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the chemical profile and biological activity of the plant material were closely related to the climatic conditions and location of the harvested plant. Higher levels of phenolic compounds and high antioxidant activity were found in extracts obtained from plant material collected in cold weather with the presence of snow and less sunshine (autumn-winter period).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Árvores/química , Viscum album/química , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Erva-de-Passarinho/química , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
20.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201147

RESUMO

Many plants that are commonly used in folk medicine have multidirectional biological properties confirmed by scientific research. One of them is Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. (F. Amaranthaceae). It is widely used, but there are very few scientific data about its chemical composition and pharmacological activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of phenolic acid (PA)-rich fractions isolated from methanolic extracts of A. lanata (L.) Juss. herb using the liquid/liquid extraction method and their potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic properties. The free PA fraction (FA), the PA fraction (FB) released after acid hydrolysis, and the PA fraction (FC) obtained after alkaline hydrolysis were analysed using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The phenolic profile of each sample showed a high concentration of PAs and their presence in A. lanata (L.) Juss. herb mainly in bound states. Thirteen compounds were detected and quantified in all samples, including some PAs that had not been previously detected in this plant species. Bioactivity assays of all fractions revealed high 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) (2.85 mM Trolox equivalents (TE)/g) and 2,2-azino-bis-3(ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS•+) (2.88 mM TE/g) scavenging activity. Fraction FB definitely exhibited not only the highest antiradical activity but also the strongest xanthine oxidase (XO) (EC50 = 1.77 mg/mL) and lipoxygenase (LOX)(EC50 = 1.88 mg/mL) inhibitory potential. The fraction had the best anti-diabetic properties, i.e., mild inhibition of α-amylase (EC50 = 7.46 mg/mL) and strong inhibition of α-glucosidase (EC50 = 0.30 mg/mL). The activities of all analysed samples were strongly related to the presence of PA compounds and the total PA content.


Assuntos
Amaranthaceae/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Flavonoides/química , Lipoxigenase/química , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Metanol/química , Fenóis/química , Xantina Oxidase/química , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
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