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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111318, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979806

RESUMO

The retention of polyether sulfone (PES) and bisphenol A (BPA) in wastewater has received extensive attention. The effects of PES and BPA on the removal of organic matter by anaerobic granular sludge were investigated. We also analyzed the changes in the electron transport system and the effects on the composition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), as well as alternations of the microbial community in the anaerobic granular sludge. In the experimental groups which received BPA, the removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were significantly suppressed, which an average removal efficiency of less than 65%, 30% lower than that of the control group. In the loosely-bound EPS (LB-EPS) excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra, the absorption peak of tryptophan disappeared when the BPA pollutants was added, which it was present in the control group without added pollutants. The addition of PES and BPA also affected protease, acetate kinase, and coenzyme F420 activities in the anaerobic granular sludge. Especially, the coenzyme F420 reduced from 0.0045 to 0.0017 µmol/L in the presence of PES and BPA. The relative abundance of Spirochaetes decreased in the presence of PES and BPA, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes increased from 12.98% to 22.87%. At the genus level, in the presence of PES and BPA, the relative abundance of Acinetobacter increased from 2.20% to 9.64% and Hydrogenophaga decreased sharply from 15.58% to 0.12%.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/análise , Microplásticos/análise , Fenóis/análise , Polímeros/química , Sulfonas/química , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Anaerobiose , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microplásticos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Plásticos , Esgotos/química , Águas Residuárias
2.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 565-571, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918564

RESUMO

Fish consumption from contaminated water-bodies is a serious health issue. This study conducted to reveal the presence of heavy metals and bisphenols in Vembanad lake, an exploiting tourist spot in Kerala, receiving untreated agricultural, domestic, municipal, and industrial effluents. We evaluated aquatic contaminant impact on hepatic stress markers in Etroplus suratensis from fragile Vembanad lake. The significant difference in water physiochemical parameters, the concentration of heavy metals, and bisphenols (BPA and BPS) were studied. Hepatic tissue of E. suratensis inhabited in lake featured with high iron (11.29 ± 0.39 ppm) and BPA (0.02412 ± 0.0031 µg/mL) content along with an increased hepatic stress marker and distorted hepatic structure. The study highlights the presence of high iron and BPA in edible fish. The study recommends monitoring of physiochemical characters of freshwater lakes is essential for better survival of freshwater flora and fauna.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Ciclídeos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Índia , Lagos , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110939, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800222

RESUMO

Pulp and paper mill wastewater (PPMWW) contains high concentrations of recalcitrant compounds that cause toxicity to organisms. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have the ability to degrade these compounds and reduce overall toxicity. Physicochemical characterization and Lactuca sativa toxicity test were conducted to compare the effectiveness of two post-treatments: UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. A comparison of four phytotoxicity indexes was carried out. PPMWW from a Brazilian treatment plant was characterized by high values of phenols, color, integrated spectral area (ISA), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and caused significant inhibition to seedling development. The use of both post-treatments allowed the removal of over 75% of phenols, color, ISA, and COD. Although UV/H2O2 was more effective in removing phenols and ISA, photo-Fenton better reduced phytotoxicity. The most sensitive phytotoxicity indexes were RGIC0.8 and GIC80%, whereas SGC0, REC-0.25 and REC-0.50 better showed the effectiveness of the post-treatments. We suggest the combined use of two phytotoxicity indexes: one that evaluates the effects on seed germination and, another, on root elongation, e.g., SGC0 and RGIC0.8. Additionally, we recommend the use of ISA for monitoring programs of wastewater treatments because it is a cost-effective approach that allows narrowing down the search and identification of compounds present in complex mixtures.


Assuntos
Papel , Fenóis/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Brasil , Cor , Corantes/toxicidade , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Resíduos Industriais/análise , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/química
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110922, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800257

RESUMO

Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF) is a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used to manufacture plastic products. Previous studies indicate that BHPF has an anti-estrogenic effect and induces cytotoxicity in mice oocytes. However, the effects of acute BHPF exposure on the aquatic organism obtain little attention. In this study, a series of BHPF concentrations (1 µM, 2 µM, 5 µM, 10 µM, 20 µM) was used to exposed zebrafish embryos from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf). The results showed the LC50 at 96hpf was 2.88 µM (1.01 mg/L). Acute exposure induced malformation in morphology, and retarded epiboly rate at 10hpf, increased apoptosis. Moreover, acute BHPF exposure led cardiotoxicity, by impeding cardiac looping, decreasing cardiac contractility (reducing the stroke volume and cardiac output, decreasing fractional shortening of ventricle). Besides that, BHPF exposure altered the expression of cardiac transcriptional regulators and development related genes. In conclusion, acute BHPF exposure induced developmental abnormality, retarded cardiac morphogenesis and injured the cardiac contractility. This study indicated BHPF would be an unneglected threat for the safety of aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorenos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110944, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800225

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a weak estrogenic endocrine disruptor and a well-known plasticizer, has the potential to perturb diverse physiological functions; however, its impact on immune and metabolic function in aquatic vertebrates is relatively less understood. The present study aims to investigate the impact of BPA on hepatotoxicity, metabolic and immune parameters vis-à-vis estrogen receptor expression modulation in a freshwater teleost, Labeo bata (Cyprinidae, Cypriniformes). The 96-h median lethal concentration of BPA in L. bata has been determined as 4.79 mg/L. Our data demonstrate that congruent with induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG), chronic exposure to sub-lethal BPA (2 and 4 µM/L) attenuates erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, but not leukocyte number. Further, a significant increase in MDA, concomitant with diminished catalase and heightened GST activity corroborates well with hepatic dystrophic changes, appearance of fatty liver (macrovesicular steatosis) and elevated serum lipids (triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL) in BPA-treated groups. Interestingly, a differential regulation of estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes at transcript and protein level signifies negative influence of BPA on hepatic ERα/ERß homeostasis in this species. While at a lower dose it promotes Akt phosphorylation (activation), BPA at the higher dose attenuates ERK1/2 phosphorylation (activation), suggesting potential alteration in insulin sensitivity. Importantly, dose-dependent decrease in hepatic TNF-α, IL-1ß, iNOS (NOS2) expression and nitric oxide (NO) level corresponds well with progressive decline in p-NF-κB, p-p38 MAPK, albeit with differential sensitivity, in BPA-exposed groups. Collectively, BPA exposure has wide-spread negative influence on hematological, biochemical and hepatic events in this species.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Animais , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Água Doce/química , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Inflamação , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111068, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745784

RESUMO

Herein, eight common endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were exposed to zebrafish (Danio rerio) to investigate the relationship between different EDCs and their activated estrogen receptors. Under acute exposure, we identified five major malformation types whose incidence and deformity modes differed among EDCs. Luciferase analysis divided the EDC receptors into four categories: (i) triclosan (TCS), 17ß-estradiol (E2) and estriol (E3) mainly activated GPER expression; (ii) bisphenol A (BPA), p-(tert-octyl) phenol (POP), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), E2 and E3 activated ERß expression; (iii) E2 and E3 acted on both GPER and ERß; and (iv) estrone (E1) and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene (BHPF) had little effect on the two receptors. In vivo immunofluorescence experiments on 96-hpf larvae provided evidence that TCS and POP acted on GPER and ERß, respectively, while E2 acted on the two receptors simultaneously. Luciferase activities in the promoter regions of gper (-986 to -488) and erß (-1998 to -1496) were higher than those in other regions, identifying these key regions as targets for transcription activity. TCS promoted GPER expression by acting on the JUND transcription factor, while POP promoted ERß expression by activating the Foxl1 transcription factor. In contrast, E2 mainly regulated transcription of GPER and ERß by Arid3a. These findings provide compelling evidence that different EDCs possess varying estrogen receptors, leading to differential regulatory pathways and abnormality symptoms. These results offer an experimental strategy and fundamental information to assess the molecular mechanisms of EDC-induced estrogen effects.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111165, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32836160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemical, with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. Although multiple toxicities have been reported for BPA, molecular mechanisms underlying the transgenerational toxic effects of BPA are still underestimated. METHODS: Parental F0 fish were exposed to 1.0 µM BPA or control (0.1% DMSO, v/v) for 7 days. Eggs (F1) were collected and kept in control medium until 4.5 or 120 h post fertilization (hpf). RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted on embryos and larvae, to discover differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and then KEGG pathway, GO enrichment and GSEA were performed to interpret functional ontology. Histopathology was performed to explore the morphological and structural alterations in liver tissues of zebrafish larvae (120 hpf) after parental BPA exposure. RESULTS: Parental BPA exposure induced global transcriptomic changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae. For embryos, epigenetic regulation genes were decidedly affected, highlighted epigenotoxicity might involve in the transgenerational effects during embryogenesis and early development. By further investigation on its delayed effects, our RNA-Seq data of larvae suggested ROS metabolic process, apoptosis, p53 and MAPK signaling pathway were concentrated, indicating defensive cellular processes still involved in protecting against BPA toxicity. Furthermore, parental BPA-treated larvae manifested hepatic injury by histopathological analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Parental BPA exposure led to global transcriptomic changes involved in epigenetic regulation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and DNA damage of offspring. These findings advanced the field of the parental-mediated subsequent generational toxic effects of BPA.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
8.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702804

RESUMO

Human exposure to environmental chemicals might play a role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been suggested to affect reproductive health. However, the mechanism remains unclear. To explore the association between BPA and BPS exposure and oxidative stress and immune homeostasis, we conducted a cross-sectional study and revealed BPA and BPS levels in relation to these two factors which were supposed to be implicated in miscarriage. 111 URSA patients were recruited and we analyzed urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) and serum immune balance biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IFN-γ). Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the correlation between bisphenols exposure and outcome biomarkers. After adjustment for age, BMI, menstrual cycle, and parity history, creatinine-adjusted BPA was significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane (ß = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.41; p = 0.031) and IFN-γ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.36; p = 0.046). No statistical correlation between BPS and biomarkers of oxidative stress or immune balance was observed when all participants were analyzed. Further analysis revealed that in the subgroup of BPS > limit of detection (0.01 ng/ml), creatinine-adjusted BPS was significantly associated with increases in IL-10 (ß = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.45; p = 0.048). Our findings suggested that BPA and BPS exposure might be related to oxidative stress and immune imbalance in URSA patients. Overall, our work might suggest potential pathogenic and aetiological associations among the bisphenols, biomarkers and URSA, which offers hypotheses for further studies.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105553, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622090

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce abnormalities in organisms via alteration of molecular pathways and subsequent disruption of endocrine functions. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) are ubiquitous EDCs in the environment. Many aquatic organisms, including fish, are often exposed to varying concentrations of BPA and EE2 throughout their lifespan. Both BPA and EE2 can activate estrogenic signaling pathways and cause adverse effects on reproduction via alteration of pathways associated with steroidogenesis. However, transcriptional pathways that are affected by chronic exposure to these two ubiquitous environmental estrogens during embryonic, larval, and juvenile stages are not clearly understood. In the present study, we examined transcriptional alterations in the testis of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) chronically exposed to a low concentration of BPA or EE2. Medaka were exposed to BPA (10 µg/L) or EE2 (0.01 µg/L) from 8 h post-fertilization (as embryos) to adulthood 50 days post fertilization (dpf), and transcriptional alterations in the testis were examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Transcriptomic profiling revealed 651 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BPA-exposed and control testes, while 1475 DEGs were found between EE2-exposed and control testes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed a significant enrichment of "intracellular receptor signaling pathway", "response to steroid hormone" and "hormone-mediated signaling pathway" in the BPA-induced DEGs, and of "cilium organization", "microtubule-based process" and "organelle assembly" in the EE2-induced DEGs. Pathway analysis showed significant enrichment of "integrin signaling pathway" in both treatment groups, and of "cadherin signaling pathway", "Alzheimer disease-presenilin pathway" in EE2-induced DEGs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion-deletion (Indel) analysis found no significant differences in mutation rates with either BPA or EE2 treatments. Taken together, global gene expression differences in testes of medaka during early stages of gametogenesis were responsive to chronic BPA and EE2 exposure.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Testículo/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 226: 105580, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712368

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known estrogenic endocrine disruptor, is ubiquitously present in the environment, possessing the potential to interfere with the reproductive endocrine system in male mammals. However, there are limited studies on the reproductive toxicity in male aquatic animals associated with epigenetic modifications. In order to evaluate the potential effects of BPA on reproduction and better understand the underlying mechanism, adult male rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) were exposed to 15 µg L-1 BPA over a period of 63 d. Results showed that BPA induced congestion of blood vessels and infiltration of inflammatory cells after 21 d exposure, and decreased sperm fertilization after 63 d exposure. The genome DNA methylation levels were significantly increased throughout the treatment, and a strong positive stain were found in the spermatocyte, spermatid and sperm. The H3K4me3 level in all types of germ cell were increased by 21 d exposure while decreased following 63 d exposure. The positive stain of H3K9me3 was decreased in sperms while increased in spermatids by 21 d exposure. In addition, the H3K9me3 level was significantly increased after 63 d exposure, and a strong positive stain were found in spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperms. Our result also revealed that the transcripts of DNA methyltransferase genes (dnmt1 and dnmt3-8) and histone methyltransferase genes (mll2-5, setdb1-2 and ezh2) were also markedly changed under BPA exposure for 21-63 d. These findings indicated that BPA had toxicity in male reproductive, and DNA/histone methylation might play a vital role in the regulation of BPA-triggered the decreased of sperm quality.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Histonas/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Life Sci ; 256: 118012, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593710

RESUMO

AIMS: Bisphenol (BP)-A exposure can impair glucose and lipid metabolism. However, it is unclear whether this endocrine disruptor (ED) modulates these processes in postmenopause, a period with organic changes that increase the risk for metabolic diseases. Herein, we evaluated the effects of BPA exposure on adiposity, glucose homeostasis and hepatic steatosis in ovariectomized (OVX) mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD). MAIN METHODS: Adult Swiss female mice were OVX and submitted to a normolipidic diet or HFD and drinking water without [control (OVX CTL) and OVX HFD groups, respectively] or with 1 µg/mL BPA (OVX CBPA and OVX HBPA groups, respectively), for 3 months. KEY FINDINGS: OVX HFD females displayed increased adiposity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and moderate hepatic steatosis. This effect was associated with a high hepatic expression of genes involved in lipogenesis (Srebf1 and Scd1), ß-oxidation (Cpt1a) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (Hspa5 and Hyou1). BPA did not alter adiposity or glucose homeostasis disruptions induced by HFD. However, this ED triggered severe steatosis, exacerbating hepatic fat and collagen depositions in OVX HBPA, in association with a reduction in Mttp mRNA, and up-regulation of genes involved in ß-oxidation (Acox1 and Acadvl), mitochondrial uncoupling (Ucp2), ER stress (Hyou1 and Atf6) and chronic liver injury (Tgfb1and Casp8). Furthermore, BPA caused mild steatosis in OVX CBPA females, increasing the hepatic total lipids and mRNAs for Srebf1, Scd1, Hspa5, Hyou1 and Atf6. SIGNIFICANCE: BPA aggravated hepatic steatosis in OVX mice. Especially when combined with a HFD, BPA caused NAFLD progression, which was partly mediated by chronic ER stress and the TGF-ß1 pathway.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Fenóis/toxicidade , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Ovariectomia
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110876, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563953

RESUMO

This study investigated the acute in vitro effect of low-concentration bisphenol A (BPA) on calcium (45Ca2+) influx in zebrafish (Danio rerio) testis and examined whether intracellular Ca2+ was involved in the effects of BPA on testicular toxicity. In vitro studies on 45Ca2+ influx were performed in the testes after incubation with BPA for 30 min. Inhibitors were added 15 min before the addition of 45Ca2+ and BPA to testes to study the mechanism of action of BPA. The involvement of intracellular calcium from stores on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and on triacylglycerol (TAG) content were carried out after in vitro incubation of testes with BPA for 1 h. Furthermore, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities were analyzed in the liver at 1 h after in vitro BPA incubation of D. rerio. Our data show that the acute in vitro treatment of D. rerio testes with BPA at very low concentration activates plasma membrane ionic channels, such as voltage-dependent calcium channels and calcium-dependent chloride channels, and protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates Ca2+ influx. In addition, BPA increased cytosolic Ca2+ by activating inositol triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) at the endoplasmic reticulum, contributing to intracellular Ca2+ overload. The protein kinases, PKC, MEK 1/2 and PI3K, are involved in the mechanism of action of BPA, which may indicate a crosstalk between the non-genomic initiation effects mediated by PLC/PKC/IP3R signaling and genomic responses of BPA mediated by the estrogen receptor (ESR). In vitro exposure to a higher concentration of BPA caused cell damage and plasma membrane injury with increased LDH release and TAG content; both effects were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ and mediated by IP3R. Furthermore, BPA potentially induced liver damage, as demonstrated by increased GGT activity. In conclusion, in vitro effect of BPA in a low concentration triggers cytosolic Ca2+ overload and activates downstream protein kinases pointing to a crosstalk between its non-genomic and genomic effects of BPA mediated by ESR. Moreover, in vitro exposure to a higher concentration of BPA caused intracellular Ca2+-dependent testicular cell damage and plasma membrane injury. This acute toxicity was reinforced by increased testicular LDH release and GGT activity in the liver.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fenóis/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Citosol/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Canais Iônicos , Masculino , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
13.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127159, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559890

RESUMO

Although epidemiological and animal studies suggest a possible correlation between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and atherosclerosis, very few in vitro mechanistic and functional studies regarding the effect of BPA on vascular cells have been conducted. Here, we applied a "real-life" exposure scenario by continuously exposing human endothelial cell (EC) line EA.hy926 to environmentally relevant concentrations of BPA (10-9, 10-8, and 10-7 M) during 14 weeks. We also exposed EA.hy926 cells to higher concentrations of BPA (10-7, 10-6, and 10-5 M) for up to 48 h to gain mechanistic insight into the BPA's action in ECs. Chronic exposure to BPA produced some unexpected effects in EA.hy926 cells including a transient decrease in the adhesion of monocytes to the EC monolayer and decrease in the expression of cellular adhesion molecules, improvement in endothelial barrier function and elevated expression of tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), increased adhesion of ECs, and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. Some of these effects, such as diminished adhesion of monocytes to the EC monolayer and elevated NO production have also been replicated during acute exposure experiments. Using Western blotting and specific pharmacological inhibitors in the acute study, we have shown that direct BPA's action in EA.hy926 cells involves activation of estrogen receptor (ER), phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of NO. Collectively, these data indicate that BPA induces functional and molecular changes in EA.hy926 cells associated with the promotion of endothelial integrity through activation of the ER/Akt/eNOS pathway.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127379, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590174

RESUMO

4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a nephrotoxic substance that is highly prevalent in aquatic environments. Nigella sativa seed (NSS) has many biological activities and is widely used throughout the world as a medicinal product. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective effect of NSS on 4-NP-induced renal damage in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Thirty fish were divided into five equal groups: an untreated control group and four groups that were challenged with 4-NP at a dose of 0.1 mg L-1 of aquarium water and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 1%, 2.5%, and 5% NSS, respectively, for 3 weeks. Histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural features of the kidney were then assessed as biomarkers for renal tissue damage. Our results confirmed that 4-NP was a potent cytotoxic agent for the kidney tissue and induced renal damage, with 4-NP-intoxicated fish showing necrosis in the epithelial cells of the renal corpuscles, renal proximal convoluted tubules, and intertubular hematopoietic tissue, as well as loss of or a decrease in microvilli, a decrease in mitochondria, and an increase in the lysosomes in the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubules. The kidneys of 4-NP-intoxicated fish also showed increased numbers of Perls' Prussian blue-positive melanomacrophage centers and intraepithelial T-lymphocytes in the proximal convoluted tubules and plasma cells. The administration of NSS to 4-NP-challenged fish significantly minimized the cytotoxic effect of 4-NP, maintaining the normal kidney structure, with concentrations of 2.5% and 5% of feed being most effective for protecting the kidney against 4-NP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Nigella sativa , Fenóis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Suplementos Nutricionais , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127239, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535440

RESUMO

Alkylphenols (AP) are widespread environmental compounds belonging to the large family of substances known as Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs). The present study was carried out to assess the effects of Octylphenol (OP) alone and in combination with Nonylphenol (NP) on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis of the lizard Podarcis sicula. Lizards are good bioindicators due to their features such as wide distribution, large population and good sensitivity to contaminants. Results obtained showed a time and dose-dependent stimulation of the HPA together with a high variation of both catecholamine plasma levels and greater vascularization and hypertrophy of steroidogenic cord of adrenal gland after both OP and OP + NP treatments. Interestingly, the OP + NP mixture treatment has provoked a state of stress of the adrenal gland which in fact appeared to be characterized by the presence of a marked macrophage infiltration which can be seen especially close to the connective capsule surrounding the gland. This macrophage infiltration could be an evidence of a particularly pronounced inflammatory state to indicate, probably, an animal's response to a non-physiological situation.


Assuntos
Glândulas Suprarrenais/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Lagartos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Suprarrenais/imunologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/fisiologia , Animais , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/imunologia , Lagartos/fisiologia , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal/imunologia
16.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126919, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402876

RESUMO

The predominant reliance on bromated flame retardants (BFRs) is diminishing with expanded use of alternative organophosphate flame retardants. However, exposure related issues for susceptible populations, the developing, infirmed, or aged, remain given environmental persistence and home-environment detection. In this regard, reports of flame retardant (FR)-related effects on the innate immune system suggest process by which a spectrum of adverse health effects could manifest across the life-span. As representative of the nervous system innate immune system, the current study examined changes in microglia following exposure to representative FRs, pentabromophenol (PBP), tetrabromobisphenol A (2,2',6,6',-tetrabromo-4,4'-isopropylidine diphenol; TBBPA) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP). Following 18hr exposure of murine BV-2 cells, at dose levels resulting in ≥80% viability (10 and 40 µM), limited alterations in pro-inflammatory responses were observed however, changes were observed in mitochondrial respiration. Basal respiration was altered by PBP; ATP-linked respiration by PBP and TBBPA, and maximum respiration by all three FRs. Basal glycolytic rate was altered by PBP and TBBPA and compensatory glycolysis by all three. Phagocytosis was decreased for PBP and TBBPA. NLRP3 inflammasome activation was assessed using BV-2-ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) reporter cells to visualize aggregate formation. PBP, showed a direct stimulation of aggregate formation and properties as a NLRP3 inflammasome secondary trigger. TBBPA showed indications of possible secondary triggering activity while no changes were seen with TPP. Thus, the data suggests an effect of all three FRs on mitochondria metabolism yet, different functional outcomes including, phagocytic capability and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Bifenil Polibromatos/toxicidade , Animais , Retardadores de Chama , Humanos , Camundongos , Microglia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
17.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127080, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450349

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an estrogenic contaminant linked to metabolic disruption. Developmental BPA exposure is of particular concern, as organizational effects may irreversibly disrupt metabolism at later life-stages. While BPA exposures in adult fish elicit metabolic perturbations similar to effects described in rodents, the metabolic effects of developmental BPA exposure in juvenile fish remain largely unknown. Following embryonic zebrafish exposure to BPA (0.1, 1 and 4 mg/L) and EE2 (10 ng/L) from 2 to 5 dpf, we assessed the metabolic phenotype in larvae (4-6 dpf) and juveniles (43-49 dpf) which had been divided into regular-fed and overfed groups at 29 dpf. Developmental BPA exposure in larvae dose-dependently reduced food-intake and locomotion and increased energy expenditure. Juveniles (29 dpf) exhibited a transient increase in body weight after developmental BPA exposure and persistent diet-dependent locomotion changes (43-49 dpf). At the molecular level, glucose and lipid metabolism-related transcript abundance clearly separated BPA exposed fish from controls and EE2 exposed fish at the larval stage, in juveniles on a regular diet and, to a lesser extent, in overfed juveniles. In general, the metabolic endpoints affected by BPA exposure were not mimicked by EE2 treatment. We conclude that developmental BPA exposure elicits acute metabolic effects in zebrafish larvae and fewer transient and persistent effects in juveniles and that these metabolic effects are largely independent of BPA's estrogenicity.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Metabolismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
18.
Life Sci ; 253: 117738, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360618

RESUMO

AIM: Endocrine disruption due to environmental chemical contaminants is a global human health issue. The aim of present study was to investigate the structural binding aspects of possible interference of commonly detected environmental contaminants on thyroid function. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three compounds, 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), and 4-methyl-2,4-bis(4-hydroxypentyl)pent-1-ene (MBP) were subjected to induced fit docking (IFD) against thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and thyroid hormone receptor (THR). Structural analysis included molecular interactions of the amino acid residues and binding energy estimation between the ligands and the target proteins. KEY RESULTS: All the ligands were successfully placed in the ligand binding pocket of TBG and THR using induced fit docking (IFD). The IFD results revealed high percentage of commonality in interacting amino acid residues between the aforementioned compounds and the native ligand for both TBG and THR. The results of our study further revealed that all the compounds have the potential to interfere with thyroid transport and signaling. However, MBP showed higher binding affinity for both TBG and THR, suggesting higher thyroid disruptive potential as compared to 4-t-OP and 4-NP. Furthermore, our results also suggest that the reported disruptive effects of BPA could actually be exerted through its metabolite; MBP. SIGNIFICANCE: This work implies that all the three compounds 4-NP, 4-t-OP and especially MBP have the potential to interfere with thyroid hormone transport and signaling. This potentially leads to disruption of thyroid hormone function.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Tiroxina/metabolismo
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 41, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In utero endocrine disruption is linked to increased risk of breast cancer later in life. Despite numerous studies establishing this linkage, the long-term molecular changes that predispose mammary cells to carcinogenic transformation are unknown. Herein, we investigated how endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) drive changes within the stroma that can contribute to breast cancer susceptibility. METHODS: We utilized bisphenol A (BPA) as a model of estrogenic endocrine disruption to analyze the long-term consequences in the stroma. Deregulated genes were identified by RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of adult primary fibroblasts, isolated from female mice exposed to in utero BPA. Collagen staining, collagen imaging techniques, and permeability assays were used to characterize changes to the extracellular matrix. Finally, gland stiffness tests were performed on exposed and control mammary glands. RESULTS: We identified significant transcriptional deregulation of adult fibroblasts exposed to in utero BPA. Deregulated genes were associated with cancer pathways and specifically extracellular matrix composition. Multiple collagen genes were more highly expressed in the BPA-exposed fibroblasts resulting in increased collagen deposition in the adult mammary gland. This transcriptional reprogramming of BPA-exposed fibroblasts generates a less permeable extracellular matrix and a stiffer mammary gland. These phenotypes were only observed in adult 12-week-old, but not 4-week-old, mice. Additionally, diethylstilbestrol, known to increase breast cancer risk in humans, also increases gland stiffness similar to BPA, while bisphenol S does not. CONCLUSIONS: As breast stiffness, extracellular matrix density, and collagen deposition have been directly linked to breast cancer risk, these data mechanistically connect EDC exposures to molecular alterations associated with increased disease susceptibility. These alterations develop over time and thus contribute to cancer risk in adulthood.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Animais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Estrogênios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/imunologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/imunologia , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Células Estromais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estromais/imunologia , Transcriptoma
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32455625

RESUMO

Bisphenols, particularly bisphenol A (4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)-diphenol) (BPA), are suspected of inducing oxidative stress in humans, which may be associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated the associations between exposure to bisphenols and biomarkers of oxidative stress in human studies over the last 12 years (2008‒2019) related to six health endpoints and evaluated their suitability as effect biomarkers. PubMed database searches identified 27 relevant articles that were used for data extraction. In all studies, BPA exposure was reported, whereas some studies also reported other bisphenols. More than a dozen different biomarkers were measured. The most frequently measured biomarkers were 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which almost always were positively associated with BPA. Methodological issues were reported for MDA, mainly the need to handle samples with caution to avoid artefact formation and its measurements using a chromatographic step to distinguish it from similar aldehydes, making some of the MDA results less reliable. Urinary 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane can be considered the most reliable biomarkers of oxidative stress associated with BPA exposure. Although none of the biomarkers are considered BPA- or organ-specific, the biomarkers can be assessed repeatedly and non-invasively in urine and could help to understand causal relationships.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos , Estresse Oxidativo , Fenóis , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/urina , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/urina , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenóis/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
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