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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 201-222, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034034

RESUMO

Notch is a key evolutionary conserved pathway, which has fascinated and engaged the work of investigators in an uncountable number of biological fields, from development of metazoans to immunotherapy for cancer. The study of Notch has greatly contributed to the understanding of cancer biology and a substantial effort has been spent in designing Notch-targeting therapies. Due to its broad involvement in cancer, targeting Notch would allow to virtually modulate any aspect of the disease. However, this means that Notch-based therapies must be highly specific to avoid off-target effects. This review will present the newest mechanistic and therapeutic advances in the Notch field and discuss the promises and challenges of this constantly evolving field.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores Notch/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fenótipo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
2.
Ther Umsch ; 77(8): 357-360, 2020.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054651

RESUMO

The adrenal incidentaloma Abstract. This article discusses the diagnostic workup of a patient with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Primarily, this situation raises two questions: Is the mass malignant? Is the mass hormonally active? The evaluation for malignancy is based on specific imaging characteristics ('imaging phenotype'). The evaluation for hormonal secretion is based on a targeted clinical examination and specific biochemical tests. In most cases, adrenal incidentalomas can be identified as benign, non-functioning adenomas. In unclear situations, patients should be referred for further evaluation.


Assuntos
Adenoma , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/terapia , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Fenótipo
3.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.10, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056088

RESUMO

Taxon names are at the core of communication related to biodiversity. Thus, systems that regulate such names should prevent unnecessary changes. Unfortunately, the current regulatory codes have some articles that produce confusion or, even, generate name instability. To promote nomenclatural stability, while maintaining a system that effectively conveys information about biological diversity and its evolution, we argue in favor of emendations to the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). We propose that taxon names should be created within an evolutionary framework; ideally, this would mean including a phylogenetic tree or, at the very least, formulating a hypothesis in words based on explicit arguments (homologous traits) for the evolutionary relatedness of taxa, avoiding subjective perceptions. Additionally, we consider that some relatively minor changes of the ICZN would greatly increase name stability; the most relevant modifications that would facilitate long-term stability are: (i) immutability of the species epithet of species names, (ii) intercalation of unranked taxa between formal Linnaean ranks, (iii) elimination of homonyms in taxon names at the genus-group level, and (iv) inclusion of flexible phylogenetic definitions when supraspecific taxa are named.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Fenótipo , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4822(1): zootaxa.4822.1.1, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056298

RESUMO

Inquiline oak gall wasps from the genus Synergus Hartig (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) that occur in the New World should be classified into the following morphological groups: i) species with the radial cell of fore wings open; ii) species with the radial cell of fore wings closed and mesopleurae completely sculptured, always with transversal striae covering its surface; iii) species with the radial cell of fore wings closed and mesopleurae partially smooth, with the speculum always shiny and not sculptured. The latter group, which appears to be unique to the New World's fauna, is the focus of this study. An exhaustive taxonomical revision of all the Synergus species within this morphological group is carried out for the first time after the initial treatment by Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar (2017). Redescriptions, images and new distribution and biological data are provided. A new species from Mexico, Synergus aurofacies Lobato-Vila Pujade-Villar, sp. nov., is here formally described and illustrated. Synergus variegatus McCracken Egbert, 1922 is a junior synonym of S. flavens McCracken Egbert, 1922 syn. nov.; S. profusus McCracken Egbert, 1922 is a junior synonym of S. pacificus McCracken Egbert, 1922 syn. nov.; and S. flavus Kieffer, 1904 and S. varicolor Fullaway, 1911 are junior synonyms of S. pomiformis (Ashmead, 1885) syn. nov. A key to species of this group is provided. The morphological traits of the species with partially smooth mesopleurae are discussed.


Assuntos
Vespas , Animais , Fenótipo , Asas de Animais
5.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 28(5): 1733-1739, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore a method for rapidly screening the Duffy blood group genotypes and to establish an information bank of rare blood type donors. METHODS: The microfluidic capillary electrophoresis system and PCR-SSP method were used to analyze the Duffy genotype of 3 936 unrelated O-type blood donors in our center from December 2014 to September 2018. The serologic identification and typing of other blood type system phenotypes for FYa-negative specimen were performed. The Fy (a-b-) specimen was sequenced for genotyping. RESULTS: The phenotypes of FYa-negative specimens were consistent with the genotyping results of the microfluidic capillary electrophoresis system. The results of Duffy phenotyping in 3 936 specimens were follows: Fy (a+b-) 3 564 (90.54%), Fy(a+b+) 353 (8.97%), Fy(a-b+) 18 (0.46%), Fy (a-b-) 1 (0.03%). The gene frequency was FY*A (95.03%), FY*B (4.94%), and FY*Null (0.03%). The bank of rare blood types of 19 FYa-negative specimens was established. CONCLUSION: Microfluidic capillary electrophoresis system is suitable for Duffy blood group genotyping screening. It can be used to establish a bank of rare blood type, so as to solve the problem of urgent blood transfusion in patients with rare blood type, and to improve blood transfusion safety.


Assuntos
Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy , Eletroforese Capilar , Sistema do Grupo Sanguíneo Duffy/genética , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Fenótipo
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4923, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004824

RESUMO

A goal of biology is to predict how mutations combine to alter phenotypes, fitness and disease. It is often assumed that mutations combine additively or with interactions that can be predicted. Here, we show using simulations that, even for the simple example of the lambda phage transcription factor CI repressing a gene, this assumption is incorrect and that perfect measurements of the effects of mutations on a trait and mechanistic understanding can be insufficient to predict what happens when two mutations are combined. This apparent paradox arises because mutations can have different biophysical effects to cause the same change in a phenotype and the outcome in a double mutant depends upon what these hidden biophysical changes actually are. Pleiotropy and non-monotonic functions further confound prediction of how mutations interact. Accurate prediction of phenotypes and disease will sometimes not be possible unless these biophysical ambiguities can be resolved using additional measurements.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biofísicos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Modelos Genéticos , Termodinâmica , Bacteriófago lambda/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Fenótipo , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/genética , Proteínas Virais Reguladoras e Acessórias/metabolismo
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5085, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033250

RESUMO

Tibetan wheat is grown under environmental constraints at high-altitude conditions, but its underlying adaptation mechanism remains unknown. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of a Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao) accession Zang1817 and re-sequence 245 wheat accessions, including world-wide wheat landraces, cultivars as well as Tibetan landraces. We demonstrate that high-altitude environments can trigger extensive reshaping of wheat genomes, and also uncover that Tibetan wheat accessions accumulate high-altitude adapted haplotypes of related genes in response to harsh environmental constraints. Moreover, we find that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is a feral form of Tibetan landrace, and identify two associated loci, including a 0.8-Mb deletion region containing Brt1/2 homologs and a genomic region with TaQ-5A gene, responsible for rachis brittleness during the de-domestication episode. Our study provides confident evidence to support the hypothesis that Tibetan semi-wild wheat is de-domesticated from local landraces, in response to high-altitude extremes.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Altitude , Triticum/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Domesticação , Ecótipo , Genoma de Planta , Geografia , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Tibet , Triticum/genética
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(41): e22549, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been classified into four molecular subtypes, of which the mesenchymal subtype has the poorest survival. Our goal is to develop an immune-based prognostic signature by incorporating molecular subtypes for EOC patients. METHODS: The gene expression profiles of EOC samples were collected from seven public datasets as well as an internal retrospective validation cohort, containing 1192 EOC patients. Network analysis was applied to integrate the mesenchymal modalities and immune signature to establish an immune-based prognostic signature for EOC (IPSEOC). The signature was trained and validated in eight independent datasets. RESULTS: Seven immune genes were identified as key regulators of the mesenchymal subtype and were used to construct the IPSEOC. The IPSEOC significantly divided patients into high- and low-risk groups in discovery (OS: P < .0001), 6 independent public validation sets (OS: P = .04 to P = .002), and an internal retrospective validation cohort (OS: P = .025). Furthermore, pathway analysis revealed that differences between risk groups were mainly activation of mesenchymal-related signalling. Moreover, a significant correlation existed between the IPSEOC values versus clinical phenotypes including late tumor stages, drug resistance. CONCLUSION: We propose an immune-based signature, which is a promising prognostic biomarker in ovarian cancer. Prospective studies are needed to further validate its analytical accuracy and test the clinical utility.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/imunologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/genética , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20201135, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043863

RESUMO

Tardigrades have a miniaturized body plan. Miniaturization in tardigrades is associated with the loss of several organ systems and an intermediate region of their anteroposterior (AP) axis. However, how miniaturization has affected tardigrade legs is unclear. In arthropods and in onychophorans, the leg gap genes are expressed in regionalized proximodistal (PD) patterns in the legs. Functional studies indicate that these genes regulate growth in their respective expression domains and establish PD identities, partly through mutually antagonistic regulatory interactions. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of tardigrade orthologs of the leg gap genes. Rather than being restricted to a proximal leg region, as in arthropods and onychophorans, we detected coexpression of orthologues of homothorax and extradenticle broadly across the legs of the first three trunk segments in the tardigrade Hypsibius exemplaris. We could not identify a dachshund orthologue in tardigrade genomes, a gene that is expressed in an intermediate region of developing legs in arthropods and onychophorans, suggesting that this gene was lost in the tardigrade lineage. We detected Distal-less expression broadly across all developing leg buds in H. exemplaris embryos, unlike in arthropods and onychophorans, in which it exhibits a distally restricted expression domain. The broad expression patterns of the remaining leg gap genes in H. exemplaris legs may reflect the loss of dachshund and the accompanying loss of an intermediate region of the legs in the tardigrade lineage. We propose that the loss of intermediate regions of both the AP and PD body axes contributed to miniaturization of Tardigrada.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Tardígrados/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Miniaturização , Fenótipo
10.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1931): 20200975, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043864

RESUMO

Alternative mating strategies are widespread among animal taxa, with strategies controlled by a genetic polymorphism (Mendelian strategy) being rarer in nature than condition-dependent developmental strategies. Mendelian strategies are predicted to have equal average fitnesses and the proportion of offspring produced by a strategy should equal the equilibrium proportion of individuals representing the strategy in a population. Developmental strategies are not expected to produce offspring in equilibrium proportions; however, whether the alternative phenotypes should have equal average fitness is debated. The Wellington tree weta (Hemideina crassidens) (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) is a harem polygynous insect in which intense sexual competition has favoured the evolution of three alternative mating strategies that differ in weapon size and the ability to fight for control of harems. Here, we use molecular genotyping to test the hypothesis that the alternative strategies in this species are maintained by having equal relative fitness and that morphs produce offspring in equilibrium proportions. As expected, the average relative fitness of the three strategies did not significantly differ and the proportion of offspring produced by each morph is equal to the frequency of that morph in the population. Our results support the hypothesis that the alternative male morphs in H. crassidens represent Mendelian strategies.


Assuntos
Insetos/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ortópteros , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Seleção Genética
11.
Zootaxa ; 4821(2): zootaxa.4821.2.1, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056319

RESUMO

The ant genus Prionopelta Mayr, 1866 is revised for the Neotropics. Morphological traits combined with geographical data led to the recognition of eight species, four of them described here as new: Prionopelta dubia sp. n., Prionopelta menininha sp. n., Prionopelta minuta sp. n., and Prionopelta tapatia sp. n. Prionopelta marthae Forel, 1909 is proposed as a new junior synonym of Prionopelta antillana Forel, 1909. External morphological descriptions of the worker caste for all species are provided, as well as for some of the males and queens, mostly described here for the first time. Identification keys for all known castes, distribution maps and high-resolution illustrations are supplied for all species.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Geografia , Masculino , Fenótipo
12.
Urol Clin North Am ; 47(4): 469-474, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008497

RESUMO

Multiple immunologic platforms have provided minimal impact in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, necessitating that novel approaches continue to be developed. Although checkpoint inhibitors have been largely ineffective, there remain small cohorts of patients who have durable responses but lack the conventional indicators for response to this class of drugs, that is, high mutational burden or significant genomic alterations, as seen in other solid tumors. This article presents an update on the evolution of immunotherapeutics that target a more lethal form of prostate cancer and provides the groundwork for future considerations as to how this field should proceed.


Assuntos
Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Idoso , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040504

RESUMO

Objective:To observe the microbiological characteristics and clinical correlation of chronic rhinosinusitis with different clinical phenotypes. Method:One hundred and ninety-six patients with chronic rhinosinusitis(CRS) underwent nasal endoscopic surgery, including 126 patients with Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps(CRSwNP) and 70 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps(CRSsNP); 78 patients with nasal septum deviation(control group) were enrolled. The nasal discharge samples were collected before operation, and the bacteria were isolated and identified by the traditional culture method. The bacteria were compared between the two groups by Pearson chi-square test or Fisher exact test, and the bacteria were compared between groups by Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test. Out statistically significant variables(P<0.05). Result:The total bacterial detection rate was 73.0% in the three groups, 76.2% in the CRSwNP group, 68.6% in the CRSsNP group and 71.8% in the control group, respectively(P=0.579). The detection rate of the bacteria was mainly Gram-positive bacteria. The higher detection rate included: Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudodiphtheria, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzaemola, Haemella influenzaemola. The detection rate of Haemophilus influenzae in the CRSwNP group and the control group(13.5% vs 2.6%, P=0.009), but there were statistical differences CRSsNP.There was no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of the bacteria(8.6% vs 2.6%, P=0.15) between the CRSsNP group and the control group; The difference of staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSwNP group and ECRSwNP group was statistically significant (9.6% vs 28.1%,P=0.017).There was no significant difference in staphylococcus aureus detection rate between NonECRSsNP group and ECRSsNP group (9.4% vs 16.7%, P=0.482). Conclusion:Haemophilus influenzae may be a potential cause of CRSwNP; S. aureus may promote the eosinophilic granulocyte inflammatory response to CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Sinusite , Humanos , Fenótipo , Staphylococcus aureus
14.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 549-562, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009088

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The neurocutaneous disorders are a genetically and phenotypically diverse group of congenital syndromes characterized by cutaneous, ocular, and central nervous system manifestations. This review provides an overview of the clinical features and retinal findings in selected neurocutaneous disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in genetics and diagnostic retinal and neuroimaging allow for the recognition of retinal features of common neurocutaneous syndromes and for improved characterization of rarer entities based on previously underdiagnosed or unrecognized retinal findings. SUMMARY: Better characterization of the neurocutaneous disorders allows for earlier recognition and the potential for expeditious vision-saving and life-saving treatment.


Assuntos
Síndromes Neurocutâneas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fenótipo
16.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 21(10): 931-932, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009319
17.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20008, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016632

RESUMO

Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) is highly consumed in the United States, but does not make major contributions to the daily intake of carotenoids (provitamin A carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin) that would help in the prevention of health complications. A genome-wide association study of seven kernel carotenoids and twelve derivative traits was conducted in a sweet corn inbred line association panel ranging from light to dark yellow in endosperm color to elucidate the genetic basis of carotenoid levels in fresh kernels. In agreement with earlier studies of maize kernels at maturity, we detected an association of ß-carotene hydroxylase (crtRB1) with ß-carotene concentration and lycopene epsilon cyclase (lcyE) with the ratio of flux between the α- and ß-carotene branches in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. Additionally, we found that 5% or less of the evaluated inbred lines possessing the shrunken2 (sh2) endosperm mutation had the most favorable lycE allele or crtRB1 haplotype for elevating ß-branch carotenoids (ß-carotene and zeaxanthin) or ß-carotene, respectively. Genomic prediction models with genome-wide markers obtained moderately high predictive abilities for the carotenoid traits, especially lutein, and outperformed models with less markers that targeted candidate genes implicated in the synthesis, retention, and/or genetic control of kernel carotenoids. Taken together, our results constitute an important step toward increasing carotenoids in fresh sweet corn kernels.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Zea mays , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Zea mays/genética , beta Caroteno
18.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20006, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016641

RESUMO

Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important economic crop, contributing up to 80% of sugar and approximately 60% of biofuel globally. To meet the increased demand for sugar and biofuel supplies, it is critical to breed sugarcane cultivars with robust performance in yield traits. Therefore, dissection of causal DNA sequence variants is of great importance, as it provides genetic resources and fundamental information for crop improvement. In this study, we analyzed nine yield traits in a sugarcane diversity panel consisting of 308 accessions primarily selected from the World Collection of Sugarcane and Related Grasses. By genotyping the diversity panel via target enrichment sequencing, we identified a large number of sequence variants. Genome-wide association studies between the markers and traits were conducted, taking dosages and gene actions into consideration. In total, 217 nonredundant markers and 225 candidate genes were identified to be significantly associated with the yield traits, which can serve as a comprehensive genetic resource database for future gene identification, characterization, and selection for sugarcane improvement. We further investigated runs of homozygosity (ROH) in the sugarcane diversity panel. We characterized 282 ROHs and found that the occurrence of ROHs in the genome were nonrandom and probably under selection. The ROHs were associated with total weight and dry weight, and high ROHs resulted in a decrease in the two traits. This study suggests that genomic inbreeding has led to negative impacts on sugarcane yield.


Assuntos
Saccharum , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Poliploidia , Saccharum/genética
19.
Zootaxa ; 4808(3): zootaxa.4808.3.6, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055965

RESUMO

The original description of Parandricus mairei Kieffer, 1906 included a misinterpretation of a relevant forewing trait. The species was subsequently transferred to the genus Andricus, despite presenting two very peculiar morphological characters, namely a simple tarsal claw and the absence of irradiating carinae on the lower face. Similarly, the original descriptions of Andricus deqingis Wang, Gui, Chen, 2013 and A. flavus Pujade-Villar, Wang, Guo Chen, 2014 included some relevant mistakes. Here, we present the results of a molecular analysis that reveals that individuals of the three species are genetically very similar; supporting the proposal that A. mairei is a senior synonym of the other two species, A. deqingis n. syn. and A. flavus n. syn. In addition, our results indicate that Parandricus renders Andricus paraphyletic, which supports that Parandricus is a junior synonym of Andricus. We re-describe and illustrate the relevant characters of A. mairei and provide additional comments on the characters erroneously interpreted in the former descriptions and give notes about the biology and intraspecific variability.


Assuntos
Himenópteros , Animais , China , Fenótipo
20.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 129-135, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087602

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe a strategy for the development of a genetic analysis comprehensive representation. The primary intention is to ensure the available utilization of genetic analysis results in clinical practice. The system is called Personnel Genetic Card (PGC), and it is developed in cooperation of CIIRC CTU in Prague and the Mediware company. Nowadays, genetic information is more and more part of medicine and life quality services (e.g. nutritional consulting). Therefore, there is necessary to bind genetic information with the clinical phenotype, such as drug metabolism or intolerance to various substances. We proposed a structured form of the record, where we utilize the LOINC® standard to identify genetic test parameters, and several terminology databases for representing specific genetic information (e.g. HGNC, NCBI RefSeq, NCBI dbNSP, HGVS). Further, there are also several knowledge databases (PharmGKB, SNPedia, ClinVar) that collect interpretation for genetic analysis results. In the results of this paper, we describe our idea in the structure and process perspective. The structural perspective includes the representation of the analysis record and its binding with the interpretations. The process perspective describes roles and activities within the PGC system use.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Informações Pessoalmente Identificáveis , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes , Fenótipo
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