Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 232.226
Filtrar
1.
Glob Chang Biol ; 26(1): 189-190, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891658

RESUMO

Plant traits, such as height or specific leaf area, are expressions of plant performance and are important indicators of ecosystem function. Here, the TRY plant database is highlighted as the most comprehensive archive of global plant data, with open access to the public.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Ecossistema , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 169-176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893407

RESUMO

Inhospitable conditions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) are a characteristic feature ('hallmark') of most solid malignancies. Regional tumor hypoxia is a primary deficiency since it plays a key role in malignant progression. Severe hypoxia is often associated with other detrimental conditions in the TME as a consequence of hypoxia-/HIF-1α-induced (with/without oncogene-direction and/or reciprocal interaction of cancer cells with TME cells) metabolic re-programming, exorbitant extracellular adenosine (ADO) generation and VEGF overexpression/VEGF-R activation. Re-programming of the tumor metabolism inter alia includes a 'selfish' upregulation of aerobic glycolysis/glycolytic flux ('Warburg effect'), a strongly enhanced glutaminolysis in tumor cells, ketogenesis in cancer-associated fibroblasts, and an acceleration of the tryptophan uptake/intensified catabolism yielding kynurenine, which can support the malignant phenotype. Aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis result in lactate accumulation (up to 40 mM), and together with the enhanced ketogenesis and CO2/carbonic acid production lead to extracellular acidosis (pHe < 6.8). These traits of the TME individually or collectively operate towards cancer progression via e.g. promotion of genetic instability and mutation, resistance to apoptosis, clonal selection, limitless cell survival and sustained proliferation, continuous angiogenesis and tumor growth, local invasion and distant metastasis, anti-tumor immunosuppression and resistance to therapy.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Neoplasias , Hipóxia Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Glicólise , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
3.
J Urol ; 203(1): 62-72, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112107

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies indicate that molecular subtypes in muscle invasive bladder cancer predict the clinical outcome. We evaluated whether subtyping by a simplified method and established classifications could predict the clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We subtyped institutional cohort 1 of 52 patients, including 39 with muscle invasive bladder cancer, an Oncomine™ data set of 151 with muscle invasive bladder cancer and TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) data set of 402 with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Subtyping was done using simplified panels (MCG-1 and MCG-Ext) which included only transcripts common in published studies and were analyzed for predicting metastasis, and cancer specific, overall and recurrence-free survival. TCGA data set was further analyzed using the Lund taxonomy, the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus and TCGA 2017 mRNA subtype classifications. RESULTS: Muscle invasive bladder cancer specimens from cohort 1 and the Oncomine data set showed intratumor heterogeneity for transcript and protein expression. MCG-1 subtypes did not predict the outcome on univariate or Kaplan-Meier analysis. On multivariate analysis N stage (p ≤0.007), T stage (p ≤0.04), M stage (p=0.007) and/or patient age (p=0.01) predicted metastasis, cancer specific and overall survival, and/or the cisplatin based adjuvant chemotherapy response. In TCGA data set publications showed that subtypes risk stratified patients for overall survival. Consistently the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes were associated with overall but not recurrence-free survival on univariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses. TCGA data set included 21 low grade specimens of the total of 402 and subtypes associated with tumor grade (p=0.005). However, less than 1% of muscle invasive bladder cancer cases are low grade. In only high grade specimens the MCG-1 and MCG-Ext subtypes could not predict overall survival. On univariate analysis subtypes according to the Bladder Cancer Molecular Taxonomy Group Consensus, TCGA 2017 and the Lund taxonomy were associated with tumor grade (p <0.0001) and overall survival (p=0.01 to <0.0001). Regardless of classification, subtypes had about 50% to 60% sensitivity and specificity to predict overall and recurrence-free survival. On multivariate analyses N stage and lymphovascular invasion consistently predicted recurrence-free and overall survival (p=0.039 and 0.003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular subtypes reflect bladder tumor heterogeneity and are associated with tumor grade. In multiple cohorts and subtyping classifications the clinical parameters outperformed subtypes for predicting the outcome.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/genética , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/patologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Fenótipo , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
4.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 17-22, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common malignancy, most frequently affecting the head and neck. Treatment often requires surgery and can have significant functional morbidity. Research into disease pathogenesis and second line medical management of cSCC is limited. We assess genetic mutations in high-risk, primary head and neck cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (HNcSCC) that may hinder or be beneficial for use of targeted therapy in disease management. METHODS: Genetic alterations and variant allele frequencies (VAFs) were analysed using a clinically relevant 48 gene panel in 10 primary high-risk non-metastatic treatment-naïve HNcSCC to evaluate applicability of targeted therapeutics. Variants present at all VAFs were evaluated for pathogenicity. Somatic mutation patterns of individual tumours were analysed. RESULTS: High-risk HNcSCC showed a high proportion (82%) of C to T transitions in keeping with ultraviolet-mediated damage. There was significant intratumour genetic heterogeneity in this cohort (MATH scores 20-89) with the two patients <45 years of age showing highest intratumour heterogeneity. TP53 was altered at VAF >22% in all cases, and mutations with highest VAF were observed in tumour suppressor genes in 80%. 70% of cases demonstrated at least one mutation associated with treatment resistance (KIT S821F, KIT T670I, RAS mutations at codons 12 and 13). CONCLUSION: We demonstrate high proportion tumour suppressor loss of function mutations, high intratumour genetic heterogeneity, and presence of well recognised resistance mutations in treatment naïve primary HNcSCC. These factors pose challenges for successful utilisation of targeted therapies.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Transcriptoma
5.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 7-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422373

RESUMO

AIMS: Hereditary protein S (PS) deficiency is one of the natural anticoagulant deficiencies causing thrombophilia. We herein described a young male with recurrent deep venous thrombosis, who was diagnosed as type I PS deficiency with compound heterozygous mutations of PROS1 gene. We aimed to analyse the relationship between the genotype and phenotype detection and investigate the pathological mechanisms of PROS1 mutations causing PS deficiency. METHODS: Genetic analysis of PROS1 gene was carried out by direct sequencing. Thrombin generation potential and the inhibition function of thrombin generation by plasma PS were detected by thrombin generation test (TGT). The mRNA transcription level of mutant PS in vitro was measured by real-time PCR, while the protein level was evaluated by western blot and ELISA. Cellular distribution of the protein was further analysed by immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Compound heterozygous mutations (PROS1 c.1551_1552delinsG, p.Thr518Argfs*39 and PROS1 c.1681C>T, p.Arg561Trp) were identified in the propositus, and the former one was a novel small indel mutation. TGT results showed impaired inhibition of thrombin generation with the addition of activated protein C in his parents with certain heterozygous mutations. In vitro expression study, p.Thr518Argfs*39 mutant produced truncated protein retained in the cytoplasm, while p.Arg561Trp mutant partially affected the secretion of PS. Both mutations are located in C-terminal sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-like domain of PS. CONCLUSIONS: Compound heterozygous mutations identified in the study have strong detrimental effect, causing severe type I PS deficiency in the propositus. SHBG-like domain of PS might play an important role in PS secretion system.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea/genética , Proteínas Sanguíneas/genética , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Deficiência de Proteína S/genética , Trombose Venosa/genética , Adulto , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Deficiência de Proteína S/sangue , Deficiência de Proteína S/diagnóstico , Recidiva , Via Secretória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Trombina/metabolismo , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico
6.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 14-16, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434698

RESUMO

AIMS: Untranslated regions (UTRs) play an important role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, including by modulating messenger RNA (mRNA) transport out of the nucleus, translation efficiency, subcellular localisation and stability. Any mutation in this region could alter the stability of mRNA and thereby affect protein synthesis. We analysed if a mutation located in the α complex protected region of the α1 globin gene could cause non-deletional α-thalassaemia by affecting post-transcriptional stability (mRNA stability). METHODS: A total of 14 patients without anaemia, normal or slight microcytosis and hypochromia (medium concentration haemoglobin [MCH] <27 pg) were studied. Haemoglobin subtypes were screened using capillary zone electrophoresis and ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (VARIANT II ß-Thalassaemia Short Program). The most common α-globin mutations were identified by multiplex PCR (Alpha-Globin StripAssay kit) and the molecular characterisation by automatic sequencing of alpha globin genes. RESULTS: All of them shown a novel transversion mutation in nt 778 (C>A), which is located in the 3' UTR in the α complex protected region [HBA1: c.*+46C>A]. CONCLUSIONS: This mutation is in the αRNAmin binding site, so a single nucleotide substitution in this region can decrease mRNA stability by potentially compromising the binding of α-complex protein to αRNAmin, favouring the decay of α-globin mRNA via erythroid cell-enriched endoribonuclease cleavage. In this case, it is a non-deletional α-thalassaemia. However, in silico and empirical studies predicted that it could be a silent polymorphism. Functional studies should be carried out to confirm whether it is a pathological mutation or a silent polymorphism.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Mutação , Polimorfismo Genético , Estabilidade de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , alfa-Globinas/genética , Talassemia alfa/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , alfa-Globinas/metabolismo , Talassemia alfa/sangue , Talassemia alfa/diagnóstico
7.
BJOG ; 127(1): 70-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate preterm birth (PTB) phenotypes in women with different autoimmune rheumatic diseases in a large population-based cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: California, USA. POPULATION: All live singleton births in California between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. Patients with autoimmune disease at delivery were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision , Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), codes for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis/dermatomyositis (DM/PM), and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). METHODS: Maternally linked hospital and birth certificate records of 2 481 516 deliveries were assessed (SLE n = 2272, RA n = 1501, SSc n = 88, JIA n = 187, DM/PM n = 38). Multivariable Poisson regression models estimated the risk ratios (RRs) for different PTB phenotypes (relative to term deliveries) for each autoimmune disease compared with the general obstetric population, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, education, payer, parity, and prenatal care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preterm birth (PTB) was assessed overall (20-36 weeks of gestation) and by subphenotype: preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM), spontaneous birth, or medically indicated PTB. The risk of PTB overall and for each phenotype was partitioned by gestational age: early (20-31 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks of gestation). RESULTS: Risks for PTB were elevated for each autoimmune disease evaluated: SLE (RR 3.27, 95% CI 3.01-3.56), RA (RR 2.04, 95% CI 1.79-2.33), SSc (RR 3.74, 95% CI 2.51-5.58), JIA (RR 2.23, 95% CI 1.54-3.23), and DM/PM (RR 5.26, 95% CI 3.12-8.89). These elevated risks were observed for the majority of PTB phenotypes as well. CONCLUSIONS: Women with systemic autoimmune diseases appear to have an elevated risk of various PTB phenotypes. Therefore, preconception counselling and close monitoring during pregnancy is crucial. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: This study found that women with systemic autoimmune diseases have an elevated risk of preterm birth phenotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Paridade , Fenótipo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Clin Pathol ; 73(1): 51-56, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662438

RESUMO

Fibroepithelial tumours are biphasic neoplasms of the breast comprising the common benign fibroadenomas and the less common phyllodes tumours (PTs), which have recurrent potential. PTs are classified into benign, borderline or malignant, based on five histopathological criteria, with malignant PTs having the highest metastatic capability. Accurate diagnosis can be challenging due to the subjective assessment of histopathological parameters. Fibroadenomas bear morphological similarities to benign PTs, while borderline and malignant PTs can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from other spindle cell tumours of the breast. From clonality studies to whole-genome sequencing, much research has been conducted to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of fibroepithelial tumours, which, in turn, have allowed leveraging the findings for diagnostic applications, including grading of PTs. The most noteworthy discovery was of recurrent MED12 mutations in both fibroadenomas and PTs. Subsequent studies also uncovered relatively frequent genetic mutations in TERT promoter and RARA A customised panel of 16 most frequently mutated genes in fibroepithelial tissues has been compiled previously and has contributed to resolving a few diagnostic dilemmas. This review will introduce the 16 genes and focus on the top three that are most frequently mutated in fibroepithelial tumours: MED12, TERT, and RARA.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Complexo Mediador/genética , Mutação , Neoplasias Fibroepiteliais/genética , Receptor alfa de Ácido Retinoico/genética , Telomerase/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Neoplasias Fibroepiteliais/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
10.
Ecol Lett ; 23(1): 107-118, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646755

RESUMO

Predators can shape genetic correlations in prey by altering prey perception of risk. We manipulated perceived risk to test whether such non-consumptive effects tightened behavioural trait correlations in wild-caught stickleback from high- compared to low-risk environments due to genetic variation in plasticity. We expected tighter genetic correlations within perceived risk treatments than across them, and tighter genetic correlations in high-risk than in low-risk treatments. We identified genetic variation in plasticity, with genetic correlations between boldness, sociality, and antipredator morphology, as expected, being tighter within treatments than across them, for both of two populations. By contrast, genetic correlations did not tighten with exposure to risk. Tighter phenotypic correlations in wild stickleback may thus arise because predators induce correlational selection on environmental components of these traits, or because predators tighten residual correlations by causing environmental heterogeneity that is controlled in the laboratory. Our study places phenotypic integration firmly into an ecological context.


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha , Animais , Fenótipo , Comportamento Predatório
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815973

RESUMO

The goal of the study was to compare the outcome of immediate single-implant placement in esthetic sites of patients with thick or thin tissue phenotypes. Forty-one patients underwent implant surgery with guided bone regeneration including peri-implant gap and overcontour grafting. A connective tissue graft was added only for patients with a thin tissue phenotype. Twenty-six patients completed the 12-month follow-up examination (thick, n = 14; thin, n = 12). The thick-phenotype group gained 0.01 ± 1.56 mm of midfacial soft tissue height, while the thin-phenotype group lost 0.20 ± 1.14 mm (P = .21). There was no significant difference in buccal plate thickness achieved at time of uncovery, pink and white esthetic scores, radiographic bone levels, and clinical parameters between the two groups. These results suggest that when the suggested treatment protocol is followed, there are no significant differences in the outcomes of immediate implant placement for patients with different soft tissue phenotypes.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários para Um Único Dente , Implantes Dentários , Carga Imediata em Implante Dentário , Implantação Dentária Endo-Óssea , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Maxila , Fenótipo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815984

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of gingival phenotype (GPh) on the clinical outcomes of coronally advanced flap (CAF). In this prospective study, 24 gingival recessions (recession type RT1 class or Miller Classes I and II) in 21 patients were treated with CAF alone. Patients were classified as having thin, medium, thick, or very thick GPh using a color-coded probe. At 6 months, the lowest mean root coverage (mRC; 60.4% ± 28.8%) and complete root coverage (CRC; 25%) were found in patients with thin GPh compared to patients with medium (mRC: 86.4% ± 17.6%; CRC: 60%), thick (mRC: 93.3% ± 14.9%; CRC: 83.3%), and very thick (mRC: 86.7% ± 26.7%; CRC: 80%) GPh. Regression analysis showed a statistically significant difference (P < .05) between thin and thick/very thick GPh in the likelihood of achieving CRC. Higher RES values were observed in patients with thick and very thick GPh (8.2 ± 1.5 and 8.4 ± 1.4, respectively), while thin GPh was related to the lowest RES score (6.3 ± 2.2). CAF performed in patients with thick or very thick GPh resulted in superior clinical and esthetic outcomes than thin and medium GPh. In particular, thin GPh was associated with the lowest mRC, CRC, and root coverage esthetic scores.


Assuntos
Tecido Conjuntivo , Retração Gengival , Seguimentos , Gengiva , Humanos , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Raiz Dentária , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Gene ; 725: 144164, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639430

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy with several clinical features including retinitis pigmentosa, obesity, kidney dysfunction, postaxial polydactyly, behavioral dysfunction and hypogonadism with wide spectrum of additional features. With multiple phenotypes and heterogeneous distribution, it is unlikely that BBS is caused by single gene defect. We have performed clinical and genetic diagnosis of two individuals from an Indian family with classical BBS symptoms. Whole exome sequencing identified homozygous missense mutation in BBS10 gene, hemizygous missense AR and homozygous missense PDE6B mutations in the proband and affected sibling with BBS. Identification of BBS10 mutation along with AR and PDE6B gene mutation will expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum in individuals with BBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/genética , Síndrome de Bardet-Biedl/metabolismo , Chaperoninas/genética , Chaperoninas/metabolismo , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 6/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Retinite Pigmentosa/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Gene ; 728: 144297, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870788

RESUMO

DEAD-box (DDX) genes encode a group of RNA helicases that are highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, and appear to participate in almost every aspect of RNA metabolism. Studies have been extensively done in yeast and human, in insect, beyond the flies, however, the information of these genes is limited. Here, we therefore identified and characterized 32 DDX genes from Locusta migratoria (L. migratoria), a crop pest. Overview of the gene structure and domain composition showed that the gene size varies significantly from one to fifteen exons, and the encoded proteins contain the conserved helicase core with various extensions at their amino and carboxyl termini. Phylogenetic trees informed that these locust DDX family members have orthologs in all insect species examined and can be classified into 30 subfamilies, all of them found counterparts in human, and most in yeast as well. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that these genes are expressed in all stages and tissues examined, overall with higher expression level at second and third-instar nymphs and in the reproductive organs. RNA interference (RNAi) analyses showed that seven genes cause lethal phenotype when silenced, of which five lead to defective midgut and gastric caecum, indicating that these genes are essential for the survival and maintenance of normal digestive organs of locust. These data provide a foundation for further functional analysis of these DDX genes in locust.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Locusta migratoria/genética , Interferência de RNA , Animais , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/antagonistas & inibidores , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Locusta migratoria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Fenótipo , Filogenia
16.
APMIS ; 128(1): 41-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692136

RESUMO

Campylobacteriosis is one of the most frequently reported zoonoses worldwide. The well-documented increase in the ciprofloxacin resistance has increased the importance of rapid detection of the resistance. The incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance was investigated using real-time PCR. Identification of one hundred and fifty-eight strains was performed by PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin was determined by Epsilometer test. Following the confirmation of the efficiencies of singleplex real-time PCR methods using two different probes, a cytosine to thymine point mutation at codon 86 was detected by allelic discrimination. Of the 158 strains, 114 (72.2%) were determined to be resistant to ciprofloxacin. The MIC50 and the MIC90 of ciprofloxacin were found to be 8 and ≥32 mg/L, respectively. By real-time PCR, the presence of the mutation was confirmed in all, but one, resistant strains and the absence of the mutation was demonstrated in all, but one, susceptible strains. The rate of resistance is high among C. jejuni strains and ciprofloxacin should not be used in the treatment of such infections in Turkey. A cytosine to thymine mutation is the most frequently detected mechanism for the resistance. Real-time PCR can be used for the quick screening of the resistance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Mutação Puntual , Alelos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenótipo , Prevalência , Turquia
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1180: 219-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784966

RESUMO

The goal of treatment for depressive disorders is complete remission of depressive symptoms with full recovery of social function and prevention of recurrence. However, a large proportion of patients do not experience symptomatic remission after the initial treatment, with even lower rates of remission in the longer treatment term. The main objective of individualized treatment applied in psychiatry is to improve precision in disease diagnosis, prognosis, treatment choices, and treatment response. Diverse approaches and techniques, such as genomics, epigenomics, other omics, neural circuit, and artificial intelligence are related to precision psychiatry. Using biology and computational psychiatry tools to find potential biomarkers, and based on precision psychiatry, patients considered to belong to the same endophenotype will be possible to receive biomarkers-based treatment and better prognosis. Especially in the choice of intervention, individualized treatment should be considered. In this review, we present the development of precise treatment in depressive disorders and introduce advances in several domains toward precision medicine and individualized treatment. We pay particular attention to biomarkers and the development of new technologies in depressive disorders, which will help disease complete remission and functional recovery, seek better lives for patients suffered with depressive disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/terapia , Medicina de Precisão , Biomarcadores , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Epigenômica , Humanos , Fenótipo , Psiquiatria
18.
Yi Chuan ; 41(12): 1073-1083, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857279

RESUMO

Brachydactyly (BD) is a type of hand/foot malformation caused by the abnormal shortening or missing phalanges and/or metacarpals/metatarsals. BD most often occurs as an isolated trait, but can also occur as part of complex malformation syndromes. According to the patterns of affected digits, isolated BD can be divided into five groups: BDA, BDB, BDC, BDD, and BDE with individual subtypes. As an important molecular disease family, the pathogenic genes and molecular mechanisms of most isolated BD forms and some complicated syndromes are elucidated. Although BDs are highly diversified in phenotypes, at the molecular levels these pathogenic genes mainly affect several important signaling pathways: Hedgehog, NOTCH, WNT and BMP. These pathways form a complex signaling network and play different roles in different stages of the digit and joint development, in which BMP signaling pathway occupies a central position. Based on the current classification of BDs, this review summarizes the latest progress in the pathogenesis of BDs and the signaling pathways involved. The purpose of this review is to explore the molecular mechanisms of digit formation, which will provide references for the clinical diagnosis of BD, and the understanding of molecular mechanism of human bone development.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Braquidactilia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Padronização Corporal/genética , Braquidactilia/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(50): e18268, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852098

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a rare disorder caused by the loss of the distal part of the short arm of chromosome 4, and has various phenotypes depending on the deletion size. Although many articles report on urinary tract malformations or ophthalmologic abnormalities, there are few descriptions of the skeletal anomalies. This is an extremely rare case of cervical dysplasia in WHS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 24-year-old pregnant woman was transferred to our hospital at 21 gestational weeks for intrauterine growth retardation and oligohydramnios and decided to preserve the pregnancy after evaluation. A female was born at full term by normal vaginal delivery, weighing 1791 g. The patient was suspected to have congenital dysplasia of the cervical vertebrae on the routine newborn chest radiograph, and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed nonossification of the C3 and C4 vertebral bodies. DIAGNOSIS: The newborn had the "Greek warrior helmet" face typical of WHS. A deletion was detected in the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 4 (p 16.3) by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. INTERVENTIONS: She was hospitalized for nutritional management and congenital anomaly evaluation for a month before being discharged with rehabilitation and antiepileptic drugs. OUTCOMES: The patient has been readmitted with seizure attacks 5 times to date. At one year of age, she still shows severe head lag and feeding problems. Her last weight was below the 3rd centile. LESSONS: Although cervical dysplasia is a rarely reported morphology in WHS, it may provide artefacts for diagnosing WHS as cervical anomalies, unlike facial anomalies or developmental delays, are seldom found in congenital disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Vértebras Cervicais/patologia , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn/complicações , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cariotipagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Wolf-Hirschhorn/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 47(12): 993-999, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877596

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) can regulate phenotypic transformation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) via SIRT3 affecting glycolytic pathway. Methods: The PASMCs were isolated from Sprague Dawley rats. PASMCs were divided into 3 groups by using 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of the glycolytic pathway: normal control group, PDGF-BB group(30 ng/ml) and PDGF-BB (30 ng/ml)+2-DG (10 mmol/L) group. In lentivirus-mediated overexpression assay, cells were divided into control group, PDGF-BB group(30 ng/ml), PDGF-BB+deacetylase sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) overexpression group and PDGF-BB+empty vector group. The expression levels of phenotype related index such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), calponin, vimentin were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Meanwhile, the expression of α-SMA was detected by cellular immunofluorescence staining. EDU staining was used to detect the proliferation of PASMCs. The expression of SIRT3 was detected by Western blot. The expressions of glucose transporter 1 and aerobic glycolytic enzymes were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot in lentivirus-mediated overexpression assay. Results: (1) PDGF-BB affects PASMCs phenotypic transformation through glycolytic pathway: compared with normal control group, PDGF-BB significantly decreased the expressions of contractile phenotype markers such as α-SMA, SM-MHC, calponin mRNA and protein (all P<0.05), but it increased the expressions of the synthetic phenotype marker vimentin mRNA and protein (both P<0.05). Cellular immunofluorescence assay showed that PDGF-BB significantly decreased the number of α-SMA positive cells, while 2-DG reversed the process. (2) PDGF-BB promoted cell proliferation through glycolytic pathway: the proliferation of PASMCs was significantly higher in PDGF-BB group than in control group (P<0.05), and which could be significantly reduced by 2-DG (P<0.05). (3) PDGF-BB inhibited the expression of SIRT3 protein in PASMCs: the expression of SIRT3 protein in PDGF-BB group was lower than that in control group (P<0.05). (4) PDGF-BB affected glycolytic pathway through SIRT3:compared with the control group, PDGF-BB significantly increased the expression levels of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1), hexokinase 2 (HK2) and 6-phosphfructo-2-kinase 3 (PFKFB3) mRNA (all P<0.05), which was reserved by over-expression of SIRT3. There were no significant difference in mRNA expression levels between PDGF-BB group and PDGF-BB+empty vector group (P>0.05).Compared with the control group, PDGF-BB significantly increased the expression levels of Glut1, HK2 and PFKFB3 protein(all P<0.05), which was reserved by over-expression of SIRT3. There were no significant differences in protein expression levels between PDGF-BB group and PDGF-BB+empty vector group (all P>0.05). Conclusion: PDGF-BB regulates phenotypic transformation of PASMCs via SIRT3 affecting glycolytic pathway.


Assuntos
Becaplermina , Miócitos de Músculo Liso , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Fenótipo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-sis , Artéria Pulmonar , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sirtuínas
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA