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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3775-3778, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018823

RESUMO

By 2020, over 2.2 million people in the United States will be living with an amputated lower limb. The functional impact of amputations presents significant challenges in daily living activities. While significant work has been done to develop smart prosthetics, for the long-term development of effective and robust myoelectric control systems for transtibial amputees, there is still much that needs to be understood regarding how extrinsic muscles of the lower limb are utilized post-amputation. In this study, we examined muscle activity between the intact and residual limbs of three transtibial amputees with the aim of identifying differences in voluntary recruitment patterns during a bilateral motor task. We report that while there is variability across subjects, there are consistencies in the muscle recruitment patterns for the same functional movement between the intact and the residual limb within each subject. These results provide insights for how symmetric activation in residual muscles can be characterized and used to develop myoelectric control strategies for prosthetic devices in transtibial amputees.


Assuntos
Amputados , Membros Artificiais , Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4024-4029, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018882

RESUMO

This paper presents a novel method for tracking gaiting-based (changing contacts, reciprocal, cyclical) withinhand manipulation strategies of a human hand. We present a kinematic model that relies on data collected from 6-DOF magnetic sensors attached to 7 external sites on the hand. The sensors are calibrated by three procedures-sensor-to-fingertip, constrained fingertip workspace limits, and flat hand configuration. Subjects rotated two cubes of different sizes around the 3 object-centric axes, while a synchronized camera recorded the object motion. Hand motions were segmented and then averaged using dynamic time warping (DTW) to yield a representative time-series motion primitive for the given task. The hand movements of two subjects during cube rotation tasks were reconstructed using a 22-degree of freedom (DOF) hand kinematic model. Based on a qualitative evaluation of the joint movements, intrasubject correlations of joint angles were found.


Assuntos
Marcha , Mãos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Movimento
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4233-4238, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018931

RESUMO

Frailty is a prevailing phenomena in older people. It is an age related syndrome that can increase the risk of fall in elderly. The people with age above 65 suffers from various functional decline and cognitive impairments. Such deficiencies are conventionally measured subjectively by geriatrics using questionnaire-based methods and clinical tests. Activities of daily living are also assessed in clinical settings by analysing simple tasks performed by the subject such as sit to stand and walking some distances. The clinical methods used to assess frailty and analyse the activity of daily living are subjective in nature and prone to human error. An objective method is proposed to quantitatively measure frailty using inertial sensor mounted on healthy, frail and nonfrail subjects while performing the sit to stand test (SiSt). An artificial neural networks based algorithm is developed to classify the frailty by extracting a unique set of features from 2D -Centre of Mass (CoM) trajectories derived from SiSt clinical test. The results indicate that the proposed algorithms provides an objective assessment of frailty that can be used by geriatrics in turn to make a more objective judgement of frailty status of older people.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Acidentes por Quedas , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Humanos , Caminhada
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 130-136, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030014

RESUMO

The analysis of literature data was performed on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of injuries of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) of the knee joint. PCL is the largest intra-articular ligament of the knee joint, can withstand the maximum loads compared with other ligaments. It was noted that, in general, in cases of damage to the PCL, it is necessary to use a set of diagnostic methods, and the basic principles for the choice of optimal treatment plan for this patient. It considered the results of the conservative treatment of PCL partial ruptures, and it is indicated that this approach increases the risk of degenerative anatomical structures and functional disorders of the joint. It was noted that it is advisable to conduct surgical treatment to restore the stability of the knee joint and normalize function, while a number of methods for the reconstruction of PCL have been proposed to date. The usage of chondroprotectors for prevention of the secondary osteoarthrosis of the knee joint affected by posterior cruciate ligament rupture was analyzed in the literature data.


Assuntos
Instabilidade Articular , Osteoartrite , Ligamento Cruzado Posterior , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho , Osteoartrite/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Secundária
5.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 2421-2424, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018495

RESUMO

During common surgical tasks related to orthopedic applications, it is necessary to carefully manipulate a mobile C-arm device to achieve the desired position. In this work, we propose the application of learning conflicts analysis to improve the performance of an artificial neural network to compute the inverse kinematics of a C-arm device. Using the forward kinematics equations of a C-arm device (and the respective patient table) a training set for machine learning was generated. However, as an inverse kinematics problem may have multiple solutions, it is likely that training a neural network using forward kinematics data may generate machine learning conflicts. In this sense, we show that it is possible to eliminate those C-arm positions that may represent a learning conflict for the neural network, and thus, improve the accuracy of the model. Finally, we randomly generated a suitable validation set to verify the performance of our proposed model with data different from those used for training.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Ortopedia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Redes Neurais de Computação
6.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3150-3153, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018673

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of changing the application points and directions of the soft actuator band of a wearable hip assist device on muscle force and joint kinematics during gait. Healthy adult participants walked under four conditions with varying band positions of a soft wearable hip assist device. The three-dimensional coordinates of markers and ground reaction force data were measured during gait. Lower limb muscle forces and joint angles were calculated using a musculoskeletal model. Our results showed that the position and running direction of the soft actuator band decreased the forces of the iliopsoas and hamstring muscles.


Assuntos
Marcha , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Caminhada
7.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3232-3235, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018693

RESUMO

Movement control process can be considered to take place on at least two different levels: a high, more cognitive level and a low, sensorimotor level. On a high level processing a motor command is planned accordingly to the desired goal and the sensory afference, mainly proprioception, is used to determine the necessary adjustments in order to minimize any discrepancy between predicted and executed action. On a lower level processing, the proprioceptive feedback later employed in high level regulations, is generated by Ia sensory fibers positioned in muscle main proprioceptors: muscle spindles. By entraining the activity of these spindle fibers through 80Hz vibration of triceps distal tendon, we show the intriguing possibility of inducing kinematics adjustments due to negative feedback corrections, during a lifting task.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial , Remoção , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento , Propriocepção
8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3347-3350, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018721

RESUMO

During human standing, it has been previously observed that information about the position and frequency of visual surround motion improves balance by reducing sway responses to external disturbances. However, experimental limitations only allowed for independent investigation of such parameters while being incapable of providing a fully immersive experience of a real environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of visual information on dynamic body sway in the human upright stance by presenting perturbations through a virtual reality (VR) system. Moreover, we designed a new perturbation signal based on trapezoidal velocity (TrapV) pulses enabling us to simultaneously examine the effects of amplitude and velocity on balance control. The experiments included four different peak-to-peak amplitudes (1-10 degrees), and three velocities (2-10 degree/sec). The body angle, ankle torques and shank angles were measured and analyzed in response to each perturbation. The results reveal that stimuli with higher amplitudes evoked larger responses, while they were initially increased and reached a peak, then decreased by increasing the motion velocity of visual surround.


Assuntos
Realidade Virtual , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Equilíbrio Postural , Posição Ortostática , Visão Ocular
9.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3612-3616, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018784

RESUMO

Impaired gait in Parkinson's disease is marked by slow, arrhythmic stepping, and often includes freezing of gait episodes where alternating stepping halts completely. Wearable inertial sensors offer a way to detect these gait changes and novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems can respond with clinical therapy in a real-time, closed-loop fashion. In this paper, we present two novel closed-loop DBS algorithms, one using gait arrhythmicity and one using a logistic-regression model of freezing of gait detection as control signals. Benchtop validation results demonstrate the feasibility of running these algorithms in conjunction with a closed-loop DBS system by responding to real-time human subject kinematic data and pre-recorded data from leg-worn inertial sensors from a participant with Parkinson's disease. We also present a novel control policy algorithm that changes neurostimulator frequency in response to the kinematic inputs. These results provide a foundation for further development, iteration, and testing in a clinical trial for the first closed-loop DBS algorithms using kinematic signals to therapeutically improve and understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of gait impairment in Parkinson's disease.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Doença de Parkinson , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/terapia , Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/terapia
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3676-3679, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018798

RESUMO

Finger tapping test is an important neuropsychological test to evaluate human motor function. Most recent researches simplified the finger tapping motion as a scissors-like motion, though the rotation axis of the thumb was different from that of the forefinger. In this paper, we proposed a three-dimensional (3-D) finger tapping measurement system to obtain 3-D pattern features in finger tapping test for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The proposed system collected the motion of the thumb and the forefinger by nine-degrees-freedom sensors and calculated 3-D motion of finger tapping by an orientation estimation method and a 3-D finger-tapping kinematic model. We further extracted 3-D pattern features, i.e. motor coordination and relative thumb motion, from 3-D Finger Tapping motion. Moreover, we used the proposed system to collect the finger-tapping motion of 43 PD patients and 30 healthy controls in horizontal tasks and vertical tasks. The results indicated that 3-D pattern features showed a better performance than one-dimensional features in the identification of mild PD patients.Clinical Relevance- These three-dimensional pattern features could be used to evaluate finger tapping motion in a novel way, which could be used to better identify mild Parkinson's disease patients. Furthermore, the results showed that a combination of horizontal tasks and vertical tasks might be a better way to identify mild Parkinson's disease patients.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dedos , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Polegar
11.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4487-4490, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018991

RESUMO

Wearable sensors have been investigated for the purpose of gait analysis, namely gait event detection. Many types of algorithms have been developed specifically using inertial sensor data for detecting gait events. Though much attention has turned toward machine learning algorithms, most of these approaches suffer from large computational requirements and are not yet suitable for real-time applications such as in prostheses or for feedback control. Current rules-based algorithms for real-time use often require fusion of multiple sensor signals to achieve high accuracy, thus increasing complexity and decreasing usability of the instrument. We present our results of a novel, rules-based algorithm using a single accelerometer signal from the foot to reliably detect heel-strike and toe-off events. Using the derivative of the raw accelerometer signal and applying an optimizer and windowing approach, high performance was achieved with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.32% and 94.70% respectively, and a timing error of 6.52 ± 22.37 ms, including trials involving multiple speed transitions. This would enable development of a compact wearable system for robust gait analysis in real-world settings, providing key insights into gait quality with the capability for real-time system control.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Marcha , Acelerometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos ,
12.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4502-4505, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018994

RESUMO

A dynamic and low-profile unloader tibiofemoral knee brace is designed and prototyped by synergizing concepts from the fields of microfluidics and soft robotics. Microfluidics provides strategies for miniaturization and multiplexing while soft robotics afford the tools to create soft fluidic actuators and allow compliant and inherently safe robotic assistance as part of clothing. The unloader knee brace provides dynamic response during the gait cycle, where a three-point leverage torque is provided only during the stance phase to contribute to joint stability when required and enhance comfort and compliance.Clinical Relevance- This novel soft robotic brace has the potential to reduce device abandonment due to aesthetics, user non-compliance and discomfort due to a constant three-point leverage torque during the gait cycle. Also, this air microfluidics enabled soft robotic knee brace could be expanded upon to improve the efficacy of braces in general and augment the effects of physical therapy, rehabilitation and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Joelho , Robótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Braquetes , Humanos , Microfluídica , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4687-4693, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019039

RESUMO

Error feedback is known to improve performance by correcting control signals in response to perturbations. Here we show how adding simple error feedback can also accelerate and robustify autonomous learning in a tendon-driven robot. We have implemented two versions of the General-to-Particular (G2P) autonomous learning algorithm using a tendon-driven leg with two joints and three tendons: one with and one without real-time kinematic feedback. We have performed a rigorous study on the performance of each system, for both simulation and physical implementation cases, over a wide range of tasks. As expected, feedback improved performance in simulation and hardware. However, we see these improvements even in the presence of sensory delays of up to 100 ms and when experiencing substantial contact collisions. Importantly, feedback accelerates learning and enhances G2P's continual refinement of the initial inverse map by providing the system with more relevant data to train on. This allows the system to perform well even after only 60 seconds of initial motor babbling.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Retroalimentação , Tendões
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4694-4699, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019040

RESUMO

Determining how the nervous system controls tendon-driven bodies remains an open question. Stochastic optimal control (SOC) has been proposed as a plausible analogy in the neuroscience community. SOC relies on solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation, which seeks to minimize a desired cost function for a given task with noisy controls. We evaluate and compare three SOC methodologies to produce tapping by a simulated planar 3-joint human index finger: iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (iLQG), Model-Predictive Path Integral Control (MPPI), and Deep Forward-Backward Stochastic Differential Equations (FBSDE). We show that averaged over 128 repeats these methodologies can place the fingertip at the desired final joint angles but-because of kinematic redundancy and the presence of noise-they each have joint trajectories and final postures with different means and variances. iLQG in particular, had the largest kinematic variance and departure from the final desired joint angles. We demonstrate that MPPI and FBSDE have superior performance for such nonlinear, tendon-driven systems with noisy controls.Clinical relevance- The mathematical framework provided by MPPI and FBSDE may be best suited for tendon-driven anthropomorphic robots, exoskeletons, and prostheses for amputees.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tendões , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dedos , Humanos , Distribuição Normal
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4811-4814, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019067

RESUMO

Despite extensive rehabilitation, nearly half of all post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) individuals are unable to perform dynamic tasks at the level they did prior to their injury. This inability can be attributed to unresolved neuromuscular deficits that manifest as altered limb dynamics. While traditional discrete metrics; such as peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and peak knee flexion angle, have been used to successfully differentiate between healthy and pathological running dynamics, recent studies have shown that non-traditional metrics derived from autoregressive (AR) modeling and Smoothed Pseudo Wigner-Ville (SPWV) analysis techniques can also successfully delineate between healthy and pathological populations and could potentially possess greater sensitivity than the traditional metrics. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of classification models generated from traditional and nontraditional metrics collected from healthy controls and post-ACLR individuals during a running protocol. We hypothesized that the non-traditional metric-based classification model would outperform the traditional metric based model. Thirty-one controls and 31 post-ACLR individuals performed a running protocol from which the traditional metrics - peak vGRF, linear vGRF loading rate and peak knee flexion angle - and nontraditional metrics - dynamic vGRF ratio, AR model coefficients, and a SPWV derived low frequency-high frequency ratio - were extracted from vGRF and knee flexion running waveforms. The results indicated that a fine Gaussian SVM classification model derived from the non-traditional metrics had an accuracy of 87%, specificity of 83% and sensitivity of 61% and it outperformed the classification model derived from traditional metrics. These findings indicate that additional, valuable information can be ascertained from non-traditional metrics that evaluate waveform dynamics. Additionally, it suggests that this or similar models can be used to track the restoration of healthy running dynamics in post-ACLR individuals during rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior , Corrida , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4815-4818, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019068

RESUMO

Knee orthoses are designed to reestablish the normal kinematics of the knee joint. However, the data on the effectiveness of them on modifying the internal joint kinematics are scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a method to allow accurate comparison of the knee contact kinematics in osteoarthritic (OA) subjects with and without wearing a valgus knee orthosis using imaging techniques. Biplane x-ray images of a subject (68 yrs., female, 1.70 m, 89 kg, left knee) was recorded during a weight-bearing squat at five positions. The same squat trial was repeated while wearing the orthosis. The 3D models of the knee were reconstructed from the biplane x-rays and the joint kinematics as well as the tibiofemoral contact point locations and bone-to-bone distance were compared at each posture. This could be seen as a proof of concept for the use of contact point locations as a parameter for evaluating the effectiveness of knee orthoses.Clinical Relevance- Joint kinematics derived from the skin markers suffer from low accuracy. The real impact of the knee orthoses on the skeleton takes vigorous techniques, which allows detecting the subtle kinematics changes directly at the joint level.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Joelho , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Aparelhos Ortopédicos , Raios X
17.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4858-4862, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019078

RESUMO

This paper presents an algorithm that makes novel use of distance measurements alongside a constrained Kalman filter to accurately estimate pelvis, thigh, and shank kinematics for both legs during walking and other body movements using only three wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs). The distance measurement formulation also assumes hinge knee joint and constant body segment length, helping produce estimates that are near or in the constraint space for better estimator stability. Simulated experiments have shown that inter-IMU distance measurement is indeed a promising new source of information to improve the pose estimation of inertial motion capture systems under a reduced sensor count configuration. Furthermore, experiments show that performance improved dramatically for dynamic movements even at high noise levels (e.g., σdist = 0.2 m), and that acceptable performance for normal walking was achieved at σdist = 0.1 m. Nevertheless, further validation is recommended using actual distance measurement sensors.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Perna (Membro) , Caminhada
18.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4917-4920, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019091

RESUMO

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major concern in industries and working environments. They cause not only suffering to the employee and decrease in performance, but also high economic losses to the companies and the society. Workers from assembly lines and machine operators are one of the most frequently affected working population. Moreover, one of the main types of MSDs in occupational environments are shoulder injuries. Exoskeletons have been applied and tested in rehabilitation and they are gaining ground in occupational environments as assistive devices to augment human force and minimize loads on muscles and joints. However, more evidence about the effects of several exoskeletons models in assisting different tasks is needed. We measured shoulder muscles activity (AD - anterior deltoid and MD - medial deltoid) of seven automotive workers using the SuitX® upper limb exoskeleton while performing different screwing tasks, at different shoulder levels while handling different tools. We found significant muscle activity reduction for 2 of the 4 proposed tasks, suggesting a task-specificity effectiveness. Therefore, it seems to be a viable option to reduce muscle effort in certain tasks.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Ombro , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Ocupações
19.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4921-4925, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019092

RESUMO

Individuals with neurological impairment, particularly those with cervical level spinal cord injuries (SCI), often have difficulty with daily tasks due to triceps weakness or total loss of function. More demanding tasks, such as sit-skiing, may be rendered impossible due to their extreme strength demands. Design of exoskeletons that address this issue by providing supplemental strength in arm extension is an active field of research but commercial devices are not yet available for use. Most current designs employ electric motors that necessitate the addition of bulky power sources and extraneous wiring, rendering the devices impractical in daily life. The possibility of powering an upper extremity exoskeleton passively has been explored, but to date, none have delivered sufficient function or strength to provide useful assistance for sit-skiing. We seek to rectify this with the design of a passively actuated exoskeletal arm brace capable of operating in two, adjustable-strength modes: one for low level gravity compensation to aid in active range of motion, and the other for more stringent weight bearing activities. The mechanism developed through this paper allows for an affordable, lightweight, modular device that can be adjusted and customized for the needs of each individual patient.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Braço , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular
20.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4951-4954, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019098

RESUMO

In the current research of prosthetic hands, many degrees of freedom have been omitted in order to simplify the design and reduce the weight, such as the abduction degrees of freedom of the four fingers except the thumb, which impairs the range of mobility of the prosthetic hand to some extent. This paper presents TN hand, a 3D printed, tendon-driven prosthetic hand. We use continuum structure as the finger joint. The other four fingers except the middle finger can perform flexion/extension and abduction/adduction movements, which benefits hand mobility. The design and manufacture of the fingers were elaborated and the finger stiffness was tested through experiment. Then the ability of manipulating daily objects of TN hand was verified based on hand taxonomy. In addition, there is enough range of mobility for the TN hand to perform column chords due to the ability to abduct fingers.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Mãos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dedos , Tendões
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