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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 125002, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770731

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the metabolic alteration of Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), a representative bacterium among methanotrophs, in microbial gas-phase reactions. For comparative metabolome analysis, a bioreactor was designed to be capable of supplying gaseous substrates and liquid nutrients continuously. Methane degradation by M. capsulatus (Bath) was more efficient in a gas-phase reaction operated in the bioreactor than in an aqueous phase reaction operated in a batch reactor. Metabolome analysis revealed remarkable alterations in the metabolism of cells in the gas-phase reaction; in particular, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, some amino acids, xanthine, and hypoxanthine were accumulated, whereas 2,6-diaminopimelate was decreased. Based on the results of metabolome analysis, cells in the gas-phase reaction seemed to alter their metabolism to reduce the excess ATP and NADH generated upon increased availability of methane and oxygen. Our findings will facilitate the development of efficient processes for methane-based bioproduction with low energy consumption.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Methylococcus capsulatus , Reatores Biológicos , Metano , Methylococcus capsulatus/metabolismo , Oxigênio , Oxigenases/metabolismo
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1738, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741937

RESUMO

Strictly controlled inducible gene expression is crucial when engineering biological systems where even tiny amounts of a protein have a large impact on function or host cell viability. In these cases, leaky protein production must be avoided, but without affecting the achievable range of expression. Here, we demonstrate how the central dogma offers a simple solution to this challenge. By simultaneously regulating transcription and translation, we show how basal expression of an inducible system can be reduced, with little impact on the maximum expression rate. Using this approach, we create several stringent expression systems displaying >1000-fold change in their output after induction and show how multi-level regulation can suppress transcriptional noise and create digital-like switches between 'on' and 'off' states. These tools will aid those working with toxic genes or requiring precise regulation and propagation of cellular signals, plus illustrate the value of more diverse regulatory designs for synthetic biology.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas Genéticas , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Escherichia coli/genética , Humanos , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Biologia Sintética , Transcrição Genética
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2251: 19-37, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481229

RESUMO

Phosphoinositides (PIs), the seven phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol, are recognized as key molecules in the control of multiple molecular events in eukaryotic cells. Within cells, PIs are low-abundance lipids making their detection and quantification challenging. While many methods that allow radiolabeling and quantification of PIs in the context of cultured cells are available, these are not useful in the context of in vivo animal models where cell and developmental processes are best studied. In this chapter, we describe radionuclide-free, mass spectrometry-based methods for the detection and quantification of PIs from Drosophila tissues in vivo. The use of these methods should facilitate the discovery of novel modes by which PIs regulate cellular and developmental processes in complex metazoans.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/química , Fosfatidilinositóis/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Drosophila/metabolismo , Inositol/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/análise , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/análise , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/química , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2251: 39-53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481230

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the role and biology of the different phosphoinositides has greatly expanded over recent years. Reversible phosphorylation by specific kinases and phosphatases of positions 3, 4, and 5 on the inositol ring is a highly dynamic process playing a critical role in the regulation of the spatiotemporal recruitment and binding of effector proteins. The specific phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases are key players in the control of many cellular functions, including proliferation, survival, intracellular trafficking, or cytoskeleton reorganization. Several of these enzymes are mutated in human diseases. The impact of the fatty acid composition of phosphoinositides in their function is much less understood. There is an important molecular diversity in the fatty acid side chains of PI. While stearic and arachidonic fatty acids are the major acyl species in PIP, PIP2, and PIP3, other fatty acid combinations are also found. The role of these different molecular species is still unknown, but it is important to quantify these different molecules and their potential changes during cell stimulation to better characterize this emerging field. Here, we describe a sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method that we used for the first time to profile the changes in phosphoinositide molecular species (summed fatty acyl chain profiles) in human and mouse platelets under resting conditions and following stimulation. This method can be applied to other hematopoietic primary cells isolated from human or experimental animal models.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , 1-Fosfatidilinositol 4-Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Inositol/química , Camundongos , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/análise , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/análise , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/química , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/química , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111607, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396127

RESUMO

The present study aimed to explore the effect of synthetic and naturally occurring chelators, EDTA and citric acid (CA), respectively, on changes in physiological and biochemical factors including cell death, level of mercury ions accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total phenol and total flavonoids, anthocyanins and DPPH free radical scavenging activity, in the leaves of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) plants exposed to mercury stress. In addition, polyphenolic compounds profile was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The okras were planted in completely controlled hydroponic conditions (Hoagland solution). After they reached the four-leaf stage, they were treated simultaneously with different concentrations of HgCl2, EDTA and CA chelators, and their combination for one month. At the stage of maturity, the physiological and biochemical factors of the plant leaves were measured. The results showed that with the application of higher concentration of HgCl2, cell death, level of shoot and root Hg2+ content and root MDA, total phenols and total flavonoids, anthocyanin content, and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were increased. Also, the results indicated that okra plants have high biomass and a high rate of Hg mobilization and accumulation in the shoot versus the roots (TF=2.152 for the plants treated with 60 mg L-1 Hg2+), hence, can be considered as Hg hyperaccumulator plant for the phytoremediation of Hg-polluted soils and waters. In the Hg-treated plants changes in their phenolic profile were induced, and the increase of chlorogenic acid, rosmaric acid, apigenin, quercetin and rutin content was observed. The application of EDTA and CA improved the toxic effects of Hg2+, by modifying phenolic compounds, chelating Hg2+, and its proper compartmentation, while EDTA outperformed CA in this respect. Based on the results, it could be concluded that due to the high biomass and growth of okra in the presence of Hg2+, this plant is suitable for phytoremediation of soil and water contaminated with mercury. In addition, EDTA and CA can play a significant role in removing this toxic metal through transferring it from the culture medium to the plant.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Fenóis/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Abelmoschus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Fenômenos Bioquímicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Fenóis/análise , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
7.
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2251: 1-17, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481228

RESUMO

Phosphoinositide (PPI) lipids are a crucial class of low-abundance signaling molecules that regulate many processes within cells. Methods that enable simultaneous detection of all PPI lipid species provide a wholistic snapshot of the PPI profile of cells, which is critical for probing PPI biology. Here we describe a method for the simultaneous measurement of cellular PPI levels by metabolically labeling yeast or mammalian cells with myo-3H-inositol, extracting radiolabeled glycerophosphoinositides, and separating lipid species on an anion exchange column via HPLC.


Assuntos
Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/química , Fosfatidilinositóis/análise , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Humanos , Inositol/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/análise , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/química , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/análise , Fosfatos de Fosfatidilinositol/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositóis/química , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Radioisótopos/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
9.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol ; 22(4): 245-265, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483696

RESUMO

How the shape of embryos and organs emerges during development is a fundamental question that has fascinated scientists for centuries. Tissue dynamics arise from a small set of cell behaviours, including shape changes, cell contact remodelling, cell migration, cell division and cell extrusion. These behaviours require control over cell mechanics, namely active stresses associated with protrusive, contractile and adhesive forces, and hydrostatic pressure, as well as material properties of cells that dictate how cells respond to active stresses. In this Review, we address how cell mechanics and the associated cell behaviours are robustly organized in space and time during tissue morphogenesis. We first outline how not only gene expression and the resulting biochemical cues, but also mechanics and geometry act as sources of morphogenetic information to ultimately define the time and length scales of the cell behaviours driving morphogenesis. Next, we present two idealized modes of how this information flows - how it is read out and translated into a biological effect - during morphogenesis. The first, akin to a programme, follows deterministic rules and is hierarchical. The second follows the principles of self-organization, which rests on statistical rules characterizing the system's composition and configuration, local interactions and feedback. We discuss the contribution of these two modes to the mechanisms of four very general classes of tissue deformation, namely tissue folding and invagination, tissue flow and extension, tissue hollowing and, finally, tissue branching. Overall, we suggest a conceptual framework for understanding morphogenetic information that encapsulates genetics and biochemistry as well as mechanics and geometry as information modules, and the interplay of deterministic and self-organized mechanisms of their deployment, thereby diverging considerably from the traditional notion that shape is fully encoded and determined by genes.


Assuntos
Morfogênese/genética , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos/genética , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos
10.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2247: 125-143, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301115

RESUMO

Interactions between protein complexes and DNA are central regulators of the cell life. They control the activation and inactivation of a large set of nuclear processes including transcription, replication, recombination, repair, and chromosome structures. In the literature, protein-DNA interactions are characterized by highly complementary approaches including large-scale studies and analyses in cells. Biophysical approaches with purified materials help to evaluate if these interactions are direct or not. They provide quantitative information on the strength and specificity of the interactions between proteins or protein complexes and their DNA substrates. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and microscale thermophoresis (MST) are widely used and are complementary methods to characterize nucleo-protein complexes and quantitatively measure protein-DNA interactions. We present here protocols to analyze the interactions between a DNA repair complex, Ku70-Ku80 (Ku) (154 kDa), and DNA substrates. ITC is a label-free method performed with both partners in solution. It serves to determine the dissociation constant (Kd), the enthalpy (ΔH), and the stoichiometry N of an interaction. MST is used to measure the Kd between the protein or the DNA labeled with a fluorescent probe. We report the data obtained on Ku-DNA interactions with ITC and MST and discuss advantages and drawbacks of both the methods.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , DNA/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Calorimetria , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
12.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2190: 115-138, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804363

RESUMO

Combining artificial neural networks with evolutive/bioinspired approaches is a technique that can solve a variety of issues regarding the topology determination and training for neural networks or for process optimization. In this chapter, the main mechanisms used in neuroevolution are discussed and some biochemical separation examples are given to underline the efficiency of these tools. For the current case studies (reactive extraction of folic acid and pertraction of vitamin C), the bioinspired metaheuristic included in the neuroevolutive procedures is represented by Differential Evolution, an algorithm that has shown a great potential to solve a variety of problems from multiple domains.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos/fisiologia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Animais , Humanos
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142181, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254869

RESUMO

Antibiotic resistance containment strategies at wastewater treatment plants need to be supported by a firm knowledge on the behavior of resistant bacteria within a diverse microbial population in the presence of trace amount of antibiotics. In this study via investigating the population dynamics of resistant/sensitive Staphylococcus aureus co-cultures in several model wastewater matrix systems, valuable insights were obtained into the effect of trace amount of antibiotics (piperacillin and erythromycin) on bacteria, and into the suitability of advanced oxidation treatment (electron beam irradiation) as a remediation measure. It appears that environmentally relevant concentration levels of the antibiotic present in a wastewater matrix leads to a shift in the population in favor of the sensitive subtype, presumably on account of triggering protective biochemical processes in the resistant mutant, which confer no selective advantage since the sensitive strain remains unaffected in this concentration range. The impact of these conditions on the population dynamics can be diminished by using advanced oxidation treatment, considering that degradation products from the wastewater matrix constituents (such as humic acid) might also have an effect. Furthermore, it became also apparent that the presence of trace amount of antibiotics while triggers biological processes in the resistant subtype, concomitantly makes the bacteria more sensitive towards the attack of free radicals during advanced oxidation treatment. The behavior of resistant bacteria under environmental conditions at the cellular and population level clearly merits more attention.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Oxirredução , Piperacilina
14.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2198: 227-254, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822036

RESUMO

Computational analysis of digital images provides a robust and unbiased way to compare and investigate the amount (pixel intensity) and spatial distribution of DNA modifications. The DNA modifications in the cells are visualized by fluorescence labeling and the images are captured by confocal microscopy. The key advantage of the confocal over conventional microscope is that it images only a thin optical section around the focal plane of the microscope therefore it can precisely record signals only from the focal plane inside the nucleus. In this chapter, we will describe in detail several analysis methods to visualize and quantify the DNA modification signals including how to investigate codistribution of such signals when using dual labeling.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , DNA/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos
15.
Elife ; 92020 12 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372660

RESUMO

Studies in different animal model systems have revealed the impact of odors on immune cells; however, any understanding on why and how odors control cellular immunity remained unclear. We find that Drosophila employ an olfactory-immune cross-talk to tune a specific cell type, the lamellocytes, from hematopoietic-progenitor cells. We show that neuronally released GABA derived upon olfactory stimulation is utilized by blood-progenitor cells as a metabolite and through its catabolism, these cells stabilize Sima/HIFα protein. Sima capacitates blood-progenitor cells with the ability to initiate lamellocyte differentiation. This systemic axis becomes relevant for larvae dwelling in wasp-infested environments where chances of infection are high. By co-opting the olfactory route, the preconditioned animals elevate their systemic GABA levels leading to the upregulation of blood-progenitor cell Sima expression. This elevates their immune-potential and primes them to respond rapidly when infected with parasitic wasps. The present work highlights the importance of the olfaction in immunity and shows how odor detection during animal development is utilized to establish a long-range axis in the control of blood-progenitor competency and immune-priming.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos/imunologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Hemócitos/citologia , Animais , Drosophila/imunologia , Drosophila/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/imunologia , Drosophila melanogaster/imunologia , Hematopoese/imunologia , Larva/metabolismo , Vespas/imunologia
16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5316-5319, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019184

RESUMO

Identifying differentially expressed subpathways connected to the emergence of a disease that can be considered as candidates for pharmacological intervention, with minimal off-target effects, is a daunting task. In this direction, we present a bilevel subpathway analysis method to identify differentially expressed subpathways that are connected with an experimental condition, while taking into account potential crosstalks between subpathways which arise due to their connectivity in a combined multi-pathway network. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated on a hematopoietic stem cell aging dataset, with findings corroborated using recent literature.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Consenso , Expressão Gênica
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5496, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33127896

RESUMO

Mechanical anisotropy is an essential property for many biomolecules to assume their structures, functions and applications, however, the mechanisms for their direction-dependent mechanical responses remain elusive. Herein, by using a single-molecule nanopore sensing technique, we explore the mechanisms of directional mechanical stability of the xrRNA1 RNA from ZIKA virus (ZIKV), which forms a complex ring-like architecture. We reveal extreme mechanical anisotropy in ZIKV xrRNA1 which highly depends on Mg2+ and the key tertiary interactions. The absence of Mg2+ and disruption of the key tertiary interactions strongly affect the structural integrity and attenuate mechanical anisotropy. The significance of ring structures in RNA mechanical anisotropy is further supported by steered molecular dynamics simulations in combination with force distribution analysis. We anticipate the ring structures can be used as key elements to build RNA-based nanostructures with controllable mechanical anisotropy for biomaterial and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Exorribonucleases/genética , Exorribonucleases/metabolismo , RNA Viral/química , Zika virus/genética , Anisotropia , Humanos , Magnésio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Dobramento de RNA , RNA Viral/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/virologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4880, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978375

RESUMO

Through advanced mechanistic modeling and the generation of large high-quality datasets, machine learning is becoming an integral part of understanding and engineering living systems. Here we show that mechanistic and machine learning models can be combined to enable accurate genotype-to-phenotype predictions. We use a genome-scale model to pinpoint engineering targets, efficient library construction of metabolic pathway designs, and high-throughput biosensor-enabled screening for training diverse machine learning algorithms. From a single data-generation cycle, this enables successful forward engineering of complex aromatic amino acid metabolism in yeast, with the best machine learning-guided design recommendations improving tryptophan titer and productivity by up to 74 and 43%, respectively, compared to the best designs used for algorithm training. Thus, this study highlights the power of combining mechanistic and machine learning models to effectively direct metabolic engineering efforts.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Genótipo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4865, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978396

RESUMO

The metabolic state of an organism instructs gene expression modalities, leading to changes in complex life history traits, such as longevity. Dietary restriction (DR), which positively affects health and life span across species, leads to metabolic reprogramming that enhances utilisation of fatty acids for energy generation. One direct consequence of this metabolic shift is the upregulation of cytoprotective (CyTP) genes categorized in the Gene Ontology (GO) term of "Xenobiotic Detoxification Program" (XDP). How an organism senses metabolic changes during nutritional stress to alter gene expression programs is less known. Here, using a genetic model of DR, we show that the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially linoleic acid (LA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), are increased following DR and these PUFAs are able to activate the CyTP genes. This activation of CyTP genes is mediated by the conserved p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK) pathway. Consequently, genes of the PUFA biosynthesis and p38-MAPK pathway are required for multiple paradigms of DR-mediated longevity, suggesting conservation of mechanism. Thus, our study shows that PUFAs and p38-MAPK pathway function downstream of DR to help communicate the metabolic state of an organism to regulate expression of CyTP genes, ensuring extended life span.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/genética , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Longevidade , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23557-23564, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883882

RESUMO

Cells build fatty acids with biocatalytic assembly lines in which a subset of enzymes often exhibit overlapping activities (e.g., two enzymes catalyze one or more identical reactions). Although the discrete enzymes that make up fatty acid pathways are well characterized, the importance of catalytic overlap between them is poorly understood. We developed a detailed kinetic model of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) of Escherichia coli and paired that model with a fully reconstituted in vitro system to examine the capabilities afforded by functional redundancy in fatty acid synthesis. The model captures-and helps explain-the effects of experimental perturbations to FAS systems and provides a powerful tool for guiding experimental investigations of fatty acid assembly. Compositional analyses carried out in silico and in vitro indicate that FASs with multiple partially redundant enzymes enable tighter (i.e., more independent and/or broader range) control of distinct biochemical objectives-the total production, unsaturated fraction, and average length of fatty acids-than FASs with only a single multifunctional version of each enzyme (i.e., one enzyme with the catalytic capabilities of two partially redundant enzymes). Maximal production of unsaturated fatty acids, for example, requires a second dehydratase that is not essential for their synthesis. This work provides a kinetic, control-theoretic rationale for the inclusion of partially redundant enzymes in fatty acid pathways and supplies a valuable framework for carrying out detailed studies of FAS kinetics.


Assuntos
Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Bioquímicos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Cinética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia
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