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1.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066886

RESUMO

Gravity constituted the only constant environmental parameter, during the evolutionary period of living matter on Earth. However, whether gravity has affected the evolution of species, and its impact is still ongoing. The topic has not been investigated in depth, as this would require frequent and long-term experimentations in space or an environment of altered gravity. In addition, each organism should be studied throughout numerous generations to determine the profound biological changes in evolution. Here, we review the significant abnormalities presented in the cardiovascular, immune, vestibular and musculoskeletal systems, due to altered gravity conditions. We also review the impact that gravity played in the anatomy of snakes and amphibians, during their evolution. Overall, it appears that gravity does not only curve the space-time continuum but the biological continuum, as well.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Cardiovasculares , Hipergravidade , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/fisiologia , Ausência de Peso , Animais , Humanos , Voo Espacial
2.
Rev. venez. oncol ; 33(1): 2-10, mar. 2021. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147430

RESUMO

Presentar nuestra experiencia de 18 años en el tratamiento con radioterapia y evaluar cifras de control tumoral local en pacientes con diagnóstico de tumor de células gigantes tenosinovial difuso sinovitis villonodular pigmentada difusa. 33 pacientes, tratados durante el período 2000-2018. En 19 (57,6 %) se practicó sinovectomía parcial, 10 (30,3 %) fueron tratados con artroplastia y sinovectomía, 4 (12,2 %) con sinovectomía total. 32 pacientes recibieron radioterapia posoperatoria, 1 paciente preoperatoria. Técnica más empleada fue planificación 2D 51,5 % seguida de conformada con planificación 3D (RTC3D) 48,5 %. La dosis total promedio administrada 44 Gy (rango 10,5 - 50). Tiempo promedio de tratamiento radiante 28 días (8-35). Tiempo de seguimiento entre 0,7 - 240,8 meses, mediana 12 meses, promedio 52,1 meses. 26 pacientes (79 %) presentaron mejoría de la sintomatología inicial y 6 (18 %) refirieron estabilidad de los síntomas. La respuesta clínica al tratamiento en relación al tiempo de seguimiento, 12 pacientes (36,4 %) estaban asintomáticos, 10 con un seguimiento mayor a 60 meses; 14 (42,4 %) refieren respuesta clínica satisfactoria, (2 con un seguimiento mayor a 60 meses) 6 pacientes presentaban enfermedad estable, para un control local del 97 %. El 87,9 % presentaron dermatitis grado I, 1 desarrolló dermatitis grado II, 3 no presentaron efectos adversos. La radioterapia es una modalidad de tratamiento muy efectiva como adyuvante a la sinovectomía, observándose altas tasas de control local de la enfermedad con una baja morbilidad(AU)


To report our eighteen-year experience with radiation therapy in the treatment of diffuse tenosinovial giant cell tumor / diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis and to assess local control of the disease. A review of 33 patients with treated with radiation therapy during the period 2000-2018 was done. 19 (57.6 %) partial synovectomy was performed, 10 (30.3 %) underwent arthroplasty plus synovectomy, 4 (12.2 %) total synovectomy. 32 patients received radiotherapy postoperative and 1 pre-operative. Most common technique employed was conventional (2D) in 51.5 % and 3D conformal (3DCRT) in 48.5 %. The average total dose was 44 Gy (range 10.5-50), with a mean treatment time of 28 days (8-35). Follow-up time ranged from 0.7- 240.8 months, median time and mean time of 12 and 52.1 months respectively After RT 26 (79 %) of the patients obtained improvement of the initial symptoms and 6 (18 %) were stable. 12 patients (36.4 %) were asymptomatic with follow-up time longer than 36 months (10 of 12 had follow-up time >60 months), 14 (42.4 %) had significant clinical improvement (2 of 14 had follow-up time >60 months), and 6 had stable disease, local control of 97 %. Complications were few, acute skin toxicity was grade I in 29 (87.9%) and grade II in 1 patient. There was no significant chronic toxicity. Radiation therapy is an effective adjuvant treatment modality after synovectomy in patients with high local control rates and low morbidity(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Trissomia/genética , Tumor de Células Gigantes de Bainha Tendinosa/etiologia , Tumor de Células Gigantes de Bainha Tendinosa/radioterapia , Artroscopia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Metástase Neoplásica
3.
J Sports Sci ; 39(11): 1236-1276, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588689

RESUMO

The present review aims at providing researchers and practitioners with a holistic overview of technology-based methods for the assessment of fine and gross motor skill in children. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar, including studies published up to March 2020, that assessed fine and/or gross motor skills, and utilized technological assessment of varying study design. A total of 739 papers were initially retrieved, and after title/abstract screening, removal of duplicates, and full-text screening, 47 were included. Results suggest that motor skills can be quantitatively estimated using objective methods based on a wearable- and/or laboratory-based technology, for typically developing (TD) and non-TD children. Fine motor skill assessment solutions were; force transducers, instrumented tablets and pens, surface electromyography, and optoelectronic systems. Gross motor skill assessment solutions were; inertial measurements units, optoelectronic systems, baropodometric mats, and force platforms. This review provides a guide in identifying and evaluating the plethora of available technological solutions to motor skill assessment. Although promising, there is still a need for large-scale studies to validate these approaches in terms of accuracy, repeatability, and usability, where interdisciplinary collaborations between researchers and practitioners and transparent reporting practices should be advocated.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Força da Mão , Saúde Holística , Humanos , Magnetometria/instrumentação , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Transdutores de Pressão , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Redação
4.
J Sport Health Sci ; 10(1): 99-106, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-legged pedaling is of interest to elite cyclists and clinicians. However, muscular usage in 1-legged vs. 2-legged pedaling is not fully understood. Thus, the study was aimed to examine changes in leg muscle activation patterns between 2-legged and 1-legged pedaling. METHODS: Fifteen healthy young recreational cyclists performed both 1-legged and 2-legged pedaling trials at about 30 Watt per leg. Surface electromyography electrodes were placed on 10 major muscles of the left leg. Linear envelope electromyography data were integrated to quantify muscle activities for each crank cycle quadrant to evaluate muscle activation changes. RESULTS: Overall, the prescribed constant power requirements led to reduced downstroke crank torque and extension-related muscle activities (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and soleus) in 1-legged pedaling. Flexion-related muscle activities (biceps femoris long head, semitendinosus, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, tensor fasciae latae, and tibialis anterior) in the upstroke phase increased to compensate for the absence of contralateral leg crank torque. During the upstroke, simultaneous increases were seen in the hamstrings and uni-articular knee extensors, and in the ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. At the top of the crank cycle, greater hip flexor activity stabilized the pelvis. CONCLUSION: The observed changes in muscle activities are due to a variety of changes in mechanical aspects of the pedaling motion when pedaling with only 1 leg, including altered crank torque patterns without the contralateral leg, reduced pelvis stability, and increased knee and ankle stiffness during the upstroke.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Análise de Dados , Coleta de Dados , Eletrodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Músculos Isquiossurais/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Torque
7.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 174(1): 35-48, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cuncaicha, a rockshelter site in the southern Peruvian Andes, has yielded archaeological evidence for human occupation at high elevation (4,480 masl) during the Terminal Pleistocene (12,500-11,200 cal BP), Early Holocene (9,500-9,000 cal BP), and later periods. One of the excavated human burials (Feature 15-06), corresponding to a middle-aged female dated to ~8,500 cal BP, exhibits skeletal osteoarthritic lesions previously proposed to reflect habitual loading and specialized crafting labor. Three small tools found in association with this burial are hypothesized to be associated with precise manual dexterity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we tested this functional hypothesis through the application of a novel multivariate methodology for the three-dimensional analysis of muscle attachment surfaces (entheses). This original approach has been recently validated on both lifelong-documented anthropological samples as well as experimental studies in nonhuman laboratory samples. Additionally, we analyzed the three-dimensional entheseal shape and resulting moment arms for muscle opponens pollicis. RESULTS: Results show that Cuncaicha individual 15-06 shows a distinctive entheseal pattern associated with habitual precision grasping via thumb-index finger coordination, which is shared exclusively with documented long-term precision workers from recent historical collections. The separate geometric morphometric analysis revealed that the individual's opponens pollicis enthesis presents a highly projecting morphology, which was found to strongly correlate with long joint moment arms (a fundamental component of force-producing capacity), closely resembling the form of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers from diverse geo-chronological contexts of Eurasia and North Africa. DISCUSSION: Overall, our findings provide the first biocultural evidence to confirm that the lifestyle of some of the earliest Andean inhabitants relied on habitual and forceful precision grasping tasks.


Assuntos
Ossos da Mão/anatomia & histologia , Ossos da Mão/fisiologia , Índios Sul-Americanos/história , Tecnologia/história , Altitude , Antropologia Física , Feminino , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Dedos/fisiologia , História Antiga , Atividades Humanas/história , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Peru
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243225, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296423

RESUMO

Diacutaneous fibrolysis is a noninvasive technique that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders such as shoulder pain, lateral epicondylalgia, patellofemoral pain syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome. However, while diacutaneous fibrolysis is applied to soft tissue, its effects on muscular properties are unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diacutaneous fibrolysis on muscle properties as measured by tensiomyography and myotonometry in asymptomatic subjects. An analytical descriptive study was performed. A single session of diacutaneous fibrolysis on the gastrocnemius muscle was applied to one limb (treated limb group) and the other limb was the control (control limb group). Subjects were assessed with tensiomyography and myotonometry before treatment (T0), after treatment (T1) and 30 minutes later (T2). The primary outcomes were tensiomyography and myotonometry variables. The treated limb group showed a statistically significant increase (p<0.05) in tensiomyography parameters. A decrease in rigidity and increase in relaxation was also observed on myotonometry at T1, with some of the effects being maintained at T2. Rigidity and relaxation at T1 were statistically significant between groups (p<0.05). A single session of diacutaneous fibrolysis to the gastrocnemius muscle of asymptomatic subjects produced immediate changes in muscle properties. These changes were maintained 30 minutes after the application of the technique.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Miografia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(12): e1008493, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370252

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal simulations are used in many different applications, ranging from the design of wearable robots that interact with humans to the analysis of patients with impaired movement. Here, we introduce OpenSim Moco, a software toolkit for optimizing the motion and control of musculoskeletal models built in the OpenSim modeling and simulation package. OpenSim Moco uses the direct collocation method, which is often faster and can handle more diverse problems than other methods for musculoskeletal simulation. Moco frees researchers from implementing direct collocation themselves-which typically requires extensive technical expertise-and allows them to focus on their scientific questions. The software can handle a wide range of problems that interest biomechanists, including motion tracking, motion prediction, parameter optimization, model fitting, electromyography-driven simulation, and device design. Moco is the first musculoskeletal direct collocation tool to handle kinematic constraints, which enable modeling of kinematic loops (e.g., cycling models) and complex anatomy (e.g., patellar motion). To show the abilities of Moco, we first solved for muscle activity that produced an observed walking motion while minimizing squared muscle excitations and knee joint loading. Next, we predicted how muscle weakness may cause deviations from a normal walking motion. Lastly, we predicted a squat-to-stand motion and optimized the stiffness of an assistive device placed at the knee. We designed Moco to be easy to use, customizable, and extensible, thereby accelerating the use of simulations to understand the movement of humans and other animals.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Movimento/fisiologia , Software
10.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(12): e1008350, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326417

RESUMO

Computational models of the musculoskeletal system are scientific tools used to study human movement, quantify the effects of injury and disease, plan surgical interventions, or control realistic high-dimensional articulated prosthetic limbs. If the models are sufficiently accurate, they may embed complex relationships within the sensorimotor system. These potential benefits are limited by the challenge of implementing fast and accurate musculoskeletal computations. A typical hand muscle spans over 3 degrees of freedom (DOF), wrapping over complex geometrical constraints that change its moment arms and lead to complex posture-dependent variation in torque generation. Here, we report a method to accurately and efficiently calculate musculotendon length and moment arms across all physiological postures of the forearm muscles that actuate the hand and wrist. Then, we use this model to test the hypothesis that the functional similarities of muscle actions are embedded in muscle structure. The posture dependent muscle geometry, moment arms and lengths of modeled muscles were captured using autogenerating polynomials that expanded their optimal selection of terms using information measurements. The iterative process approximated 33 musculotendon actuators, each spanning up to 6 DOFs in an 18 DOF model of the human arm and hand, defined over the full physiological range of motion. Using these polynomials, the entire forearm anatomy could be computed in <10 µs, which is far better than what is required for real-time performance, and with low errors in moment arms (below 5%) and lengths (below 0.4%). Moreover, we demonstrate that the number of elements in these autogenerating polynomials does not increase exponentially with increasing muscle complexity; complexity increases linearly instead. Dimensionality reduction using the polynomial terms alone resulted in clusters comprised of muscles with similar functions, indicating the high accuracy of approximating models. We propose that this novel method of describing musculoskeletal biomechanics might further improve the applications of detailed and scalable models to describe human movement.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Antebraço/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
11.
J Dance Med Sci ; 24(4): 175-182, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33218371

RESUMO

Training load has been identified as a risk factor for musculoskeletal injury in sport, but little is known about the effects of training load in dance. The purpose of this study was to describe adolescent dancers' internal training load (ITL) and compare objective and subjective measures of ITL using heart rate (HR) training impulse methods and session Rating of Perceived Exertion (sRPE), respectively. Fifteen female elite adolescent ballet dancers at a vocational dance school volunteered to participate in the study. Internal training load data using HR and sRPE were collected over 9 days of multiple technique classes at the midpoint of the dancers' training year. Heart rate data were quantified using Edwards' training impulse (ETRIMP) and Banister's training impulse (BTRIMP), and sRPE was estimated from the modified Borg 0 to 10 scale and class duration. Descriptive statistics (median [M], and interquartile range [IQR]) were determined in arbitrary units (AU), and were as follows for all classes combined: ETRIMP: M = 134 AU (IQR = 79 to 244 AU); BTRIMP: M = 67 AU (IQR = 38 to 109); sRPE: M = 407 AU (IQR = 287 to 836 AU). The association and agreement between objective and subjective ITL measures in ballet and pointe class was assessed using Spearman correlations (rs) and adjusted Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA), respectively, with alpha set at 0.05. A significant moderate positive correlation was found between ETRIMP and BTRIMP in pointe class (rρ = 0.8000, p = 0.0031). The mean difference (LOA) between ETRIMP and BTRIMP was 121 AU (33 to 210 AU) in ballet and 43 AU (-3 to 88 AU) in pointe. It is concluded that some, but not all, measures of ITL in elite adolescent ballet dancers are comparable. Additional research is needed to examine the utilization of ITL measures for evaluating dance-related injury risk, as well as the application of ITL to inform the development of effective injury prevention strategies for this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Dança/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237916

RESUMO

This systematic review evaluated the literature pertaining to the effect of shoes on lower limb venous status in asymptomatic populations during gait or exercise. The review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. The PubMed-NCBI, EBSCO Host, Cochrane Library and Science Direct databases were searched (March 2019) for words around two concepts: shoes and venous parameters. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) the manuscript had to be published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal and the study had to be observational or experimental and (2) the study had to suggest the analysis of many types of shoes or orthotics on venous parameters before, during and/or after exercise. Out of 366 articles, 60 duplications were identified, 306 articles were analyzed, and 13 articles met the eligibility criteria after screening and were included. This review including approximately 211 participants. The methodological rigor of these studies was evaluated with the modified Downs and Black quality index. Nine studies investigated the effect of shoes on blood flow parameters, two on venous pressure and two on lower limb circumferences with exercise. Evidence was found that unstable shoes or shoes with similar technology, sandals, athletic or soft shoes, and customized foot orthotics elicited more improvement in venous variables than high-heeled shoes, firm shoes, ankle joint immobilization and barefoot condition. These venous changes are probably related to the efficiency of muscle pumps in the lower limbs, which in turn seem to be dependent on shoe features associated with changes in the kinetics, kinematics and muscle activity variables in lower limbs during gait and exercise.


Assuntos
Órtoses do Pé/efeitos adversos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Sistema Musculoesquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Sapatos/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia
13.
Hum Mov Sci ; 74: 102690, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132194

RESUMO

There are tremendous opportunities to advance science, clinical care, sports performance, and societal health if we are able to develop tools for monitoring musculoskeletal loading (e.g., forces on bones or muscles) outside the lab. While wearable sensors enable non-invasive monitoring of human movement in applied situations, current commercial wearables do not estimate tissue-level loading on structures inside the body. Here we explore the feasibility of using wearable sensors to estimate tibial bone force during running. First, we used lab-based data and musculoskeletal modeling to estimate tibial force for ten participants running across a range of speeds and slopes. Next, we converted lab-based data to signals feasibly measured with wearables (inertial measurement units on the foot and shank, and pressure-sensing insoles) and used these data to develop two multi-sensor algorithms for estimating peak tibial force: one physics-based and one machine learning. Additionally, to reflect current running wearables that utilize running impact metrics to infer musculoskeletal loading or injury risk, we estimated tibial force using a commonly measured impact metric, the ground reaction force vertical average loading rate (VALR). Using VALR to estimate peak tibial force resulted in a mean absolute percent error of 9.9%, which was no more accurate than a theoretical step counter that assumed the same peak force for every running stride. Our physics-based algorithm reduced error to 5.2%, and our machine learning algorithm reduced error to 2.6%. Further, to gain insights into how force estimation accuracy relates to overuse injury risk, we computed bone damage expected due to a given loading cycle. We found that modest errors in tibial force translated into large errors in bone damage estimates. For example, a 9.9% error in tibial force using VALR translated into 104% error in estimated bone damage. Encouragingly, the physics-based and machine learning algorithms reduced damage errors to 41% and 18%, respectively. This study highlights the exciting potential to combine wearables, musculoskeletal biomechanics and machine learning to develop more accurate tools for monitoring musculoskeletal loading in applied situations.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Corrida/lesões , Corrida/fisiologia , Tíbia/lesões , Tíbia/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Adulto , Algoritmos , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Pé/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Sapatos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1007-1010, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018155

RESUMO

Muscle activation during sleep is an important biomarker in the diagnosis of several sleep disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Muscle activity is typically assessed manually based on the EMG channels from polysomnography recordings. Ear-EEG provides a mobile and comfortable alternative for sleep assessment. In this study, ear-EEG was used to automatically detect muscle activities during sleep. The study was based on a dataset comprising four full night recordings from 20 healthy subjects with concurrent polysomnography and ear-EEG. A binary label, active or relax, extracted from the chin EMG was assigned to selected 30 s epoch of the sleep recordings in order to train a classifier to predict muscle activation. We found that the ear-EEG based classifier detected muscle activity with an accuracy of 88% and a Cohen's kappa value of 0.71 relative to the labels derived from the chin EMG channels. The analysis also showed a significant difference in the distribution of muscle activity between REM and non-REM sleep.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Fases do Sono , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Polissonografia , Sono
15.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 3823-3826, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018834

RESUMO

the purpose of targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery is to provide more electromyography information for prosthetic control by reconstructing the deconstructed structure between the distal nerve and the stump muscle. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of denervated muscles or proximal nerve stump after peripheral nerve surgery can effectively promote nerve regeneration and muscle function recovery. This pilot divided SD adult male rats into normal control group, denervation group, TMR group, and FES group according to whether they received TMR surgery and whether they received FES after surgery. The results showed that low-frequency electrical stimulation treatment could effectively promote transplanted nerve regeneration and significantly enhances motor function of target muscles.Clinical Relevance-This experiment successfully established TMR rat models, and explored the recovery of injured neuromuscular function by using electrodes implanted intramuscularly and analyzing myoelectric signals, and the use of low-frequency electrical stimulation treatment had a positive effect on the regeneration of the transplanted nerve.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica , Masculino , Regeneração Nervosa , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Ratos
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17655, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077752

RESUMO

Trajectory optimization with musculoskeletal models can be used to reconstruct measured movements and to predict changes in movements in response to environmental changes. It enables an exhaustive analysis of joint angles, joint moments, ground reaction forces, and muscle forces, among others. However, its application is still limited to simplified problems in two dimensional space or straight motions. The simulation of movements with directional changes, e.g. curved running, requires detailed three dimensional models which lead to a high-dimensional solution space. We extended a full-body three dimensional musculoskeletal model to be specialized for running with directional changes. Model dynamics were implemented implicitly and trajectory optimization problems were solved with direct collocation to enable efficient computation. Standing, straight running, and curved running were simulated starting from a random initial guess to confirm the capabilities of our model and approach: efficacy, tracking and predictive power. Altogether the simulations required 1 h 17 min and corresponded well to the reference data. The prediction of curved running using straight running as tracking data revealed the necessity of avoiding interpenetration of body segments. In summary, the proposed formulation is able to efficiently predict a new motion task while preserving dynamic consistency. Hence, labor-intensive and thus costly experimental studies could be replaced by simulations for movement analysis and virtual product design.


Assuntos
Corrida/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Modelos Biológicos , Movimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Sistema Musculoesquelético/anatomia & histologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4536, 2020 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913189

RESUMO

Natural musculoskeletal systems have been widely recognized as an advanced robotic model for designing robust yet flexible microbots. However, the development of artificial musculoskeletal systems at micro-nanoscale currently remains a big challenge, since it requires precise assembly of two or more materials of distinct properties into complex 3D micro/nanostructures. In this study, we report femtosecond laser programmed artificial musculoskeletal systems for prototyping 3D microbots, using relatively stiff SU-8 as the skeleton and pH-responsive protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) as the smart muscle. To realize the programmable integration of the two materials into a 3D configuration, a successive on-chip two-photon polymerization (TPP) strategy that enables structuring two photosensitive materials sequentially within a predesigned configuration was proposed. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate a pH-responsive spider microbot and a 3D smart micro-gripper that enables controllable grabbing and releasing. Our strategy provides a universal protocol for directly printing 3D microbots composed of multiple materials.


Assuntos
Biomimética/métodos , Compostos de Epóxi/efeitos da radiação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Polímeros/efeitos da radiação , Robótica/métodos , Soroalbumina Bovina/efeitos da radiação , Biomimética/instrumentação , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/efeitos da radiação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lasers , Polimerização/efeitos da radiação , Polímeros/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Robótica/instrumentação , Soroalbumina Bovina/química
18.
Work ; 66(4): 751-753, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925136

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the shutdown of much of the world's economic and social operations. Given shutdown of exercise facilities, there has been a sharp uptick in a sedentary lifestyle. As people have lost their normal daily activity patterns, it is reasonable to assume that musculoskeletal pain-related syndromes will consequently begin to increase. In addition, there has been a rise in social network, television, and online home-based workouts. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, it is unclear whether previous recommendations for physical activities will remain sufficient, given cessation of normal physical activities from day-to-day life. We raise a variety of questions in dealing with the potential fallout of the COVID-19 shutdown from a musculoskeletal standpoint.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/fisiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Sedentário , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Terapia por Exercício/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Dor Musculoesquelética/fisiopatologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/reabilitação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Quarentena/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 54(3): 173-180, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196733

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto de un cambio organizativo en la gestión del proceso musculoesquelético en nuestra Área de Gestión Sanitaria (AGS) estudiando los cambios en la capacidad de resolución de estos procesos mediante la derivación a la especialidad útil. DISEÑO: Estudio descriptivo prospectivo para evaluar las tendencias de las derivaciones de atención primaria (PAP) y atención hospitalaria (PAE) con procesos musculoesqueléticos en el periodo 2012-2018. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se incluye a toda la población de referencia de nuestra AGS derivada a alguna de las 3 especialidades hospitalarias que atienden procesos musculoesqueléticos, sin determinación del tamaño muestral. Variables estudiadas: PAP, PAE, servicio de procedencia y de destino. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el programa SPSS; se presenta la evaluación de frecuencias absolutas. RESULTADOS: Las derivaciones totales realizadas desde atención primaria han pasado de 25.575 en 2012 a 24.871 en 2018. Las derivaciones PAE han pasado de 17.207 en 2012 a 9.803 en 2018. De las derivaciones PAP, el de mayor impacto ha sido el Servicio de Rehabilitación, que ha pasado de recibir el 8,2% de PAP en 2012 al 47% en 2018. De las derivaciones PAE por especialidad, la mayor reducción ha sido la del Servicio de Traumatología, que pasó de recibir 10.587 PAE en 2012 a 3.911 en 2018. CONCLUSIONES: El rediseño organizativo de la atención al proceso musculoesquelético ha conseguido mejorar la resolución de los procesos musculoesqueléticos. En este cambio organizativo, el Servicio de Rehabilitación ha asumido el liderazgo desde el punto de vista asistencial y de gestión del proceso musculoesquelético, lo que ha colaborado en la mejora de la resolución de estos procesos


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an organisational change in the musculoskeletal referral pathway in our health management area (HMA) by identifying changes in the ability to improve healthcare outcomes by facilitating referral to the most suitable specialty. DESIGN: This prospective descriptive study aimed to evaluate referral trends from primary care services (PCS) and hospital care (PHS) to musculoskeletal services from 2012 to 2018. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included all patients who were referred to any of the 3 musculoskeletal services from our HMA catchment area, without specifying sample size. The variables studied were PCS, PHS, service of origin and destination. We used the SPSS programme for the statistical analysis and obtained absolute frequency data. RESULTS: The total number of referrals from PCS increased from 25,575 in 2012 to 24,871 in 2018. PHS referrals decreased from 17,207 in 2012 to 9,803 in 2018. With regards to PCS referrals, the service most increasing the number of referrals to the musculoskeletal team was the Rehabilitation Service, from 8.2% in 2012 to 47% in 2018. Regarding PHSs referrals by specialty, the service that most reduced the number of referrals to the musculoskeletal team was the Traumatology Service, from 10,587 in 2012 to 3,911 in 2018. CONCLUSIONS: The redesign of the musculoskeletal referral pathway improved healthcare outcomes by improving the quality of the referral process. In this organisational change, the Rehabilitation Service took the leadership from the point of view of healthcare and management of the musculoskeletal process, collaborating in the improvement of the healthcare outcomes of these processes


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/reabilitação , Centros de Reabilitação/organização & administração , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Organizacionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Melhoria de Qualidade/tendências , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(8): e2013463, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804215

RESUMO

Importance: Peak bone strength, which occurs in early adulthood, is an important marker of the future risk of osteoporosis. It is therefore important to identify modifiable early life factors that are associated with the attainment of peak hip strength. Objective: To investigate the association of time spent in moderate to vigorous-intensity and light-intensity physical activity throughout adolescence with peak hip strength in adulthood. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children is a prospective birth cohort study that initially recruited all pregnant women residing within the catchment area of 3 health authorities in southwest England who had an expected delivery date between April 1, 1991, and December 31, 1992. In total, 15 454 eligible pregnant women were enrolled, and 15 589 infants were delivered. Of those, 14 901 infants were alive at age 1 year. The present analysis examined 2569 healthy offspring who had valid physical activity measurements obtained during a clinical assessment for at least 1 age (12, 14, 16, and/or 25 years), with up to 4 repeated accelerometer assessments performed (1 per age-associated clinical visit). Data were analyzed from June 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Trajectories of accelerometer-assessed time spent in moderate to vigorous-intensity and light-intensity physical activity at ages 12, 14, 16, and 25 years (measured in minutes per day) were identified using latent trajectory modeling. Moderate to vigorous-intensity and light-intensity physical activity were determined using established thresholds of acceleration counts per minute. Main Outcomes and Measures: Femur neck bone mineral density (BMD; measured in g/cm2) at age 25 years assessed by dual-energy radiography absorptiometry scans of the hip. Results: A total of 2569 participants (1588 female participants [62%]) were included in the analysis. Male participants spent more time in moderate to vigorous-intensity activity at each age and had greater adult femur neck BMD than female participants. For each sex, 3 moderate to vigorous-intensity trajectory subgroups and 3 light-intensity trajectory subgroups were identified. With regard to the moderate to vigorous-intensity trajectories, most male participants (85%) were in the low adolescent subgroup, with only 6% and 9% in the high early-adolescent and high mid-adolescent subgroups, respectively. Moderate to vigorous-intensity trajectories in female participants were divided into low adolescent-low adult (73%), low adolescent-high adult (8%), and high adolescent (19%) subgroups. Light-intensity physical activity trajectories were classified into low nonlinear, moderate decreasing, and high decreasing subgroups for both sexes. Femur neck BMD in male participants was greater in the high early-adolescent subgroup (0.38 g/cm2; 95% CI, 0.11-0.66 g/cm2) and the high mid-adolescent subgroup (0.33 g/cm2; 95% CI, 0.07-0.60 g/cm2) compared with the low adolescent (reference) subgroup. Femur neck BMD in female participants was greater in the high adolescent subgroup (0.28 g/cm2; 95% CI, 0.15-0.41 g/cm2) but not in the low adolescent-high adult subgroup (-0.12 g/cm2; 95% CI, -0.44 to 0.20 g/cm2) compared with the low adolescent-low adult (reference) subgroup. A sensitivity analysis using a negative-outcome control variable to explore unmeasured confounding supported these findings. The light-intensity trajectories were not associated with femur neck BMD; for example, differences in femur neck BMD between the high decreasing and low nonlinear subgroups were 0.16 g/cm2 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.40 g/cm2) in male participants and 0.20 g/cm2 (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.44 g/cm2) in female participants. Conclusions and Relevance: Supporting high-intensity physical activity throughout early life may help to maximize peak hip strength and prevent osteoporosis in later life. Replication of our findings in independent studies will be important.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Articulação do Quadril/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Estatísticos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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