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1.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468527

RESUMO

A ninety days nutritional trial was directed to explore the effects of dietary chromium on body composition, gut enzyme activity and physiological status of Cirrhinus mrigala by using G & NG corn. Six experimental diets were prepared by using different levels of chromium chloride hexahydrate (0, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg, each with G & NG corn). For this experimental trial, 480 fingerlings, irrespective of sex were distributed in six aquariums each with replicate. Results revealed that gelatinized corn along with increasing level of Cr2Cl3.6H2O have a positive impact upon body composition of fish. Hematology was positively correlated with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation in gelatinized corn. Amylase gut enzyme also showed significant (P<0.05) increase in group fed with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplemented diet (G corn). However, corn with chromium chloride hexahydrate supplementation did not revealed any significant impact on gut protease enzyme activity. From these results it can be concluded that both chromium chloride hexahydrate and gelatinized corn in fish feed are very beneficial to improve body composition, enzymes activity and physiological health status of fish.


Assuntos
Cromo , Cyprinidae , Carboidratos da Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Composição Corporal , Dieta
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10688-10699, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472353

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient; however, potential health impacts of high dietary levels of added soluble, highly bioavailable P salts especially are a concern. P sources with lower bioavailability are considered safer. Yet, speciation of different P sources to assess diets' risk to health is challenging. This investigation tested the value of in vitro water extraction and digestion assays to predict in vivo P apparent bioavailability/digestibility in feline diets. Thirty wet (n = 18) and dry (n = 12) format experimental and commercial cat foods were analyzed for nutrient content. Triplicate samples were subjected to in vitro water extraction, single-phase acidic (gastric; G) digestion, and dual-phase gastric and small intestinal (G-SI) digestion assays. Soluble and insoluble P were determined in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. A subset of the diets (seven wet, nine dry diets) was fed to healthy, adult cats (n = 7-24) to determine in vivo apparent P digestibility. Information on the soluble P salt sources and their contribution to total dietary P was available for some diets. Associations between data from the different in vitro assays and in vivo digestibility trials and the influence of different diet parameters were obtained using Pearson correlation and linear regression modeling. The % soluble P obtained from G-SI digestion assay correlated well with in vivo apparent P digestibility for wet (Pearson coefficient 0.926, p = 0.003), but not for dry diets (Pearson coefficient -0.074, p = 0.849). In contrast, the % soluble P determined by water extraction correlated well with the % soluble P salt contribution to total P for dry (Pearson coefficient 0.901, p < 0.001), but not for wet diets (Pearson coefficient -0.407, p = 0.365). Thus, 20 min water extraction can be used to predict soluble P salt content in dry diets; however, differing Ca:P ratios and water solubility of the P sources may affect the outcome and false-positive results can occur. The G-SI digestion assay employed can also be used to predict in vivo P digestibility. However, again, diet format, Ca:P ratios in diets, and possibly other factors can impact the results. Thus, data from in vitro assays to assess P sources and bioavailability need to be interpreted with care.


Assuntos
Digestão , Fósforo na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Fósforo
4.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 454, 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536113

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of including palm kernel cake (PKC) in high-concentrate diets for feedlot goat kids on nutrient intake, digestibility, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, and performance. Thirty-two castrated crossbred Boer × mixed breed goat kids with an average age of 4 months and an initial body weight of 19.65 ± 3.00 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The diets included one of four levels (0, 12, 24, and 36%) of PKC on a total dry matter basis. The PKC inclusion in the diets promoted quadratic effects in the nutrient intakes (P ≤ 0.05). The digestibility of ether extract increased (P = 0.010), whereas the digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates decreased (P = 0.017) with the inclusion of PKC. Palm kernel cake inclusion promoted a quadratic effect on the time spent per episode feeding and decreased the times spent idling and ruminated bolus per day (P ≤ 0.05). The ingested and retained nitrogen decreased with the inclusion of PKC (P ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of PKC in the diets had quadratic effects in the cholesterol concentrations, albumin (A), globulin (G), A:G ratio, and gamma-glutamyltransferase enzyme activity (P ≤ 0.05). The PKC inclusion promoted a quadratic increase in total weight gain (P = 0.026), with the highest value achieved at the inclusion level of 11.68%. The inclusion of up to 12% PKC in high-concentrate diets increases the intake and growth performance without compromising the digestibility of nutrients and feed efficiency.


Assuntos
Digestão , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Nitrogênio
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101362, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358957

RESUMO

Growth performance, organ weight, ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA), jejunal histomorphometry, tibia ash, apparent retention (AR) of components and caloric efficiency were investigated in broiler chicken strains differing in growth rate fed diets with multienzyme supplement (MES). The strains differed in estimated time to reach 2.1 kg BW: 37, 43, 47, and 50 d and were designated C, F, J, and N, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet was formulated for 2-phase program (starter and grower) and fed without or with MES containing phytase, protease and fiber-degrading enzymes. A total of 640-day-old chicks (42.3 + 0.01 g/bird) were housed in cages (5 cockerels and 5 pullets/cage) and allocated to give 8 replicates/ strain and diet combination. Equal amount of feed was fed based on observed ad-libitum intake of C strain in the starter (d 0-14) and grower (d 15-28). Body weight was monitored, grab excreta samples taken and at completion of allocated feed one bird per cage necropsied for samples. With exception of P, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and ceca digesta acetic acid, there was no (P > 0.05) interaction between strain and MES on examined responses. Strains differed (P < 0.01) on growth, FCR, gizzard weight, tibia ash, breast weight, ceca digesta concentration of lactic, propionic, and isobutyric acid and caloric efficiency. The final body weight (BW) was 1,344, 1,134, 959, and 916 g/bird for C, F, J, and N, respectively. Corresponding caloric efficiency was 4,930, 5,807, 6,680 and 7,199 kcal/kg BW gain, respectively. Birds fed MES had higher BW gain (P < 0.05) in grower phase, larger gizzard, higher AR of CP, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and Ca than non-MES birds. In conclusion, growth rate influenced organ attributes, nutrient, and caloric utilization. Enzyme supplementation improved growth in grower phase and nutrient utilization independent of strain, suggesting that effects of feed enzymes are not influenced by inherent growth rate.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Nutrientes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Soja , Zea mays
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 430, 2021 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363100

RESUMO

This research trial is aimed to study the nutritional qualities and significance of feeding spent marigold flower meal (SMFM) in goats. SMFM and diet containing iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixture with different levels of spent marigold flower meal (0-30%) were studied for in vitro degradation. Depending upon the in vitro results, concentrate mixture containing 15% level of SMFM was selected for in vivo trial. In vivo studies were conducted for a period of 60 days, and 12 local, non-descript, adult male goats (10-14 months age; 31.09 ± 2.91 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to two groups and were fed on ad libitum wheat straw with either conventional (control) or SMFM containing concentrate mixture (treatment). Results of the study showed that there was no variation in body weight of the goats between periods and between groups. DM and OM intake along with their digestibility were similar among the two groups. The digestibility of all other nutrients was comparable between the two groups. Nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance were positive in both the groups without any significant disparity. Moreover, experimental goats did not differ in biochemical parameters, without any significant difference between periods and dietary treatments except AST level which was significantly higher (P > 0.05) in treatment group. So, this study successfully demonstrates that SMFM could be incorporated in the concentrate mixture, up to 15% without any discernable difference in the performance of goats.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cabras , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Flores , Masculino
7.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343290

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to (1) determine net energy (NE) values of soybean meal (SBM), Napus canola meal (NCM), Juncea canola meal (JCM), field pea, and wheat millrun (WM) using indirect calorimetry, and (2) compare the determined NE values with the calculated NE values of the same feedstuffs based on a prediction equation. In experiment 1, six ileal-cannulated barrows (31 kg) were fed five diets in 5 × 6 Youden square to give six replicates per diet. Diets were cornstarch-based diets containing SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, or WM. The SBM was included as a reference. In experiment 2, six ileal-cannulated barrows (70 kg) were fed a N-free diet for determining energy digestibility and NE values of test feedstuffs fed in experiment 1 by difference method. The NE values of test feedstuffs were also calculated from the digestible energy (DE) values and analyzed macronutrient content of the test feedstuffs. On dry matter (DM) basis, SBM, NCM, JCM, field pea, and WM contained 51%, 41%, 42%, 28%, and 18% crude protein; 1.52%, 2.95%, 2.36%, 1.33%, and 3.12% ether extract; 2.93%, 0.14%, 1.44%, 36.7%, and 28.7% starch; and 5.30%, 21.0%, 13.4%, 9.49%, and 16.1% acid detergent fiber, respectively. The determined NE value for SBM (2.29 Mcal/kg) did not differ from that of NCM (1.72 Mcal/kg DM) or JCM (2.14 Mcal/kg DM). The NCM and JCM did not differ in NE value. Also, the determined NE value did not differ between field pea (2.00 Mcal/kg) and WM (2.55 Mcal/kg). The calculated NE values for SBM (2.18 Mcal/kg DM), NCM (1.73 Mcal/kg DM), and JCM (1.86 Mcal/kg DM) did not differ from the corresponding determined NE values of the same feedstuffs. However, the calculated NE value for field pea (2.51 Mcal/kg DM) was greater (P = 0.004) than the determined NE value of field pea, whereas the calculated NE value for WM (2.27 Mcal/kg DM) tended to be lower (P = 0.054) than the determined NE value of WM. In conclusion, the NE value for SBM and canola meals can be predicted based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs. However, the NE value for field pea and WM may not be predicted precisely based on the DE value and the macronutrient composition of the same feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Digestão , Triticum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Refeições , Ervilhas , Soja , Suínos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371820

RESUMO

Morphological changes in neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which are synapses formed between α-motor neurons and skeletal muscle fibers, are considered to be important in age-related motor dysfunction. We have previously shown that the intake of dietary milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) combined with exercise attenuates age-related NMJ alterations in the early phase of aging. However, it is unclear whether the effect of MFGM with exercise on age-related NMJ alterations persists into old age, and whether intervention from old age is still effective when age-related changes in NMJs have already occurred. In this study, 6- or 18-month-old mice were treated with a 1% MFGM diet and daily running wheel exercise until 23 or 24 months of age, respectively. MFGM treatment with exercise was effective in suppressing the progression of age-related NMJ alterations in old age, and even after age-related changes in NMJs had already occurred. Moreover, the effect of MFGM intake with exercise was not restricted to NMJs but extended to the structure and function of peripheral nerves. This study demonstrates that MFGM intake with exercise may be a novel approach for improving motor function in the elderly by suppressing age-related NMJ alterations.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicoproteínas/administração & dosagem , Junção Neuromuscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gotículas Lipídicas , Camundongos , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinapses/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13618, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34409709

RESUMO

The first secretion, 24-h post parturition of the mammary glands of sows, known as colostrum, is high in protein and low in lactose and fat. As a consequence of an insufficient ingestion of colostrum, more than 50% of piglets fail to reach weaning and die. The composition and some functions of colostrum have been previously reported. For example, colostrum carbohydrates consist of mainly lactose. Lipids in the colostrum are mostly triacylglycerols, but <1% is fatty acids, which may act as homeostasis regulators. Similarly, proteins are found mostly as casein and whey, the latter being ≥80% immunoglobulins. Colostrum-derived immunoglobulins and bioactive proteins such as azurocidin help the immune system of the piglet fend off infections. In addition, leukocytes and exosomes are other minor but nonetheless equally crucial bioactive components in the porcine colostrum. Modern pig farming has achieved increases in pig productivity and litter size, but this has been accomplished in detriment of the health and the survival rate of piglets. Therefore, porcine colostrum is now even more important in pig farming. In the present review, we discuss the current knowledge on the composition and physiological functions of the porcine colostrum and briefly propose future research directions.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Caseínas/análise , Colostro/imunologia , Colostro/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Lactose/análise , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/análise , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Colostro/citologia , Colostro/fisiologia , Exossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/análise , Lactente , Leucócitos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Parto , Desmame , Soro do Leite
10.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13623, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414634

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of including low-fat dried distillers grains (DDG) on young Nellore bulls performance, nutritional parameters, and nitrogen metabolism. Thirty-five Nellore cattle were randomly divided into four diets: without dried distillers grains (D0) or with the inclusion of DDG at 150 g/kg (D150), 300 g/kg (D300), or 450 g/kg (D450). The evaluation period lasted 126 days, and three periods of collection of feces and urine were carried out. Final body weight (P = 0.099) and average daily gain (P = 0.097) tended to decrease linearly; the digestibility of dry matter (P < 0.001), organic matter (P < 0.001), ether extract (P < 0.001) and nonfiber carbohydrates (P < 0.001), and intakes of total digestible nutrients (TDN, P < 0.001) decreased linearly. The increase in crude protein intake (P < 0.001) did not result in an increase in the amount of nitrogen retained (P = 0.540). We concluded that the inclusion of low-fat DDG in finishing diets up to the level of 450 g/kg tends to reduce animal performance and the intake of TDN.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/veterinária , Grão Comestível , Animais , Peso Corporal , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101312, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340122

RESUMO

ß-mannan is a nonstarch polysaccharide found in hulled and dehulled soybeans that can survive drying-toasting phase of processing soybeans and have antinutritive effects in poultry. ß-mannanase is an active enzyme (endohydrolase) that can hydrolyze ß-mannan to reduce its antinutritional effects. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ß-mannanase supplementation in low energy/protein diets on egg production, egg quality, and apparent ileal digestibility of the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and amino acids in 21-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn hens (Hy-Line W-36). A total of 192 hens (8 replicates of 6 hens per treatment) for a production study (Exp. 1) and a total of 64 hens (8 replicates of 2 hens per treatment) for a digestibility study (Exp. 2) were randomly allocated to 4 experimental treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four dietary treatments were control (CS) based on corn and 44% CP soybean meal (ME: 2,850 kcal/kg CP: 18.5%) and CS-low energy/protein (CSL) (ME: 2,750 kcal/kg CP: 17.5%), with or without 0.05% ß-mannanase enzyme. Hens were fed the experimental diets for 14 d for the digestibility study and 8 wk for the production study. Hen-day egg production (HDEP), weekly feed intake, FCR, and biweekly egg quality parameters were measured. Significant interaction on feed intake (P < 0.01) was observed between energy/protein and enzyme. At 3, 6 and 8 wk, the feed intake and FCR of CSL with enzyme were significantly lower than those of CSL without enzymes. The main effects indicated that birds fed diets without inclusion of ß-mannanase had higher feed intake than those fed diets with enzymes at 4, 7, and 8 wk. The inclusion of ß-mannanase significantly increased (P < 0.05) HDEP at 2, 3, 5, and 7 wk. However, there was no significant effect of nutrient density or enzyme supplementation on egg quality parameters. The digestibility study showed that the inclusion of ß-mannanase significantly improved (P < 0.01) apparent ileal digestibility of lysine, histidine and tryptophan in the diet. The results of these experiments indicate that supplementation of ß-mannanase could reduce the feed intake and FCR and improve HDEP and apparent ileal digestibility of key amino acids in corn/soy diets fed to laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , beta-Manosidase , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Óvulo
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101359, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340123

RESUMO

Comminuting the ingested material in the stomach and fermentation in the large intestine of ostriches, allows an efficient utilization of fiber-rich feedstuffs. The entire gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of 61 adult ostriches (both sexes; av. age of 15 mo), which had previously been fed a ration consisting of either haylage and pelleted compound feed (HP) or haylage, corn silage and pelleted compound feed (HCP), was the subject of the present investigations. The weight of the different compartments of the GIT was measured. The digesta was differentiated into inorganic and organic substances. Wet sieving was used to separate the collected stones (>19 mm), small stones (1 mm), and sand (<1 mm). Ostriches fed the HCP diet had a significantly higher empty gizzard weight (3,435 g) compared to those fed the HP diet (3,064 g). Additionally, the weight of the empty cecum (left and right parts) was increased (P < 0.05) for ostriches fed the HCP diet (107 and 122 g, respectively) in comparison to those fed the HP diet (93.4 and 108 g, respectively). The weight of pure digesta in the gizzard and left or right cecum for ostriches fed the HP diet was higher (1,640, 448, and 471 g, respectively) compared to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). The contents of crude ash and HCl-insoluble ash in the digesta of all the GIT compartments were higher for ostriches fed the HP diet in comparison to those fed the HCP diet (P < 0.05). Independent of the type of the offered diet, the large stones occurred only in the proventriculus and gizzard (2.71 and 4.76%, respectively), while sand dominated in the distal colon (30.3%). The high proportion of stones in the gizzard form the "mechanical equipment" which enables the animals to grind basic feed such as corn silage or haylage, and these are almost completely excreted as sand. Continuous stone replacement for ostriches is necessary but the amount mostly depends on the type of feed.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Struthioniformes , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Estômago
13.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444918

RESUMO

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) designates the boundary area between cognitive function in natural aging and dementia, and this is viewed as a therapeutic window to prevent the occurrence of dementia. The current study investigated the neurocognitive effects of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation in young female Wistar rats that received intracerebroventricular injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic MCI. Neuromolecular changes within the dentate gyrus were analyzed following behavioral testing. We also investigated both neurocognitive and neuromolecular changes following Cr supplementation in the absence of LPS in young female Wistar rats to further investigate mechanisms. Interestingly, based on trial 2 of Barnes maze test, Cr supplementation ameliorated spatial learning and memory deficit induced by LPS, shown by decreased latency time and errors to reach the escape box (p < 0.0001, n = 12). Cr supplementation also attenuated recognition memory deficit induced by LPS, shown by increased amount of time taken to explore the new object (p = 0.002, n = 12) during novel object recognition testing. Within the dentate gyrus, Cr supplementation in LPS injected rats upregulated mTORC1 signaling (p = 0.026 for mTOR phosphorylation, p = 0.002 for p70S6K phosphorylation, n = 8) as well as the synapsin (p = 0.008) and PSD-95 synaptic proteins (p = 0.015), in comparisons to LPS injected rats. However, Cr supplementation failed to further enhance spatial memory and recognition memory in the absence of LPS. In conclusion, Cr ameliorates LPS-induced cognitive impairment in a rodent MCI model. Mechanistically, these phenotypic effects may, in part, be mitigated via an upregulation of mTORC1 signaling, and an enhancement in synaptogenesis in the dentate gyrus. While preliminary, these findings may inform future research investigating neurocognitive effects of Cr for MCI patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Creatina/administração & dosagem , Giro Denteado/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Lipopolissacarídeos , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383906

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to determine if titanium dioxide (TiO2) dosed through an automated head chamber system (GreenFeed; C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD, USA) is an acceptable method to measure fecal output. The GreenFeed used on this experiment had a 2-hopper bait dispensing system, where hopper 1 contained alfalfa pellets marked with 1% titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hopper 2 contained unmarked alfalfa pellets. Eleven heifers (BW = 394 ± 18.7 kg) grazing a common pasture were stratified by BW and then randomized to either 1) dosed with TiO2-marked pellets by hand feeding (HFD; n = 6) or 2) dosed with TiO2-marked pellets by the GreenFeed (GFFD; n = 5) for 19 d. During the morning (0800), all heifers were offered a pelleted, high-CP supplement at 0.25% of BW in individual feeding stanchions. The HFD heifers also received 32 g of TiO2-marked pellets at morning feeding, whereas the GFFD heifers received 32 g of unmarked pellets. The GFFD heifers received a single aliquot (32 ± 1.6 g; mean ± SD) of marked pellets at their first visit to the GreenFeed each day with all subsequent 32-g aliquots providing unmarked pellets; HFD heifers received only unmarked pellets. Starting on d 15, fecal samples were collected via rectal grab at feeding and every 12 h for 5 d. A two-one sided t-test method was used to determine agreement and it was determined that the fecal output estimates by HFD and GFFD methods were similar (P = 0.04). There was a difference (P < 0.01; Bartlett's test for homogenous variances) in variability between the dosing methods for HFD and GFFD (SD = 0.1 and 0.7, respectively). This difference in fecal output variability may have been due to variability of dosing times-of-day for the GFFD heifers (0615 ± 6.2 h) relative to the constant dosing time-of-day for HFD and constant 0800 and 2000 sampling times-of-day for all animals. This research has highlighted the potential for dosing cattle with an external marker through a GreenFeed configured with two (or more) feed hoppers because estimated fecal output means were similar; however, consideration of the increased variability of the fecal output estimates is needed for future experimental designs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Medicago sativa
15.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 428, 2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351506

RESUMO

This study was intended to determine the comparative effects of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOALE) and ascorbic acid supplementation in the drinking water on growth performance, haemato-biochemical profile, antioxidant status and immune response of broiler chickens under tropical climate. All 135-day-old broiler chicks were divided into 3 different treatment groups. T0 served as control, T1 were fed basal ration with MOALE (90 ml/L drinking water), and T2 offered basal ration with ascorbic acid (15 mg/L drinking water) for 35-day experiment. All the standard managemental practices were followed during the experimental period. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of MOALE was calculated with reference to different ascorbic acid concentration as standard. The antioxidant activity percentage of MOALE (90 µl) was 93.89%, and ascorbic acid (15 µg) was 98.76%, respectively, which was nearer to cent percent. Therefore, 90 ml MOALE and 15 mg ascorbic acid per litre drinking water, respectively, were used for supplementation in broiler chicken. The growth performance and feed efficiency were better in MOALE group followed by ascorbic acid supplemented birds without affecting the metabolism of nutrients. However, 10.71% better FCR was noted in MOALE supplemented group followed by ascorbic acid group (6.28%) in comparison with control. Most of the haemato-biochemical profiles were unaffected by the treatment except creatinine, while antioxidant profile was improved in the treatment group. Immunity status of broiler chicken against NDV was enhanced in both treatment groups; however, maximum profit is obtained in MOALE group followed by ascorbic acid supplemented birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Moringa oleifera , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Ascórbico , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378038

RESUMO

This study investigated the different addition levels of iron (Fe) in growing-finishing pigs and the effect of different Fe levels on growth performance, hematological status, intestinal barrier function, and intestinal digestion. A total of 1,200 barrows and gilts ([Large White × Landrace] × Duroc) with average initial body weight (BW; 27.74 ± 0.28 kg) were housed in 40 pens of 30 pigs per pen (gilts and barrows in half), blocked by BW and gender, and fed five experimental diets (eight replicate pens per diet). The five experimental diets were control diet (basal diet with no FeSO4 supplementation), and the basal diet being supplemented with 150, 300, 450, or 600 mg/kg Fe as FeSO4 diets. The trial lasted for 100 d and was divided into the growing phase (27 to 60 kg of BW) for the first 50 d and the finishing phase (61 to 100 kg of BW) for the last 50 d. The basal diet was formulated with an Fe-free trace mineral premix and contained 203.36 mg/kg total dietary Fe in the growing phase and 216.71 mg/kg in the finishing phase based on ingredient contributions. And at the end of the experiment, eight pigs (four barrows and four gilts) were randomly selected from each treatment (selected one pig per pen) for digesta, blood, and intestinal samples collection. The results showed that the average daily feed intake (P = 0.025), average daily gain (P = 0.020), and BW (P = 0.019) increased linearly in the finishing phase of pigs fed with the diets containing Fe. On the other hand, supplementation with different Fe levels in the diet significantly increased serum iron and transferrin saturation concentrations (P < 0.05), goblet cell numbers of duodenal villous (P < 0.001), and MUC4 mRNA expression (P < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of amino acids (AA) for pigs in the 450 and 600 mg/kg Fe groups was greater (P < 0.05) than for pigs in the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with 450 to 600 mg/kg Fe improved the growth performance of pigs by changing hematological status and by enhancing intestinal goblet cell differentiation and AID of AA.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ferro na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Suínos
17.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378040

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dose-response and supplemental effects of whey permeate on growth performance and intestinal health of nursery pigs. In experiment (exp.) 1, 1,080 pigs weaned at 6.24 kg body weight (BW) were allotted to five treatments (eight pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate in three phases (from 10% to 30%, 3% to 23%, and 0% to 9% for phase 1, 2, and 3, respectively) fed until 11 kg BW and then fed a common phase 4 diet (0% whey permeate) until 25 kg BW in a 48-d feeding trial. Feed intake and BW were measured at the end of each phase. In exp. 2, 1,200 nursery pigs at 7.50 kg BW were allotted to six treatments (10 pens/treatment) with increasing levels of whey permeate from 0% to 18.75% fed until 11 kg BW. Feed intake and BW were measured during 11 d. Six pigs per treatment (1 per pens) were euthanized to collect the jejunum to evaluate tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8 (IL-8), transforming growth factor-beta 1, mucin 2, histomorphology, digestive enzyme activity, crypt cell proliferation rate, and jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota. Data were analyzed using contrasts in the MIXED procedure and a broken-line analysis using the NLIN procedure of SAS. In exp. 1, increasing whey permeate had a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) on feed efficiency (G:F; maximum: 1.35 at 18.3%) in phase 1. Increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG; 292 to 327 g/d) and G:F (0.96 to 1.04) of pigs in phase 2. In exp. 2, increasing whey permeate linearly increased (P < 0.05) ADG (349 to 414 g/d) and G:F (0.78 to 0.85) and linearly increased (P < 0.05) crypt cell proliferation rate (27.8% to 37.0%). The breakpoint from a broken-line analysis was obtained at 13.6% whey permeate for maximal G:F. Increasing whey permeate tended to change IL-8 (quadratic, P = 0.052; maximum: 223 pg/mg at 10.9%), to decrease Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes (P = 0.073, 1.59 to 1.13), to increase (P = 0.089) Bifidobacteriaceae (0.73% to 1.11%), and to decrease Enterobacteriaceae (P = 0.091, 1.04% to 0.52%) and Streptococcaceae (P = 0.094, 1.50% to 0.71%) in the jejunal mucosa. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of whey permeate increased the growth of nursery pigs from 7 to 11 kg BW. Pigs grew most efficiently with 13.6% whey permeate. Improvement in growth performance is partly attributed to stimulating intestinal immune response and enterocyte proliferation with positive changes in jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in nursery pigs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Lactose , Leite , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suínos/microbiologia , Soro do Leite
18.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432053

RESUMO

An N-balance experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that d-Methionine (d-Met) has the same bioavailability and efficacy as l-Methionine (l-Met) when fed to weanling pigs. A Met-deficient basal diet containing 0.24% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Met was formulated. Six additional diets were formulated by adding 0.036%, 0.072%, or 0.108% d-Met or l-Met to the basal diet, and these diets, therefore, contained 77%, 87%, or 97% of the requirement for SID Met. Fifty-six barrows (10.53 ± 1.17 kg) were housed in metabolism crates and allotted to the seven diets with eight replicate pigs per diet. Feces and urine were collected quantitatively with 7-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. Blood and tissue samples from pigs fed the basal diet and pigs fed diets containing 0.108% supplemental Met were collected on the last day. Results indicated that N retention (%) linearly increased (P < 0.01) as supplemental d-Met or l-Met increased in diets. Based on N retention (%) as a response, the linear slope-ratio regression estimated the bioavailability of d-Met relative to l-Met to be 101% (95% confidence interval: 57%-146%). The villus height and crypt depth in the jejunum were not affected by the Met level or Met source. Total antioxidant capacity or thiobarbituric acid reactive substance concentrations in plasma or tissue samples from pigs fed the control diet or diets containing 0.108% supplemental d-Met or l-Met were not different. Abundance of mRNA for some AA transporters analyzed in intestinal mucosa of pigs also did not differ. Therefore, it is concluded that d-Met and l-Met are equally bioavailable for weanling pigs.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Metionina , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Íleo , Nitrogênio , RNA Mensageiro , Suínos
19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378039

RESUMO

Based on results of a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions because of excess Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 33.6 ± 0.6 kg) were used in a 103-d study. The 6 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal (SBM)-DDGS-based as follows: (1) high SBM and low level of l-Lys HCl (HSBM), (2) high l-Lys HCl and moderate Ile, Val, Trp (AA above NRC 2012 estimates; NC), (3) moderate l-Lys HCl and high Ile, Val, and Trp (PC), and PC with either increased (4) L-Val (PC+Val), (5) L-Ile (PC+Ile), or (6) L-Trp (PC+Trp). Pigs fed the NC diet were predicted to have the poorest average daily gain (ADG), the PC diet to be intermediate, and pigs fed the HSBM, PC+Val, PC+Ile, and PC+Trp have the same and highest predicted ADG. In the grower period (34 to 90 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for the pigs fed HSBM and PC+Val diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed HSBM were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient (G:F) than the NC and PC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. In the finisher period (90 to 136 kg), ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed PC+Ile than that of the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed PC+Val had greater (Ρ < 0.05) average daily feed intake (ADFI) than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. However, PC+Ile pigs were more (Ρ < 0.05) efficient than PC+Val with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Overall, ADG was greater (Ρ < 0.05) for pigs fed HSBM, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. Pigs fed the PC+Val diet had greater (Ρ < 0.05) ADFI than the NC with pigs fed other diets intermediate. No differences were detected between treatments for overall G:F or other carcass characteristics. In conclusion, increasing Val or Ile in high l-Lys-HCl-DDGS-based diets improved growth performance compared with pigs fed diets containing high levels of l-Lys HCl without added Val and Ile. These results present evidence that the recently developed meta-analysis can predict the relative differences in overall ADG for pigs fed the NC, PC, PC+Val, and PC+Ile diets; however, the predicted G:F was less accurate. The data demonstrate that the negative effects of high Leu concentrations in corn-DDGS-based diets can be reversed by increasing the ratios of Val and Ile relative to Lys.


Assuntos
Isoleucina , Triptofano , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suínos , Valina , Zea mays
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378043

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mastigação , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo
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