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1.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180907, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644644

RESUMO

A total number of 300 (225 ducks and 75 drakes) Sudani ducks, 28-wk-old were divided into five groups to investigate the effects of dietary L-carnitine (LC) supplementation on productive, hatching and physiological performance as well as nutrients digestibility coefficients. The results indicated that the productive performance and Semen quality parameters (ejaculate volume, sperms concentration and advanced motility) were significantly improved by LC supplementation (150-450 mg /kg diet) as compared to the control. Hatchability of fertile eggs (%) was significantly improved, while total embryonic mortality was significantly decreased by supplementing 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Supplementing different dietary LC levels resulted in significantly high values of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells count and lymphocyte (L) cells percentage, while it decreased heterophils (H) cells and H/L ratio. Serum albumin, total cholesterol and AST enzyme values were significantly low in ducks fed diets supplemented with LC. Serum triglycerides were significantly the lowest by feeding 300 and 450 mg LC/kg diet. Nutrients digestibility coefficients were significantly improved in drakes fed diet supplemented with 450 mg LC/kg diet. Conclusively, dietary LC supplementation at 300 or 450 mg/kg for duck breeders in summer could improve productive, hatching and physiological performance and nutrients digestibility coefficients.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Patos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano , Análise do Sêmen
2.
Naturwissenschaften ; 106(9-10): 49, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456004

RESUMO

Social interactions may shape brain development. In primitively eusocial insects, the mushroom body (MB), an area of the brain associated with sensory integration and learning, is larger in queens than in workers. This may reflect a strategy of neural investment in queens or it may be a plastic response to social interactions in the nest. Here, we show that nest foundresses-the reproductive females who will become queens but are solitary until their first workers are born-have larger MBs than workers in the primitively eusocial sweat bee Augochlorella aurata. Whole brain size and optic lobe size do not differ between the two groups, but foundresses also have larger antennal lobes than workers. This shows that increased neural investment in MBs precedes social group formation. Larger MBs among foundresses may reflect the increased larval nutrition provisioned to future queens and the lack of social aggression from a dominant queen upon adult emergence.


Assuntos
Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Corpos Pedunculados/anatomia & histologia
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 7655-7663, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255263

RESUMO

Feed efficiency has been widely studied in many areas of dairy science and is currently seeing renewed interest in the field of breeding and genetics. A critical part of determining how efficiently an animal utilizes feed is accurately measuring individual dry matter (DM) intake. Currently, multiple methods are used to measure feed intake or determine the DM content of that feed, resulting in different levels of accuracy of measurement. Furthermore, the scale at which data need to be collected for use in genetic analyses makes some methodologies impractical. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of the current methodologies used to measure both feed intake in ruminants and DM content of feedstuffs, current methods to predict individual DM intake, and applications of large-scale intake measurements. Overall, advances in milk spectral data analysis present a promising method of estimating individual DM intake on a herd scale with further validation of prediction models. Although measurements of individual feed intake rely on the same underlying principle, the methods selected are largely dictated by the costs of capital, labor, and necessary analyses. Finally, DM methodologies were synthesized into a comprehensive protocol for use in a variety of feedstuffs.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Custos e Análise de Custo , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Lactação/genética , Leite/economia
4.
Food Chem ; 299: 125140, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299520

RESUMO

Pigment-depletion in the fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) arises after periods of elevated water temperatures with voluntary starving. This study tested the effects of dietary pre-loading with different pigment carotenoids (astaxanthin and/or canthaxanthin) combined with two α-tocopherol levels (normal and high: 500 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively) on pigment-depletion in vivo in Atlantic salmon after four weeks of challenge. We also tested whether oxidative stress manifested as an underlying depletion mechanism. Carotenoid levels in whole fillet homogenates were not decreased significantly post-challenge but fillet α-tocopherol concentrations were increased significantly in contrast to decreased oxidative stress indices. However, image analysis revealed localised fillet pigment-depletion following all dietary treatments. These data imply that localised pigment-depletion was not prevented by pre-loading of the fillet with different carotenoid-types/mixtures and increased of α-tocopherol levels from normal to high, respectively. Further, we suggest that oxidative stress might not facilitate pigment-depletion in vivo.


Assuntos
Cantaxantina/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Salmo salar/fisiologia , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Cantaxantina/análise , Dieta , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Pigmentação , Inanição , Temperatura Ambiente , Xantofilas/análise , Xantofilas/metabolismo
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 14-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303198

RESUMO

Foraging behavior by parasitized herbivores can be interpreted as a decision-making process where individuals are faced with trading-off the ingestion of nutrients with the ingestion of potentially medicinal -and toxic- plant secondary compounds. We determined how parasitized sheep prioritize selection of crude protein, energy and a medicinal plant secondary compound (quebracho tannins-QT). Foraging preferences were tested in 40 lambs before experiencing a parasitic infection (Phase 1), during an infection (Phase 2; 10,000 L3Haemonchus contortus per lamb) and after chemotherapy (Phase 3). Lambs were assigned to four groups (10 lambs/group) such that animals in Group 1 (Control) could choose between foods of high (HEP) or low (LEP) energy to protein ratios. The other groups received the same choice, but QT were added (4%) to HEP (Group 2), to LEP (Group 3) or to both foods (Group 4). All groups under a parasitic infection (Phase 2) increased their preference for HEP (from 0.44 to 0.66 ±â€¯0.042; P < 0.05) and intake of digestible energy (from 0.106 to 0.126 ±â€¯0.007 Mcal/kg BW; P < 0.05) relative to Phase 1, a pattern that remained during Phase 3. Only lambs receiving QT in HEP increased their intake of QT from Phase 1 to Phase 2 (P < 0.05). Fecal egg counts and blood parameters revealed a parasitic infection (P < 0.05) in Phase 2 that subsided in Phase 3, although no differences were detected among groups (P > 0.05). The importance of protein nutrition on parasitized animals has been highlighted before, but these results suggest that lambs prioritized the ingestion of energy-dense over protein-dense foods or medicinal condensed tannins when challenged by gastrointestinal parasitism. Consumption of medicinal tannins represented a side-effect of the preference manifested for energy-dense foods during testing.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Taninos/metabolismo
6.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(4): 344-365, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272217

RESUMO

Carbon and oxygen isotopes ratios from herbivore teeth have previously been used as paleo-environmental proxies in temperate zones. However, their utility in tropical zones remains uncertain. In this study, sequential sub-samples from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) teeth (second and third molars) from the Maya archaeological site of La Joyanca, located in northwestern Petén, Guatemala, show that δ18O of enamel carbonate corresponds broadly to modern observed precipitation δ18O over the 10-month period of tooth formation, capturing rainfall seasonality. The analyses also detect significant diachronic differences in the δ18O between the periods 1100-1000 BP (850-950 A.D.) and 1000-900 BP (950-1050 A.D.) at La Joyanca. The δ13C in both periods are indicative of a C3-plant based diet, which suggests cultivation of maize did not differentially affect deer diet during this period.


Assuntos
Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Cervos , Esmalte Dentário/química , Fósseis , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Carbonatos/análise , Ecossistema , Guatemala , Paleodontologia/métodos , Estações do Ano
7.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274343

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of different doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) on growth performance, immune function and antioxidative capacity in piglets. In a 21-d trial, 35 weaned pigs were divided into five groups and diets were supplemented with 5.5 (control), 43.0, 80.5, 118.0 and 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg, respectively. No treatment effects were observed for average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed to gain ratio. Increasing dietary 25(OH)D3 levels increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations linearly (p < 0.01), decreased the frequency of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells (p < 0.01), and the serum level of complement component 3 (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 80.5 and 118.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg enhanced the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) and addition of 43.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg increased the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding high-dose 25(OH)D3 to weaned pigs partly improved immune functions and the antioxidative capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Desmame
8.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 233, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing costs of feed has subsequently increased the costs of production of livestock, thereby decreasing the profit margin of this sector. The utilization of agro-industrial by-products has to some extent substitute some of the corn grains and soyabean meal, commonly used in animal feeds. In Malaysia, palm kernel cake (PKC) is a by-product of the oil palm industry and is frequently used to supply both crude protein (14-16% CP) and energy (11 MJ/kg) in ruminants. The energy and protein content are adequate for maintenance in the majority of ruminants. However, highly available energy supplementation is known to improve growth performance and protein deposition. This study was carried out to determine the effect on the quality of meat and fatty acid composition of the semitendinosus (ST), supraspinatus (SS), and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles of Dorper lambs by including corn as an energy source in a basal diet of PKC urea-treated rice straw. RESULTS: The results show that the LL muscle-drip loss was greater in animals supplemented with 5% corn compared to the other groups. Higher pH values of SS and LL muscles were observed in animals supplemented with 5 and 10% corn. Furthermore, the L* value of ST muscle was increased in lambs fed on 5% corn while, reduced in those fed on 0% corn, but the a* and b* values were not significantly different in the treatment groups. The fatty acid composition of the SS muscles showed that lambs fed on 10% corn had higher levels of sum PUFA n-3 compared to those fed on 0% corn. The concentration of C18:1trans11 and CLA c12 t10 in ST muscle from the lambs fed on supplemented diets were higher than those of the controls. CONCLUSION: This study has concluded the supplementation of corn as a source of energy into a PKC urea-treated rice straw-based diet increased the PUFA concentrations of muscles as compared to control groups.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/normas , Músculo Esquelético/química , Oryza/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Malásia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Ovinos , Ureia/química
9.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 287-305, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163993

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of low-protein diet supplemented with Lysine (Lys), Methionine (Met), Threonine (Thr), and Tryptophan (Trp) on small intestine morphology, enzyme activity, blood urea nitrogen, and gut microbiota and metabolites in weaned piglets. Eighteen weaned pigs weighing an average of 9.57 kg received one of three treatments: a normal protein diet with 20% crude protein (CP, diet [NP]), a moderately reduced protein diet with 17% CP (MP), or a low-protein diet with 14% CP (LP). All three diets were supplemented with Lys, Met, Thr and Trp to meet essential amino acid requirements for post-weaned piglets according to the NRC (2012). Following a 45 d study period, piglets on the LP and MP diets demonstrated atrophic small intestinal morphology, with decreased villus heights and lower ratios of villus height to crypt depth (p < 0.05); pepsin activity in the stomach was also reduced in these two groups (p < 0.05). Increased plasma cholesterol and decreased blood urea nitrogen presented in the MP and LP groups compared with the NP group (p < 0.05). Overall, gastrointestinal hormones were not affected by dietary protein levels with the exception of reduced somatostatin levels in the MP and LP groups. Jejunum and colon microbiota were not affected at either the phyla or genera level in any of the diets. Colonic ammonia nitrogen concentration was reduced in MP and LP groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on short chain fatty acids or biogenic amines. Our data suggest that reducing dietary protein levels by 3% (MP) or 6% (LP) in weaned pigs has the potential to decrease nitrogen emissions and impaired digestive capacity. Therefore, dietary protein level cannot be reduced by more than 3% in consideration of maladaptive changes to small intestinal morphology and pepsin activity in weaned piglets.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Sus scrofa/anatomia & histologia , Sus scrofa/sangue , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Desmame
10.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(4): 324-337, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192701

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different sources and levels of trace elements on growth performance, carcass composition and mineral excretion levels of broilers. In a completely randomised experimental design, 900 one-day-old male Ross-308 broilers were assigned to 5 treatments, with 6 replicates of 30 birds each. The control group (CITE) was fed with a basal diet containing regular inclusion levels of inorganic trace elements. Treatment groups were supplied with reduced levels (30% and 50% of the regular level) of inorganic (ITE) or organic trace elements (OTE), respectively. Groups 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE diets had equivalent average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed to gain ratio (F/G ratio) and mortality rate compared with group CITE in any phase. However, compared with group CITE chicks in group 30% ITE have lower ADG and ADFI and higher F/G ratio. The carcass yields were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with group CITE, in groups 30% ITE, 50% ITE, 30% OTE and 50% OTE the shear force values of the breast muscle were only 71.8%, 83.4%, 63.5% and 59.4% (p < 0.05), respectively. Birds received diets containing reduced levels of trace elements had diminished excretions of Mn and Zn throughout the entire period (p < 0.01). In conclusion, the reduced supplementation of trace elements had no or slightly negative impact on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality, but decreased faecal mineral excretion. Moreover, the trace element supply as OTE played a limited role on performance and excretion and was only partly beneficial for animal performance in case the trace element supply was reduced to 30%.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Eliminação Intestinal , Minerais/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Cobre/química , Cobre/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/química , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Manganês/química , Manganês/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/química , Zinco/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6241-6247, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of spineless cactus in finishing diets for lambs improves the carcass quality. However, data about its influence on meat traits is very scarce. The effects of spineless cactus inclusion in the finishing diet of lambs at four levels (0, 150, 300 and 450 g kg-1 of dry matter, DM) in replacement of Tifton hay on the physicochemical and sensory properties of meat were studied. RESULTS: The spineless cactus modified the chemical composition increasing the protein (P < 0.001) and the fat (P < 0.01) contents of meat, presenting the greatest values in lambs fed diets with 150 and 300 g kg-1 (DM) replacing levels, respectively. However, the spineless cactus did not influence the growth performance from 23.7 to 37.3 kg of body weight (on average). In addition, colour parameters of the meat were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs, resulting in mean values of 37.55, 14.96 and 8.49 for lightness, redness and yellowness, respectively. There were no statistical differences among treatments for cooking loss and shear force, with mean values of 34.8% and 14.8 N, respectively. Finally, the sensorial properties were not affected by the inclusion of spineless cactus in the finishing diet of lambs. CONCLUSION: Spineless cactus could be included up to the level of 300 g kg-1 DM in the finishing diets of lambs to increase the fat content of meat without compromising its sensorial properties. However, further studies about the fatty acid composition of meat from lambs fed diets containing spineless cactus are necessary. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Cactaceae/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Ovinos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cactaceae/química , Cactaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Paladar
12.
Biol Bull ; 236(3): 159-173, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167086

RESUMO

Ocean acidification poses a significant threat to calcifying invertebrates by negatively influencing shell deposition and growth. An organism's performance under ocean acidification is not determined by the susceptibility of one single life-history stage, nor is it solely controlled by the direct physical consequences of ocean acidification. Shell development by one life-history stage is sometimes a function of the pH or pCO2 levels experienced during earlier developmental stages. Furthermore, environmental factors such as access to nutrition can buffer organismal responses of calcifying invertebrates to ocean acidification, or they can function as a co-occurring stressor when access is low. We reared larvae and juveniles of the planktotrophic marine gastropod Crepidula fornicata through combined treatments of nutritional stress and low pH, and we monitored how multiple stressors endured during the larval stage affected juvenile performance. Shell growth responded non-linearly to decreasing pH, significantly declining between pH 7.6 and pH 7.5 in larvae and juveniles. Larval rearing at pH 7.5 reduced juvenile growth as a carryover effect. Larval rearing at pH 7.6 reduced subsequent juvenile growth despite the absence of a negative impact on larval growth, demonstrating a latent effect. Low larval pH magnified the impact of larval nutritional stress on competence for metamorphosis and increased carryover effects of larval nutrition on juvenile growth. Trans-life-cycle effects of larval nutrition were thus modulated by larval exposure to ocean acidification.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Exoesqueleto/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metamorfose Biológica , Estresse Fisiológico
13.
Biol Bull ; 236(3): 186-198, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167091

RESUMO

Sporadic fluctuations in food availability may affect larval biology and post-metamorphic development in many marine invertebrates. In an experimental study in the laboratory, we investigated whether different regimes (1, 3, and 5 days) of initial starvation or feeding affect the survival and duration of the last planktotrophic larval stage (i.e., megalopa) of the neotropical mangrove fiddler crab Leptuca cumulanta. Newly metamorphosed crabs originating from megalopae starved for 1 and 3 days were cultured through the first 5 juvenile stages to further evaluate whether prior nutritional experience affects the post-larval performance of this species. All megalopae that were starved continuously died, while 80% of the larvae that were fed constantly metamorphosed successfully into the juvenile stage. Megalopae initially starved for 3 and 5 days exhibited lower survival (55% and 30% of larval metamorphosis, respectively) than larvae starved for only 1 day (85%) or fed constantly. The starvation periods (1, 3, and 5 days) also significantly prolonged the mean megalopal stage duration (12.8, 13.9, and 14.3 days, respectively) compared to the continuous feeding regime (10.6 days). Survival of the megalopae subjected to different periods of initial feeding (1, 3, and 5 days) was significantly lower (15.0%, 57.5%, and 62.5%, respectively) than survival of the larvae fed constantly. The mean megalopal stage duration, by contrast, did not vary among megalopae initially fed for 3 and 5 days or fed continuously (10.4 days). The larval starvation did not affect survival and carapace shape of juveniles, but it did alter their intermolt period, growth, and body size. These carryover effects were stronger in the first juvenile crab stage than in other juvenile stages. Our results indicate that the timing and duration of the starvation or feeding regime experienced by the megalopae may affect their successful survival and developmental period until metamorphosis to juvenile life. In addition, the preceding larval starvation associated with a prolonged larval period may also affect early juvenile performance in specific crab stages of L. cumulanta.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Privação de Alimentos , Metamorfose Biológica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Braquiúros/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 199, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196135

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to assess if the exposure to glutamine (Gln), arginine (Arg) or their combination from pregnancy, through the maternal diet, to a post weaning supplemented diet, can stimulate litter performance, gut development and immune function. To this end does and their litters were fed the same basal diet no supplemented (control C), or supplemented with 0.4% Gln, 0.4% Arg, or 0.4 Gln + 0.4 Arg. Rabbits were weaned at 25 d of age and fed the same experimental diet as their mothers for 10 additional days (35 d of age). Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) at 6 d of age and intestinal histology, enzymatic activity, phenotypical and functional analysis of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from the appendix were determined at 6, 25 and 35 d of age. RESULTS: No significant differences on animal performance or mortality rates were observed among dietary treatments. However, kits from rabbit does supplemented with Gln tended (P ≤ 0.10) to reduce the translocation of total number of both aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria to the MLN. Also, rabbits fed the Gln supplemented diets maintained intestinal villous height at weaning compared to the non-supplemented diets (P < 0.05). The proportions of CD45+CD4+ and CD45+CD8+ IEL in the appendix were not affected by dietary means. However, in rabbits IEL at weaning dietary Gln significantly upregulated IL-2 and downregulated IL-6 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a lack of effect on performance and mortality the inclusion of 0.4% Gln has a positive effect by maintaining intestinal villous height and modulating the cytokine profile at weaning. The supplementation with Arg or Arg + Gln at the selected doses in this study did not exert positive effects on rabbit intestinal health.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Glutamina/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Bactérias , Feminino , Glutamina/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Linfócitos Intraepiteliais/fisiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Coelhos , Desmame
15.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 55(4): 327-343, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179734

RESUMO

Trawling is the main fishing practice worldwide and its ecosystem effects have been raising concern over the past decades. Long-term impacts can be monitored through changes in the trophic structure, and several studies evaluated trophic level (TL) shifts in fish populations between trawled and untrawled environments. However, published results are contrasting. We performed a metanalysis integrating all available studies that evaluated TL shifts in fishes between trawled and untrawled environments and conducted a local study comparing several features of the trophic ecology in two species of fishes. According to the metanalysis, TL does not change significantly with trawling. In contrast, the local study showed higher TLs and broader isotopic niches in the trawled environment. Diet reconstruction indicated a potential consumption of hake, the main discard component, at the trawled environment. All the studies used in the metanalysis were conducted in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas the local study represents the first data available from the Southern Hemisphere. As industrial commercial fisheries in Argentina are relatively recent, it is possible that our data are capturing the initial stage of ecological changes induced by trawling, compared with the historical fisheries located at the Northern Hemisphere.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Pesqueiros , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Tamanho Corporal , Isótopos de Carbono/análise , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Cadeia Alimentar , Gadiformes/fisiologia , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Comportamento Predatório
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 142: 282-289, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232305

RESUMO

We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in feathers from four penguin species collected on Macquarie Island, Southern Ocean, to 1) establish baseline Hg concentrations; and 2) compare Hg from samples collected in 2002 ("modern") and from museum specimens collected between 1937 and 1976 ("historic"). Inter-specific differences in feather Hg reflected known differences in habitats and diversity of diets: benthic-foraging Gentoo penguins and Rockhopper penguins that foraged both inshore and offshore had significantly higher feather mercury than the more pelagic, specialist foraging King and Royal penguins. Hg significantly decreased between historic and modern samples in King and Royal penguins. This decrease could be due to changes in either diet, foodwebs, or atmospheric Hg input and sources in the Southern Hemisphere. Because Macquarie Island is home to 2.8 million marine animals, these data may indicate that other species that forage and breed in this region are also exposed to low Hg concentrations in this environment.


Assuntos
Plumas/química , Mercúrio/análise , Spheniscidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Austrália , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ilhas , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(6): 371-375, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1012760

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe and discuss the results of an experiment carried out in two stages with pregnant cows fed 25kg/apple pomace/day. The first stage involved 16 pregnant Holstein Friesian cows divided into four groups: Group 0 - Control (5 cows); Group I - 1 month-gestation (4 cows); Group II - 3 month-gestation (4 cows); Group III - 6 month-gestation (3 cows) and was performed from September to December 2015. The second stage comprised 12 pregnant Holstein Friesian cows divided into three groups: Group 0 - Control (6 cows), Group I - 1 month-gestation (3 cows), and Group II - 3 month-gestation (3 cows) and was conducted from April 2016 to February 2017. All study animals received apple pomace at a dose of 25kg/day. As for the first experiment stage, a cow in Group III bred a calf with complete absence of the coccygeal vertebrae and tail, slight bending of the hind limbs, scoliosis in the thoracic spine, and limited mobility. At 30 days, it presented with diarrhea and underdevelopment, and was euthanized for necropsy. At gross examination, malformations were observed in the thoracic spine, coxofemural joint, and genitourinary tract. Regarding the second experiment stage, a cow in Group I gave birth to a calf with curved pelvic and thoracic limbs with thick joints and flattening hooves. Microscopic examination of the femur showed disorganized, irregular hypertrophic zone and scarce growth zone, in addition to primary spongy zone with short, slightly mineralized trabeculae. Samples of the apple pomace used in this study were frozen and sent for laboratory evaluation of pesticide residues, which showed a positive result for the fungicide carbendazim.(AU)


O presente trabalho tem por finalidade descrever e discutir os resultados do experimento realizado em vacas prenhes que foram alimentadas com 25kg/dia de bagaço de maçã. Experimentos foram conduzidos em duas etapas, a primeira no ano de 2015, de setembro a dezembro onde foram utilizadas 16 vacas prenhes da raça holandês. Estas foram divididas em quatro grupos: Grupo 0, Controle (5 vacas); Grupo I, 1 mês gestação (4 vacas); Grupo II, 3 meses gestação (4 vacas); Grupo III, 6 meses gestação (3 vacas). A segunda etapa foi realizada em abril de 2016 a fevereiro de 2017. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas prenhes da raça holandês, divididas em três grupos: Grupo 0, Controle (6 vacas); Grupo I, 1 mês gestação (3 vacas); Grupo II, 3 meses gestação (3 vacas). Todas as vacas receberam bagaço de maçã na dose de 25kg/dia/vaca. Para o primeiro experimento, uma vaca do Grupo III pariu uma bezerra, com ausência completa das vértebras coccígeas e cauda, encurvamento leve dos membros posteriores, escoliose na coluna torácica e dificuldade de locomoção. Decorridos 30 dias do nascimento, manifestou diarreia e pouco desenvolvimento, sendo eutanasiada para necropsia. Na macroscopia, havia malformações na coluna torácica, articulação coxofemoral e no aparelho urogenital. Em relação ao segundo experimento uma vaca do Grupo I pariu uma bezerra com membros pélvicos e torácicos, curvos e com articulações consideravelmente grossas e "achinelamento" de cascos. Na microscopia do fêmur foi observado na placa epifisária, zona hipertrófica desorganizada, irregular e zona de crescimento escassa. Na zona esponjosa primária observou-se trabéculas curtas e pouco mineralizadas. Amostras do bagaço de maçã utilizado na experimentação foram congeladas e enviadas para avaliação de resíduos agrotóxicos, onde foi encontrado resultado positivo para o fungicida carbendazim.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Anormalidades Congênitas/veterinária , Prenhez/genética , Bovinos/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética
18.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6084-6088, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microalgae can serve as an alternative to animal feed additives or supplements in the diet of weaning pigs, to increase their potential and performance. Two experiments were conducted with three dietary treatments: CON (basal diet), MA1 (basal diet + 0.5% microalgae), and MA2 (basal diet + 1.0% microalgae). In Experiment 1, 150 crossbred weaning pigs were used in a 5-week experiment. In Experiment 2, 15 cannulated barrows were used. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of Schizochytrium microalgae on growth performance, blood profiles, apparent total tract digestibility, and ileal nutrient digestibility in weaning pigs. RESULTS: In Experiment 1, pigs fed with MA2 had higher growth (P < 0.05) than pigs fed with MA1 from day 8 to day 21 but the experimental result showed no significant effects (P > 0.05) on growth performance, white blood cell, total cholesterol, and triglyceride among the treatments. However, lymphocytes (%) of pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 diets were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of pigs fed with a CON diet at day 35. In Experiment 2, the apparent total tract digestibility and ileal nutrient digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed with MA1 and MA2 than in those fed with a CON diet. CONCLUSION: Dietary microalgae supplementation had more dramatic and beneficial effects on nutrient digestibility than a CON diet. It also increased lymphocyte concentration but had no significant effect on growth performance in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Estramenópilas/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Microalgas , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/metabolismo , Desmame
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 6076-6083, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the health benefits to weaning pigs, raised under low sanitary conditions, of dietary supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product (Cyberlindnera jadinii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In total, 160 weaning pigs (7.21 ± 1.05 kg) were randomly allotted to two dietary treatments in a 6-week feeding trial. The dietary treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based basal diet (CON) and CON + 2 g kg-1 multi-strain yeast fraction product (MsYF) during weeks 1-2 and 0.4 g kg-1 MsYF during weeks 3-6. RESULTS: The MsYF supplementation increased (P < 0.05) body weight (BW) at day 42 and average daily gain (ADG) during days 1-14 and days 1-42 (P < 0.05) compared to CON. The total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM), fecal Lactobacillus counts, and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration at day 42 were higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed a MsYF supplemented diet. The concentration of serum haptoglobin in pigs receiving a MsYF-supplemented diet was higher (P < 0.05) at days 7, 14, and 42 than those receiving CON. The mRNA expression for INF-γ and TNF-α genes were lower (P < 0.05) at days 14 and 7 respectively and the expression of IL-6 and TLR-2 genes was lower (P < 0.01) at days 7 and 14 in pigs fed an MsFY supplemented diet than those fed CON. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a multi-strain yeast fraction product had a positive effect on ADG during the early post-weaning period and led to better health in weaning pigs. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leveduras/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Higiene , Interferon-alfa/genética , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Suínos/genética , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Desmame
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 91: 50-57, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085329

RESUMO

A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary soybean lecithin (SBL) supplementation on performance, hemato-immunological parameters, lipid biochemistry, antioxidant status, digestive enzymes activity and intestinal histomorphometry of Caspian brown trout, Salmo trutta caspius in the pre-spawning stage. The basal diet was supplemented with 0% (control), 3%, 6%, 9% and 12% of SBL to obtain five experimental diets. Fish with an average weight of 350 ±â€¯10 g were randomly distributed among five experimental groups and fed for 90 days. Dietary SBL resulted in better performance including specific growth rate (SGR), weight gain (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p < 0.05). Among the different hemato-immunological parameters, white blood cell counts (WBC), lysozyme, alternative complement activity (ACH50) and total immunoglobulin (IgM) content of serum were significantly increased with dietary SBL inclusion (p < 0.05). For antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) showed significant differences among various experimental diets (p < 0.05). Furthermore, digestive enzymes activity including alkaline protease, lipase and amylase were increased in those fish received SBL supplemented diets (p < 0.05). Our results revealed that the dietary SBL improved some physiological responses of the fish and indicate 6-9% dietary SBL supplementation would improve the physiological competence of the pre-spawning Caspian brown trout breeders.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Truta/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Lecitinas/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Truta/anatomia & histologia , Truta/imunologia
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