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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253613, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345548


Abstract Soybean meal is an inexpensive plant origin protein which has been used in practical diets as a replacement of animal protein such as fish meal or chicken meal, due to the uneconomical price of animal protein diets. Consequently, a research study was conducted on some commercial species of Indian major carps i.e. Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) and Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822) to estimate optimum dietary protein requirement of soy bean meal in diet in an intensive polyculture. Three different diets (SBM I, SBM II and SBM III) were formulated by 80%, 50% and 20% replacement of fish meal with soybean meal from a 45% fish meal diet (control).Highest monthly mean weight gain was obtained by SBM II (with 35% CP and about 50% substitution of fish meal), while SBM III (45% Crude Protein and about 20% substitution of fish meal) was stood second. All tested diets respond enormously by producing high yield as compare to control diet, though SBM II generated highest yield among all. On the bases of the following research, it was revealed that the SBM can surrogate even50% fish meal without any augmentation of other amino acids in the diet of Indian major carps.

Resumo O farelo de soja é uma proteína de origem vegetal de baixo custo que tem sido usada em dietas práticas como um substituto da proteína animal, como farinha de peixe ou farinha de frango, devido ao preço não econômico das dietas com proteína animal. Consequentemente, um estudo/pesquisa foi realizado com algumas espécies comerciais de carpas principais indianas, ou seja, Catla (Cattla cattla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) e Mrigala (Cirhinus mrigala) (Hamilton, 1822), para estimar a necessidade ideal de proteína dietética de farelo de soja na dieta em uma policultura intensiva. Três dietas diferentes (SBM I, SBM II e SBM III) foram formuladas por 80%, 50% e 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe por farelo de soja de uma dieta de 45% de farinha de peixe (controle). O maior ganho de peso médio mensal foi obtido por SBM II (com 35% PB e cerca de 50% de substituição de farinha de peixe), enquanto SBM III (45% de proteína bruta e cerca de 20% de substituição de farinha de peixe) ficou em segundo lugar. Todas as dietas testadas respondem enormemente produzindo alto rendimento em comparação com a dieta controle, embora SBM II tenha gerado o maior rendimento entre todas. Com base na pesquisa a seguir, foi revelado que o SBM pode substituir até 50% da farinha de peixe sem qualquer aumento de outros aminoácidos na dieta das carpas principais indianas.

Animais , Carpas , Cyprinidae , Soja , Alimentos Marinhos , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900


Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.

Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 27(1): 101-113, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625943


Mini pigs are engaging, intelligent animals that require different management than other pet species. Published nutrient requirements for production pigs are a good reference, but they must be critically evaluated in the context of pet mini pigs' needs to prioritize longevity and healthy weight. A balanced diet includes a pelleted feed, vegetables, and roughage, with minimal fruit or other treats. Mini pigs easily gain weight, and a balanced, high-fiber diet helps maintain healthy body condition to reduce the risk of metabolic and joint diseases.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta , Suínos , Animais , Porco Miniatura , Dieta/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 27(1): 47-69, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37625941


Insectivores are represented in virtually all taxa, although more is known about mammalian and avian insectivore nutrition than for reptiles, amphibia and fish. Establishing nutrient requirements is challenging but recommendations should be based on data from similar taxa, similar GI tract physiology, and known nutritional concerns. In order to provide an appropriate diet for insectivores, consideration must be given to anatomy and method for procuring insects in free-ranging habitats, availability of feeder insects and the resulting dietary nutrient profiles, and complementing those profiles with appropriate diet items from various other categories including formulated feed, produce, animal matter, seeds or grains etc. Consideration of known nutritional concerns for a given species, and the variation in energy requirements in a captively managed situation are essential.

Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Anfíbios , Mamíferos
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38039397


The null hypothesis that there are no differences in concentrations of digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) among different sources of bakery meal was tested in a regional experiment involving 5 of the universities on the North Central Coordinating Committee-42 on Swine Nutrition. Eleven sources of bakery meal were procured from the swine producing areas in the United States and included in one diet as the only energy containing ingredient, and each diet was then divided into 5 batches that were used at the University of Illinois, Purdue University, University of Kentucky, University of Nebraska, and North Carolina State University. At each university, diets were fed to 22 growing pigs (2 pigs per diet) that were placed in metabolism crates, and feces and urine were collected for 5 d after a 7-d adaptation period. Diets and collected samples of feces and urine were dried and analyzed for gross energy. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter (DM) and gross energy and concentrations of DE, ME, and NE were calculated. Results indicated that there were considerable variation in the nutritional composition among the different sources of bakery meal with relatively large coefficients of variation for crude protein, starch, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract, but it was possible to analyze all sources of bakery meal to account for 100% of the ingredients. The average DE, ME, and NE in the 11 sources of bakery meal was 3,827, 3,678, and 2,799 kcal/kg DM, respectively. However, in contrast to the hypothesis, differences (P < 0.05) among sources of bakery meal in concentrations of DE (3,827 ±â€…201 kcal/kg DM), ME 3,678 ±â€…200 kcal/kg DM), and NE (2,799 ±â€…156 kcal/kg DM) were observed, but the variation among the 11 sources of bakery meal was not greater than what is usually observed among different sources of other ingredients. The differences observed are likely a consequence of the different product streams and production procedures used to produce the bakery meal. In conclusion, the average DE, ME, and NE in 11 sources of bakery meal is close to values previously reported, but there is some variation among sources depending on origin.

An experiment was conducted at 5 universities to determine digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy (NE) by growing pigs in 11 sources of bakery meal that were sourced from swine producing states in the United States. Each source was analyzed and included in a diet as the only source of energy. Diets were fed to growing pigs that were housed in metabolism crates and fecal and urine samples were collected. Values for DE and ME were calculated from analyzed energy in diets, feces, and urine, and NE was calculated using a prediction equation. Results indicated that it was possible to analyze each source of bakery meal to 100%. The average DE, ME, and NE was 3,827, 3,678, and 2,799 kcal/kg dry matter. Although some variability among the 11 sources of bakery meal was observed, the variability in DE and ME values in bakery meal was not greater than what is observed in most other normally used feed ingredients.

Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos , Suínos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Soja , Zea mays/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária
PLoS One ; 18(11): e0291998, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37956153


Sulfur amino acids are essential for the proper development of broilers and are required throughout the bird's life to perform important physiological functions. Studies that seek to understand the actions of sulfur amino acids in the body of birds are essential. The present study evaluated the influence of sulfur amino acid supplementation using DL-Methionine (DL-Met) and DL-Methionine hydroxy analogue (DL-HMTBA), on the performance and expression of genes related to methionine metabolism, in the jejunum of broilers. Four hundred and fifty male broilers (Cobb-700 slow feathering) were distributed in a completely randomized design, in a factorial scheme (2x3), with two sources of methionine (DL-Met and DL-HMTBA) and three levels of methionine (deficiency, requirement and excess). The mRNA expression of the MAT1, MTR, BHMT, MTRR, CBG and GSS genes, and performance data such as feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion were evaluated. DL-HMTBA increased the expression of BHMT (p = 0.0072) and MTRR (p = 0.0003) in the jejunum of the birds. Methionine deficiency increased the expression of BHMT (p = 0.0805) and MTRR (p = 0.0018). Higher expression of GSS was observed in birds that were supplemented with DL-HMTBA (p = 0.0672). Analyzing our results, it is preferable to supplement sulfur amino acids with DL-Met at the requirement level. Birds fed with DL-HMTBA showed worse weight gain (p = 0.0117) and higher feed conversion (p = 0.0170); methionine deficiency resulted in higher feed intake (p = 0.0214), lower weight gain (p<0.0001) and consequently higher feed conversion (p<0.0001). Based on the information found in this work, it is recommended to supplement sulfur amino acids with DL-Met at the level of compliance with the requirement.

Galinhas , Homocisteína , Animais , Masculino , Homocisteína/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Metionina , Dieta/veterinária , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Aumento de Peso , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 40(1): 5, 2023 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37925366


Feeding animals with lactobacilli strains is a biotechnological strategy to improve production, food quality, and animal health. Thus, this study aimed to select new lactic acid bacteria (LAB) able to improve laying hens health and egg production. Forty Bovans White layers (two days old) were randomly divided into four experimental groups that receive an oral gavage with saline solution (control group) or with one of the three lactobacilli selected (KEG3, TBB10, and KMG127) by their antagonistic activity against the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus GGD_EGG01. 16 S rRNA sequencing identified KEG3 as Lentilactobacillus sp., and TBB10 and KMG127 as Lactiplantibacillus sp. The data showed that feeding birds with LAB increased weight uniformity and improved the internal quality of the eggs (high yolk index and Haugh unit) compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Beta-diversity analysis showed that LAB supplementation modifies the cecal microbiota of laying hens. The prokaryotic families Bacteroidaceae, Ruminococcaceae, Rikenellaceae, and Lactobacillaceae were most important to the total dissimilarity of the cecal microbial community (calculated by SIMPER test). At end of in vivo experiments, it was possible to conclude that the feed of laying hens with Lentilactobacillus sp. TBB10 and Lentilactobacillus sp. KEG3 can be an important biotechnological tool for improving food quality and animal health.

Dieta , Lactobacillales , Animais , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillus
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37930712


High-protein low-carbohydrate diets have been widely used for adult maintenance dogs, as well as in specific weight loss diets and maintenance programs. However, increasing dietary protein may increase undigested protein in the hindgut, modifying intestinal fermentation and fecal metabolite concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein source and concentration on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, metabolizable energy (ME), fecal and urinary characteristics, and fecal metabolites of dogs. Twelve healthy adult dogs were distributed into six treatments (n = 6 per diet) in a balanced incomplete Latin square design consisting of three periods of 30 days each. Six diets, varying in protein source [poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) and hydrolyzed chicken liver powder (HCLP)] and concentration [24, 32, and 40% crude protein (CP) on dry matter (DM) basis] were tested: PBPM24 (PBPM based diet with 24% CP); PBPM32 (PBPM with 32% CP); PBPM40 (PBPM with 40% CP); HCLP24 (HCLP based diet with 24% CP); HCLP32 (HCLP with 32% CP); HCLP40 (HCLP with 40% CP). The ATTD of CP was greater in dogs-fed HCLP and higher protein concentrations diets (P < 0.05). However, dogs-fed HCLP diets had lower ATTD of fat and carbohydrates, and ME (P < 0.05). Similarly, high-protein diets reduced the ATTD of DM, OM, fat, carbohydrates, and energy (P < 0.05). High-protein diets increased the daily fecal output and moisture (P = 0.004 and P < 0.05, respectively), as well as the fecal score (P < 0.0001), verified as soft, moist stools, but still within the ideal range. Fecal valerate concentration was greater in dogs-fed PBPM at 32% CP (P = 0.007). Fecal isobutyrate tended to increase in dogs-fed PBPM and high-protein diets (P < 0.10). Also, dogs-fed PBPM and high-protein diets had greater fecal concentrations of isovalerate, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), and ammonia (P < 0.05). Finally, the fecal lactate concentration increased in dogs-fed HCLP and high-protein diets (P < 0.05). The HCLP increased the ATTD of CP, being a highly digestible protein. Although the inclusion of HCLP slightly increased fecal score and moisture, it decreased the amount of fecal metabolites of protein fermentation ammonia and BCFA, both of which are associated with proteolytic fermentation in the colon.

Feeding companion animals with high-protein diets has been a demand of the market and pet owners. However, the protein quality and quantity consumed can interfere with the amount of undigested protein that reaches the hindgut and be fermented. Intestinal fermentation can be desired when well controlled. This study tested two protein sources (hydrolyzed chicken liver and poultry byproduct meal) combined at three dietary protein concentrations (24, 32, and 40% crude protein on dry matter basis) and their effects on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), fecal and urinary characteristics, and fecal metabolites of healthy adult dogs. In summary, diets containing higher inclusion of hydrolyzed chicken liver had improved protein ATTD. However, the same diets impaired the ATTD of fat and carbohydrates and decreased metabolizable energy. High-protein diets retained more water in the feces and increased the fecal output. Fecal consistency was affected, scored as soft and moist stools, but remained within an acceptable score. Dogs-fed poultry byproduct meal diets had greater concentrations of fecal protein fermentation metabolites, such as ammonia and branched-chain fatty acids, possibly related to a greater amount of undigested protein that reached the hindgut and was fermented.

Galinhas , Digestão , Cães , Animais , Amônia/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fezes , Dieta/veterinária , Aves Domésticas , Carboidratos , Fígado , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Animal ; 17(11): 101010, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37939597


Fractionation of digesta, as occurs during gastrointestinal transit in chickens, complicates accurate measurements of ileal digestibility using tracers. Dual-tracer methods using separate tracers for solid and fluid digesta phases may improve the accuracy of digestibility measurements when assumptions of the single tracer method are violated. The aim of the present study was to compare the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of nutrients calculated with single- and dual-tracer methods in chickens fed diets varying in particle size, anticipating digesta phase separation in the proximal gastrointestinal tract. A total of 112 Dekalb White (BW: 1.53 ± 0.107 kg) and 112 Bovans Black (BW: 1.79 ± 0.127 kg) 29-week-old laying hens were distributed over 32 pens (seven birds/pen). Within breed, pens were randomly assigned to one of two experimental diets (coarse vs fine oat hulls; n = 8 replicate pens per diet/breed combination). Diets were supplemented with TiO2 (3 g/kg) and Co-EDTA (2 g/kg). On days 34, 35, or 36, birds were euthanised and digesta from the ileum was collected for tracer and nutrient analyses. Apparent ileal digestibility was subsequently calculated by single- and dual-tracer methods. Although coarse oat hulls were hypothesised to increase the fractionation of solid and fluid digesta phases, no breed or diet × method interactions were found. Using a single tracer method based on TiO2, AID of nitrogen (N) was overestimated by 3%-units (P < 0.01) compared with the dual-tracer method, whereas AID estimates of DM, starch, fat, and non-starch polysaccharides did not differ (P > 0.09) and precision of all AID estimates was improved. In conclusion, these results show that although from a conceptual perspective, dual-tracer methods are presumed to better account for the variation in flow behaviour of different digesta phases, AID estimates obtained by the commonly used single tracer method using solid-phase tracer TiO2 were more precise and only marginally differed from estimates obtained by a dual-tracer method using distinct tracers for solid (TiO2) and liquid (Co-EDTA) digesta phases. Considering technical and economical constraints, the single tracer method may thus be the method of choice in many situations. Only when digestibility of proteins or amino acids is of specific interest, single tracer methods using a solid-phase tracer may not suffice. Nevertheless, for both single- and dual-tracer methods, tracer selection is critical, and the choice of tracers should depend on the nutrient(s) of interest.

Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Feminino , Ácido Edético/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ração Animal/análise
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950347


Processing conditions, particularly temperature and duration of heating, impact pet food digestibility. Various commercial pet food formats are now available, but few have been tested thoroughly. The objective of this study was to determine the amino acid (AA) digestibilities and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) values of frozen raw, freeze-dried raw, fresh (mildly cooked), and extruded dog foods using the precision-fed cecectomized and conventional rooster assays. The diets tested were Chicken and Barley Recipe [Hill's Science Diet, extruded diet (EXT)], Chicken and White Rice Recipe [Just Food for Dogs, fresh diet (FRSH)], Chicken Formula [Primal Pet Foods, frozen raw diet (FRZN)], Chicken and Sorghum Hybrid Freeze-dried Formula [Primal Pet Foods, hybrid freeze-dried raw diet (HFD)], and Chicken Dinner Patties [Stella & Chewy's, freeze-dried raw diet (FD)]. Two precision-fed rooster assays utilizing Single Comb White Leghorn roosters were conducted. Cecectomized roosters (n = 4/treatment) and conventional roosters (n = 4/treatment) were used to determine standardized AA digestibilities and TMEn, respectively. All roosters were crop intubated with 12 g of test diet and 12 g of corn, with excreta collected for 48 h. In general, FD had the highest, while EXT had the lowest AA digestibilities; however, all diets performed relatively well and few differences in AA digestibility were detected among the diets. Lysine digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in FD and FRZN than EXT, with other diets being intermediate. Threonine digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) in FD than EXT, with other diets being intermediate. Digestibilities of the other indispensable AA were not different among diets. The reactive lysine:total lysine ratios were 0.94, 0.96, 0.93, 0.93, and 0.95 for EXT, FRSH, FRZN, HFD, and FD, respectively. TMEn was higher (P < 0.05) in FRZN than FD, FRSH, and EXT, higher (P < 0.05) in HFD than FRSH and EXT, and higher (P < 0.05) in FD than EXT. In conclusion, our results support the notion that AA digestibilities are affected by diet processing, with FD, HFD, FRZN, and FRSH diets having higher AA digestibility coefficients and greater TMEn values, than the EXT diet; however, other factors such as ingredient inclusion and macronutrient composition may also have affected these results. More research in dogs is necessary to test the effects of format on diet palatability, digestibility, stool quality, and other physiologically relevant outcomes.

Processing conditions, particularly temperature and duration of heating, impact pet food digestibility. This study tested the standardized amino acid (AA) digestibilities and nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn) values of five commercial dog diets: extruded diet (EXT), fresh (mildly cooked) diet (FRSH), frozen raw diet (FRZN), hybrid freeze-dried raw diet (HFD), and freeze-dried raw diet (FD). The first study, to determine AA digestibility, used 20 roosters who had their ceca (the main site of microbial fermentation in chickens) surgically removed. The second study used 20 conventional roosters to determine the TMEn of the diets. In general, FD had the highest AA digestibilities, while EXT had the lowest AA digestibilities. True metabolizable energy concentration was higher in the FRZN diet than the FD, FRSH, and EXT diets, higher in the HFD diet than the FRSH and EXT diets, and higher in the FD diet than the EXT diet. Our results support the notion that differences in diet processing, as well as factors such as macronutrient composition, and ingredient source, characteristics, and inclusion may impact AA digestibility and TMEn of dog diets. More research should be conducted to determine exactly how, and to what extent, these different factors impact digestibility in dogs.

Aminoácidos , Galinhas , Animais , Masculino , Cães , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 404, 2023 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37957330


Corn grain particle size has the potential to influence the performance of lactating dairy cows and the overall profitability of a dairy farm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance of lactating cows fed diets containing finely or coarsely ground corn grain. Fifty lactating Holstein cows (n = 50; 10 primiparous and 40 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 658 ± 64 kg of BW, 38.8 ± 7.3 kg of milk/d, and 155 ± 80 DIM, were fed diets with finely ground corn grain (FGC) or coarsely ground corn grain (CGC) in a randomized block design with a 28-d treatment period. Finely and coarsely ground corn grain had an average particle size of 660 and 915 µm, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was reduced (p < 0.01) for cows fed FGC (22.1 vs. 21.2 kg d-1). Milk yield and efficiency were not affected by treatments (37.9 vs. 36.8 kg d-1; p = 0.12 and 1.78 vs. 1.79; p = 0.15). Concentrations of milk protein and fat, as well as other milk solids, were unaffected (p > 0.05) by treatments. Fecal starch (FS) concentrations were greater (p < 0.01) for cows fed CGC (7.0 vs. 4.9%), whereas plasma concentrations of D-lactate were greater (p < 0.05) for cows fed FGC (98.5 vs. 79.7 µM). Overall, feeding finely ground corn grain increased total-tract starch digestibility and reduced DMI while maintaining milk yield.

Lactação , Zea mays , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Tamanho da Partícula , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 18846, 2023 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914748


Recently, interest has increased in using bio-additives, herbs, and their extracts as feed additives because of their potential role in improving chick's health and productivity, especially during stress. Thus, our aim in this study is to examine whether nutritional supplementation (probiotics and clove essential oils) will help mitigate the negative effect of heat stress on the bird by modifying the microbial content, boosting immunity, oxidative status, metabolic, and growth. In this study, three hundred one-day-old broiler chicks (Ross 308) were fed the following experimental diet: (CON) basal diet (control diet); (CEO) CON with clove essential oils (300 mg/kg); (PRO) CON with probiotics (2 g/kg); (PC) CON with probiotics and clove essential oils. Our results showed a significant improvement (P < 0.05) in body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, nutrient digestibility, and digestive enzymes activities in broilers fed on PC, CEO, and PRO compared to the control group. Moreover, a significant decrease was recorded in the abdominal fat content and an increase in the relative weight of bursa of Fabricius, and higher antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus, as well as, there was an increase (P < 0.05) in interleukin 10 (IL-10) in all treated groups. Meanwhile, there was a decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in all supplemented groups compared with the control group. Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase activities were significantly lower in the treated groups. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels were elevated (P < 0.05) and the malondialdehyde level value significantly decreased in all supplemented groups. The treated groups enhanced the ileum structure by increasing Lactobacillus, decreasing E. coli, and improving the morphometrically (P < 0.05). This study strongly suggests that clove essential oil and probiotic mixture can be used as a feed supplement to reduce the effects of heat stress by improving the growth performance and enhancing immuno-antioxidant status, ileum morphometric, as well as modifying the microbial community structure of the ileum of broilers.

Microbiota , Óleos Voláteis , Probióticos , Syzygium , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Probióticos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
J Anim Sci ; 1012023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37843507


Accurate predictions of microbial crude protein (MCP) synthesis are needed to predict metabolizable protein supply in ruminants. Since 1996, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine series on beef cattle nutrient requirements has used the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN) to predict ruminal MCP synthesis. Because various tabular energy values for feeds are highly correlated, our objective was to determine whether intakes of digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy for maintenance (NEm) could be used as predictors of MCP synthesis in beef cattle. A published database of 285 treatment means from experiments that evaluated MCP synthesis was updated with 50 additional treatment mean observations. When intakes of TDN, fat-free TDN, DE, ME, NEm, dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were used in a stepwise regression analysis to predict MCP, only intakes of DE and CP met the P < 0.10 criterion for entry into the model. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to adjust for random intercept and slope effects of citations to evaluate intake of DE alone or in combination with CP intake as predictors of MCP synthesis, and the intakes of TDN, ME, and NEm as alternatives to DE intake. Similar precisions in predicting MCP synthesis were obtained with all measures of energy intake (CV = root mean square error [RMSE] as a percentage of the overall mean MCP varied from 9% to 9.67%), and adding CP intake to statistical models increased precision (CV ranged from 8.43% to 9.39%). Resampling analyses were used to evaluate observed vs. predicted values for the various energy intake models with or without CP intake, as well as the TDN-based equation used in the current beef cattle nutrient requirements calculations. The coefficient of determination, concordance correlation coefficient, and RMSE of prediction as a percentage of the mean averaged 0.595%, 0.730%, and 28.6% for the four measures of energy intake, with average values of 0.630%, 0.757%, and 27.4%, respectively, for equations that included CP intake. The TDN equation adopted by the 2016 beef cattle nutrient requirements system yielded similar results to newly developed equations but had a slightly greater mean bias. We concluded that any of the measures of energy intake we evaluated can be used to predict MCP synthesis by beef cattle and that adding CP intake improves model precision.

The ability to accurately and precisely predict microbial protein synthesis is crucial in predicting the supply of metabolizable protein in beef cattle. We updated a database previously used to predict microbial crude protein (CP) supply in beef cattle. Then we evaluated the utility of using total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different measures of energy intake to predict ruminal microbial protein synthesis. Using regression analyses, we found that intakes of digestible and metabolizable energy and intake of net energy for maintenance were as effective as the intake of TDN as independent variables to predict microbial protein synthesis. Adding the intake of CP to the models improved the precision of predictions, and all models performed as well or better than the regression model adopted by the 2016 nutrient requirement system for beef cattle.

Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Nutrientes , Amido , Digestão , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 366, 2023 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37861804


The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of infused olive leaves (IOL) in drinking water on the growth performance, carcass characteristics, ileal histomorphology, and cecal microorganisms of broiler chickens. A total of 210 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups with 6 replicates and 7 chicks in each replicate. All chicks received a corn-soybean-based diet and drinking water with or without IOL ad libitum for 42 days. Treatments were drinking water without any additives (control group), drinking water including IOL of 5 m/L (IOL5), 10 m/L (IOL10), 15 ml/L (IOL15), and 20 ml/L (IOL20). The addition of IOL to drinking water did not affect the growth performance, water intake, carcass parameters, weights of inner organs, and digestive tract weight and length. The Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus spp. counts in the cecum were also not influenced by IOL supplementation in drinking water. However, chickens receiving IOL5, IOL10, or IOL15 had higher villus length in the ileum compared with birds in the control group. Crypt depth was lower in chickens from the IOL20 group compared with birds in the other treatment groups. In addition, broilers offered IOL15 or IOL20 had a higher villus length to crypt depth ratio in the ileum than chickens in the control group. However, treatments had no influence on the lamina muscularis mucosae layer of the ileum in broiler chickens. The results showed that drinking water including IOL at 15 and 20 ml/L improved ileal histomorphology without any detrimental effect on growth performance, carcass traits, and cecal microorganisms in broiler chickens.

Água Potável , Olea , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas , Íleo , Dieta/veterinária , Ceco , Folhas de Planta , Ração Animal/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 368, 2023 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864719


The effects of dietary fermented cassava on the blood constituents and production parameters of broiler chickens have been reported with variable outcomes. Therefore, this investigation aimed to explore the impacts of dietary fermented cassava on growth traits, blood constituents, visceral organ, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. Four databases were searched for studies that assessed responses of broiler chickens dietary fermented cassava. Eleven articles were used for the investigation, and data generated were analysed using OpenMEE software. A random effects model was used, and effect sizes were presented as standardised mean difference (SMD) at a 95 % confidence interval (CI). Sources of heterogeneity were evaluated using the following modifiers: broiler strain used, cassava form, feeding duration, type of microbes used for the fermentation, and inclusion level of cassava. Results indicate that fermented cassava-based diets increased feed intake (SMD = 0.38; 95 % CI: 0.11, 0.65; P = 0.006), feed conversion ratio (SMD = 1.26; 95 % CI: 0.91, 1.61; P < 0.001), white blood cells (SMD = 1.26; 95 % CI: 0.54, 1.98; P < 0.001), total serum protein (SMD = 1.23; 95 % CI: 0.41, 2.05; P = 0.003), serum cholesterol (SMD = 0.43; 95 % CI: 0.01, 0.85; P = 0.050), serum creatinine (SMD = 2.53; 95 % CI: 0.53, 4.53; P = 0.013), and serum uric acid (SMD = 4.33; 95 % CI: 6.25, 2.41; P < 0.001), but lowered average daily gain and carcass yield, taking heterogeneity into account. Results reveal that studied modifiers were responsible for the inconsistent results among authors. In conclusion, dietary fermented cassava negatively influenced carcass yield, growth performance, and aspects of blood indices of broiler chickens, but did not affect abdominal fat content, visceral organ weights, and cut-part weights. However, more innovative research is needed to improve the feeding quality of cassava using other biotechnological tools in order to maximise its potential as an energy source in broiler chickens.

Galinhas , Manihot , Animais , Ácido Úrico , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Verduras , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 370, 2023 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37864597


The current research was undertaken to scrutinize the effect of leaf meal mixture as concentrate mixture in the ration of goats. Leaf meal mixture (LMM) was prepared using equal quantities of ten top-foliages namely Acacia nilotica, Celtis australis, Ficus palmata, Ficus religiosa, Grewia optiva, Melia azadarach, Morus alba, Quercus incana, Salix alba and Zizyphus jujube obtained from district Poonch of Jammu region in western Himalayas. The LMM prepared was substituted for 15% in the concentrate mixture being fed to the goats. The study constituted of two trials. Concentrate mixture offered to the animals was in mash and multi-nutrient block in first and second trial respectively. A total of twelve non-descript, adult male goats were selected for each trial. Goats of 0-14 months age (27.71 ± 2.96 kg live body weight) of for first trial while goats of 12-16 months age (27.02 ± 2.93 kg live weight) for second trial were divided into control and treatment groups as per randomized block design and fed ad-lib wheat straw and concentrate mixture @ (20 g/kgW0.75). No significant variation was observed (p > 0.05) in body weight, feed and DM intake among all groups in both trials. Comparable intake as well as digestibility of various nutrients like DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and TDN were found between the two groups during individual trials. There was a positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance among all experimental animals in both the trials. Serum enzymes ALT, AST and haemato-biochemical parameters like total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin: globulin and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) showed no significant differences during both trials in all groups, being within normal physiological levels. However, haemoglobin concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in treatment group with respect to the control group in first trial. On the basis of current results, it can be established that leaf meal mixture can successfully be used to replace concentrate mixture up to 15% in the ration of goats without expecting any adverse impacts on their growth and overall health.

Digestão , Globulinas , Masculino , Animais , Cabras/fisiologia , Albuminas/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
PLoS One ; 18(10): e0291054, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37796995


To enrich pork with valuable n-3 PUFA, it is common practice to include flaxseeds in the swine diet. However, due to the high susceptibility of these acids to oxidation, this treatment requires an additional supply of antioxidants. Thyme herb can be used for this purpose, which in addition to high antioxidant activity is characterized by numerous health-promoting properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of the inclusion of 1% and 3% of thyme herb in mixtures with 4% of extruded flaxseeds as a source of n-3 PUFA on the performance results and health status of fatteners. The experiment was carried out on 120 weaners with an initial body weight of about 30 kg and kept until the end of fattening. They were divided into three experimental groups of 40 animals each (5 pens with 8 pigs in each). The control group (C) consisted of pigs receiving a base mixture with 4% of extruded flaxseeds. In the experimental groups, an additional 1% (T1) or 3% (T3) of thyme herb was added to the mixture. By supplementing the diet with 3% of thyme, an increase in average daily weight gain (P = 0.001) and a better feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) were obtained. This could be the result of an improvement in the small intestine histology (greater villus height-P < 0.001) and better digestibility of basic nutrients (especially crude protein-P < 0.05) found in experimental animals. In addition to these effects, thyme herb supplementation contributed to the stimulation of immune mechanisms (increase in the number of WBC-P ≤ 0.05; plasma IgA - P < 0.05 and IgG-P < 0.005, and the level of lysozyme-P < 0.05). The obtained results indicate the advisability of the use of thyme as a feed additive beneficially influencing the health and performance results in pigs. The obtained results indicate the advisability of the use of thyme as a feed additive beneficially influencing the health and performance results in pigs.

Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3 , Thymus (Planta) , Suínos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Aumento de Peso , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão
Animal ; 17(11): 100985, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37820405


Effects of amino acid supplementation to ideal protein (IP) formulated rations were investigated on growth performance, plasma metabolites and organ weights of broilers placed on 100% recycled (reused) litter. Day-old Ross308 male broilers were raised on either clean or reused litter and fed for three weeks on one of five isoenergetic diets, where an IP-based control diet (C) was compared with diets containing threonine (T) or arginine (A) at 25% above requirements, or with 1% supplemented glutamine (G), or with each amino acid added (TAG). Litter and diet treatments did not strongly interact on outcomes. Reused litter placement resulted in greater weight gain, smaller feed conversion ratio and heavier bursal weights (P < 0.05) compared to clean litter placement. Relative to C and T birds, TAG birds reduced weight gain and feed intake (P < 0.05). Plasma uric acid levels in G birds were greater than in C, T and A birds (P < 0.001). Collectively, since the outcomes of placement on reused litter increased performance and the control diet was IP formulated, the absence of increased growth performance in response to amino acid supplementation would be consistent with amino acids tested being excess to requirements.

Ração Animal , Galinhas , Animais , Masculino , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Proteínas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Aumento de Peso
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(6): 359, 2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37851279


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel seed powder (FSP) at varying levels on intake, growth, gut health, body condition, body measurements and economics in post weaned male goats. For this experiment a total of 30 post weaned male kids of Barbari goats with statistically similar body weight (P = 0.575) and age (3-4 months) were randomly distributed in three comparable groups each having 10 kids. Three groups viz. control (no supplementation), T1 (0.5% of DM in diet) and T2 (1.0% of DM in diet) were formed and the study continued up to 5 months. Statistical analysis of results showed significant effect of FSP supplementation on intake, growth, body condition, and gut health and body measurements in goats of treatment groups. Significantly highest body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG) and dry matter intake (DMI) (P < 0.001) was reported in T2 group, followed by T1 than control group goats. Further, feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed conversion efficiency (FCE%) and body condition score of treatment groups (T1 and T2) was improved significantly (P < 0.001) than control group goats. However, FCR and FCE% in T1 and T2 differed non- significantly (P > 0.05). Analysis of fecal samples indicated significantly higher (P < 0.001) fecal dry matter (FDM%), fecal consistency score (FS) in T1 and T2 group than control group whereas parasitic fecal egg count per gram (EPG) was significantly lower in T1 and T2 group than control group. However, EPG in T1 and T2 differed non- significantly (P > 0.05). Body measures differed significantly (P < 0.05) among groups. Economic evaluation of FSP supplemented showed that T1 and T2 group fetched INR 462 and 501 per goat on selling over control group (1USD = 82.54 INR). It can be concluded from this study that supplementation of FSP @ 1.0% of DM in diet may economically improve intake, growth, gut health, body condition, body measurements and economics in post weaned male Barbari goats.

Foeniculum , Animais , Masculino , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão , Cabras , Pós , Sementes