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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000828, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936797

RESUMO

Many herbivorous insects are mono- or oligophagous, having evolved to select a limited range of host plants. They specifically identify host-plant leaves using their keen sense of taste. Plant secondary metabolites and sugars are thought to be key chemical cues that enable insects to identify host plants and evaluate their quality as food. However, the neuronal and behavioral mechanisms of host-plant recognition are poorly understood. Here, we report a two-factor host acceptance system in larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori, a specialist on several mulberry species. The first step is controlled by a chemosensory organ, the maxillary palp (MP). During palpation at the leaf edge, the MP detects trace amounts of leaf-surface compounds, which enables host-plant recognition without biting. Chemosensory neurons in the MP are tuned with ultrahigh sensitivity (thresholds of attomolar to femtomolar) to chlorogenic acid (CGA), quercetin glycosides, and ß-sitosterol (ßsito). Only if these 3 compounds are detected does the larva make a test bite, which is evaluated in the second step. Low-sensitivity neurons in another chemosensory organ, the maxillary galea (MG), mainly detect sucrose in the leaf sap exuded by test biting, allowing larvae to accept the leaf and proceed to persistent biting (feeding). The two-factor host acceptance system reported here may commonly underlie stereotyped feeding behavior in many phytophagous insects and determine their feeding habits.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/anatomia & histologia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Quimiotaxia/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/fisiologia , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/citologia , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Paladar/fisiologia , Papilas Gustativas/anatomia & histologia
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876139

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of inclusion levels of dietary fiber in the Japanese quail diets. 480 Japanese quail were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and 12 replicates composed of 8 birds each. The treatments were constituted by five increasing levels of fiber in the diet: 2.78; 3.08; 3.38; 3.68; 3.98%. The parameters of productive performance, water consumption, egg quality, total lipids in the egg, excreta humidity, weight of digestive organs and intestinal morphology were evaluated. There was no significant effect of the use of different fiber levels on feed intake, egg production, viability, live weight, relative and absolute weight of gizzard, small intestine and cecum, and in excreta moisture of Japanese quais. Higher dietary fiber levels resulted in improvements in feed conversion per mass and per dozen eggs and higher water consumption. There was no significant difference for egg quality, except fot the color of the yolk where it was observed higher pigmentation of this structure with higher levels of fiber inclusion, and the lipid concentration in the buds was influenced in a quadratic manner. The inclusion of fiber promoted improvement in the villi of the duodenum and cecum.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20180989, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876141

RESUMO

An 8-week experiment was carried out to assess the impact of supplemental dietary pyridoxine (PY), protease (PR), zinc (Zn) and their mixture (MIX) with low protein diet (LP; 14.76% CP) or high protein diet (HP; 18.53% CP) on rabbit growth, feed utilization, and nutrients digestibility. Rabbits were divided into ten similar groups in a 2 (protein level) ×5 (treatments) factorial design. Treatments included a control group (without any additives), 5 mg PY/kg of diet, 100 mg Zn/kg of diet, 500 mg PR/kg of diet or a mixture of all tested feed additive with the same doses. Results indicated that growth performance, feed utilization, and nutrients digestibility indicators were retarded significantly with reduction of dietary crude protein. Growth performance and feed conversion were significantly enhanced as a result of PY, PR, Zn, and MIX supplementation. All feed supplements had significantly improved the digestibility of crude protein and digestible crude protein. No change in carcass traits was recorded in response to protein level and tested feed supplements. It is concluded that the growing rabbit responded positively to PY, Zn, PR, and MIX (particularly PY) supplemental of LP or HP diets, in terms of growth performance, feed conversion, and nutrient digestibility.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Piridoxina , Coelhos , Zinco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238419, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915803

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were: i) to classify animals into groups of high and low feed efficiency (FE) using three FE indexes (Residual feed intake (RFI), Residual weight gain (RG) and Feed conversion efficiency (FCE)), and ii) to evaluate whether crossbreed Holstein x Gyr heifers divergent for FE indexes exhibit differences in nutrient intake and digestibility, energy partitioning, heat production, methane emissions, nitrogen partitioning and blood parameters. Thirty-five heifers were housed in a tie-stall, received ad libitum TMR (75:25, corn silage: concentrate) and were ranked and classified into high (HE) or low efficiency (LE) for RFI, RG and FCE. The number of animals for each HE group were 13 (< 0.5 standard deviation (SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 11 for FCE (> 0.5 SD) and for the LE were 10 (> 0.5 SD) for RFI, 11 for RG and 12 for FCE (< 0.5 SD). Gas exchanges (O2 consumption, CO2 and CH4 production) in open-circuit respiratory chambers and whole tract digestibility trial was performed. A completely randomized experimental design was used and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation study. High efficiency animals for RFI produced less CO2, consumed less O2 and had lower heat production (HP). Methane production was positively correlated with RFI. High efficiency RG had higher O2 consumption and CO2 production in relation to LE-RG. High efficiency FCE had greater NFC digestibility, higher positive energy balance (EB) and excreted (11.4 g/d) less nitrogen in urine. High efficiency RG and FCE groups emitted less CH4 per kg of weight gain than LE animals. Animals HE for RFI and FCE had lower ß-hydroxybutyrate and higher glucose concentrations, respectively. The differences in intake, digestibility, energy and nitrogen partition, CH4 emission, blood metabolic variables and heat production between the HE and LE groups varied according to the efficiency indexes adopted. The HP (kcal/d/BW0.75) was lower for HE animals for RFI and FCE indexes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/classificação , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Hibridização Genética , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760156

RESUMO

Spent mushroom substrate is made from the waste remaining after the harvest of mushrooms. Here, we evaluated the potential of five spent edible fungi (Auricularia cornea, Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus eryngii, P. citrinopileatus and P. ostreatus) substrates as feed sources for Tenebrio molitor larvae. Young larvae did not survive on any substrate except the spent L. edodes substrate (36.7%). The survival rates in young larvae were similar among the different diets in which wheat bran or rice bran was replaced with 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, or 60% spent L. edodes substrate. The weights of the surviving larvae were decreased only when 70% of wheat bran and > 40% of rice bran was replaced with spent L. edodes substrate. In addition, the middle-aged larvae fed wheat bran only were significantly larger than those fed diets with 30~60% spent L. edodes substrate in dry feed, but the larvae of all treatments failed to pupate. Whereas the green feed was added in dry feed, there were no significant differences in pupal weight, pupation rate, pupal duration, adult emergence, or deformed adults among the three treatments in middle-aged larvae that were fed on diets containing 0, 30, or 40% spent L. edodes substrate. Collectively, these results suggest that spent L. edodes substrate has considerable potential to be used as a partial replacement (< 40%) of conventional feed for T. molitor, and spent mushroom substrate waste may be recycled as feed material for resource insects.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Tenebrio/fisiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Tenebrio/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761765

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the influence of crude protein (CP) content in a fattening diet on feed intake, body weight gain, nitrogen excretion, and carcass traits in Holstein steers. Steers (initial body weight 241 ± 26 kg) consumed feed with the following CP content: (a) 17.7% during the early period (from 7 to 10 months of age) and 13.9% during the late period (from 11 to 18 months of age) (HIGH, n = 3), and (b) 16.2% during the early period and 12.2% during the late period (LOW, n = 4). The CP intake was lower in the LOW than the HIGH group. Urinary and total nitrogen excretion in the late period tended to be lower (p < .10) in the LOW than the HIGH group. However, growth performance and carcass traits were not affected by dietary CP content. Free histidine and total amino acid contents in the longissimus thoracis muscle tended to be higher (p < .10) in the HIGH than the LOW group, however, the CP contents were not affected by dietary CP content. The results of this experiment suggest that decreasing dietary CP to 16% (early period) or 12% (late period) of dry matter would reduce nitrogen excretion from Holstein fattening farms without affecting productivity.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso , Animais , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect predator Coccinella septempunctata can effectively control many types of pests, such as aphids, whiteflies, and small lepidopteran larvae. We previously found that C. septempunctata fed an artificial diet showed diminished biological properties(e.g. fecundity, egg hatching rate, survival rate, etc.) compared with those fed natural prey (Aphis craccivora), likely due to different nutritional characteristics of the diet. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing analysis to identify nutrition- and metabolism-related genes of C. septempunctata that were differentially expressed depending on diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 691,942,058 total clean reads from artificial diet-fed and A. craccivora-fed C. septempunctata libraries, and the clean reads were assembled using Trinity de novo software (Tabel 2). Comparison of transcriptome sequences revealed that expression of 38,315 genes was affected by the artificial diet, and 1,182 of these genes showed a significant change in expression levels (FDR ≤ 0.05,|log2FC|≥1, "FC" stands for "fold change"). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were likely associated with the decreased egg laying capacity, hatching rate, longevity, and increased sex ratio (♀:♂) of adult C. septempunctata observed in the group fed the artificial diet. Furthermore, in the most DEGs metabolic pathways for C. septempunctata feeding on the artificial diet accumulated amino acid metabolic pathways, lipid metabolic pathways, and starch and glucose metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found some differentially expressed genes and metabolic pathways are related to nutrition, from which a more informative feedback for diet formulation was obtained and the artificial diet could be more efficiently optimized.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Afídeos , Besouros/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Razão de Masculinidade , Amido/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the cardiac, renal and uterine physiological hemodynamic changes during gestation are altered in rats with an early and prolonged exposure to a high fat diet (HFD). METHODS: Arterial pressure and cardiac, renal, uterine and radial arteries hemodynamic changes during gestation were examined in adult SD rats exposed to normal (13%) (n = 8) or high (60%) (n = 8) fat diets from weaning. Plethysmography, high-resolution high-frequency ultrasonography and clearance of an inulin analog were used to evaluate the arterial pressure and hemodynamic changes before and at days 7, 14 and 19 of gestation. RESULTS: Arterial pressure was higher (P<0.05) in rats with high than in those with normal (NFD) fat diet before pregnancy (123 ±3 and 110 ±3 mmHg, respectively) and only decreased at day 14 of gestation in rats with NFD (98±4 mmHg, P<0.05). A significant increment in stroke volume (42 ±10%) and cardiac output (51 ±12%) was found at day 19 of pregnancy in rats with NFD. The changes in stroke volume and cardiac output were similar in rats with NFD and HFD. When compared to the values obtained before pregnancy, a transitory elevation in renal blood flow was found at day 14 of pregnancy in both groups. However, glomerular filtration rate only increased (P<0.05) in rats with NFD at days 14 (20 ±7%) and 19 (27 ±8%) of gestation. The significant elevations of mean velocity, and velocity time integral throughout gestation in radial (127 ±26% and 111 ±23%, respectively) and uterine (91 ±16% and 111 ±25%, respectively) arteries of rats with NFD were not found in rats with an early and prolonged HFD. SUMMARY: This study reports novel findings showing that the early and prolonged exposure to a HFD leads to a significant impairment in the renal, uterine and radial arteries hemodynamic changes associated to gestation.


Assuntos
Artérias/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Artérias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Ratos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia , Útero/irrigação sanguínea , Útero/diagnóstico por imagem
10.
Br Poult Sci ; 61(4): 471-481, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683884

RESUMO

1. This study quantified xylanase-induced changes in soluble monosaccharides, xylooligosaccharides (XOS) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) contents of the different sections of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and whether these were related to altered bird performance. 2. An in vitro digestion of the wheat-based diet was carried out with the xylanase (Econase XT at 16,000BXU/kg diet) to compare the in vitro and in vivo generation of these XOS and monosaccharides. For the in vivo study, 80 male Ross 508 b roiler chicks were split into two groups fed a wheat-based diet with or without Econase XT (16,000BXU/kg diet) for 21 days. 3. There were no effects of Econase XT inclusion on growth performance characteristics, likely a result of the high-quality wheat diet, the corresponding high performance of the control group (FCR average of 1.45 in controls) and the relatively young age of the birds (from four to 26 days of age). 4. Econase XT supplementation increased the xylotetraose (X4) content in the colon (P = 0.046, enzyme x GIT section interaction) and the xylose contents in the colon and caeca (P < 0.001, enzyme x GIT section interaction). 5. The trend for increased acetate production in the caeca of Econase XT treated birds (P = 0.062) suggested that the XOS generated were subsequently fermented in the caeca, potentially impacting upon the types of microbiota present. 6. The present study suggested that wheat arabinoxylan degradation was enhanced by xylanase supplementation, which may have increased the production of beneficial volatile fatty acids (VFA) in the caeca, and thereby potentially modulated the caecal microbiome, but without affecting bird performance at this early age.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Triticum , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Glucuronatos , Masculino , Monossacarídeos , Oligossacarídeos
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20190278, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638858

RESUMO

To examine the association between phytase and xylanase in diets with nutritional adjustments on intestinal morphometry, serum biochemistry and microbiology of broilers, 250 broilers were evaluated in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replicates. The following treatments were tested: positive control diet - without phytase or xylanase; negative control diet - with an energy reduction of 100 kcal/kg, without phytase or xylanase; and three diets containing xylanase and phytase and energy reductions of 50, 100 and 150 Kcal/kg. For all energy-reduced diets, the nutritional matrix of phytase with phosphorus (0.15%), calcium (0.165%) and sodium (0.035%) was considered. An effect of the association between enzyme inclusion and metabolizable energy reduction in the diets was observed only by contrast analysis, for villus height. Intestinal health was not changed. Only the serum phosphorus concentration was altered by the treatments at the different evaluated ages. The association of phytase (500 FTU/kg) with xylanase (16000 BXU/kg) in diets with reductions of up to 150 Kcal/kg metabolizable energy, 0.15% digestible P, 0.165% Ca and 0.035% Na does not alter the intestinal morphometry, serum biochemistry or microbiology of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , 6-Fitase , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases , Fósforo
12.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(8): 494-503, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of the WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee's work in promoting nutrition as the fifth vital assessment and enhancing knowledge of nutrition. Further objectives were to ascertain use of existing Global Nutrition Committee assessment tools, identify potential new tools and determine which members of the veterinary health care team are responsible for carrying out nutrition assessments, planning and intervention in practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 16-question online questionnaire on the awareness, use and frequency of nutritional assessment was completed by 2740 veterinary health care team members. Statistical association was tested between the reported frequency of nutritional assessment in practice and the likely establishment of normal dietary regime, calculation of energy requirements and creation of nutritional plans. RESULTS: Most respondents (95%) currently had responsibility for providing small animal nutrition education, yet only 27% were aware of the WSAVA guidelines. Over half (64%) recognised nutritional evaluation as the fifth vital assessment. Only 4% consistently used WSAVA tools to perform a systematic nutritional assessment. Veterinarians and veterinary nurses/technicians were the most frequent source of nutritional advice in practice, with the consultation recognised as the most important contact point with clients. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Awareness of nutritional assessment is apparent, yet implementation in practice is inconsistent. These findings will help the WSAVA Global Nutrition Committee prioritise future activities to support the veterinary health care team and pet owners with nutrition-related knowledge, tools and resources.


Assuntos
Avaliação Nutricional , Médicos Veterinários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Atitude , Humanos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236672, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706820

RESUMO

The present study aimed to verify and compare the costs of homemade diets with extruded and wet commercial diets for dogs in maintenance and consuming therapeutic diets (obesity, congestive heart failure, diabetes, hepatic encephalopathy, chronic kidney disease, and food hypersensitivity), which is important information that impacts in the choice of food by the owners. The maintenance energy requirements (MER) were estimated for adult dogs of different sizes (3 kg, 15 kg, 30 kg, and 50 kg) and the daily amounts of food intake were estimated for each type of food. The costs were calculated per day, per 1000 kcal of metabolizable energy of product and per kg of metabolic weight of the animal. Fourteen complete and balanced homemade diets were formulated, and in each proposed group, two diets with different protein sources were used. Under the conditions of the present study, it was possible to conclude that homemade diets were more expensive than dry maintenance diets and dry therapeutic diets, while commercial wet diets were more expensive in all of the scenarios.


Assuntos
Custos e Análise de Custo , Dieta/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Metabolismo Energético
14.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 33103-33111, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529616

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the adverse effects of cadmium (Cd) on the production performance, serum biochemistry, liver antioxidant status, histopathology, and egg residue in laying hens. A total of 72 healthy Hy-Line brown laying hens at 40-week-old were randomly assigned to four diets containing 0 (control diet), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg Cd for 6 weeks. Laying hens exposed to 60 mg/kg Cd had lower egg production rate and worse feed to egg ratio (P < 0.05). Dietary Cd exposure (≥ 15 mg/kg) significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxide (GPX) activities, while increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05). Hepatic histopathology and ultrastructure also showed damage and the symptoms were exacerbated in a dose-dependent manner. The residue of Cd in the yolk was increased with increasing dietary Cd concentration. The mRNA expression levels of mt4L, mt3, sod1, sod2, gpx1, gpx3, and gpx4 in the liver of laying hens exposed to 60 mg Cd/kg feed were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary Cd exposure at ≥ 15 mg/kg induced hepatic damage in laying hens, indicating that the content of Cd in feed must be critically controlled.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo , Ovos , Feminino
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502191

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) isotopic discrimination (i.e. the difference in natural 15N abundance between the animal proteins and the diet; Δ15N) is known to correlate with N use efficiency (NUE) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in ruminants. However, results from the literature are not always consistent across studies, likely due to isotopic discrimination pathways that may differ with the nature of diets. The objective of the present study was to assess at which level, from rumen to tissues, Δ15N originates and becomes related to NUE and FCE in fattening yearling bulls when they are fed two contrasted diets. Twenty-four Charolais yearling bulls were randomly divided into two groups and fed during 8 months, from weaning to slaughter, either 1) a high starch diet based on corn silage supplying a balanced N to energy ratio at the rumen level (starch) or 2) a high fiber diet based on grass silage supplying an excess of rumen degradable N (fiber). All animals were slaughtered and samples of different digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, ileal and fecal contents), animal tissues (duodenum, liver and muscle), blood and urine were collected for each animal. Ruminal content was further used to isolate liquid-associated bacteria (LAB), protozoa and free ammonia, while plasma proteins were obtained from blood. All samples along with feed were analyzed for their N isotopic composition. For both diets, the digestive contribution (i.e. the N isotopic discrimination occurring before absorption) to the Δ15N observed in animal tissues accounted for 65 ± 11%, leaving only one third to the contribution of post-absorptive metabolism. Concerning the Δ15N in digestive pools, the majority of these changes occurred in the rumen (av. Δ15N = 2.12 ± 0.66‰), with only minor 15N enrichments thereafter (av. Δ15N = 2.24 ± 0.41‰), highlighting the key role of the rumen on N isotopic discrimination. A strong, significant overall relationship (n = 24) between Δ15N and FCE or NUE was found when using any post-absorptive metabolic pool (duodenum, liver, or muscle tissues, or plasma proteins; 0.52 < r < 0.73; P ≤ 0.01), probably as these pools reflect both digestive and post-absorptive metabolic phenomena. Fiber diet compared to starch diet had a lower feed efficiency and promoted higher (P ≤ 0.05) Δ15N values across all post-absorptive metabolic pools and some digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, and ileal contents). The within-diet relationship (n = 12) between Δ15N and feed efficiency was not as strong and consistent as the overall relationship, with contrasted responses between the two diets for specific pools (diet x pool interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Our results highlight the contrasted use of N at the rumen level between the two experimental diets and suggests the need for different equations to predict FCE or NUE from Δ15N according to the type of diet. In conclusion, rumen digestion and associated microbial activity can play an important role on N isotopic discrimination so rumen effect related to diet may interfere with the relationship between Δ15N and feed efficiency in fattening yearling bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516372

RESUMO

AbstractThe importance of fiber particle size in ruminal health is well known, but there are fewer studies to assess the requirements of physically effective NDF (peNDF) in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to establish the optimal peNDF proportion in high-concentrate diets fed to beef cattle, to reduce the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis. The experimental design was a replicated Latin Square 4 × 4, with four periods of 21 d. Treatments consisted of four diets with different peNDF proportions: 6.4%, 10.4%, 13.6%, and 15.4%, offered ad libitum as total mixed ration, and containing 15% barley straw and 85% concentrate. Diets, which differed in proportions of straw > 4 mm (considered peNDF) and straw < 4 mm, were manually mixed with concentrate. This concentrate was the same for all diets. A ruminal bolus was orally administered to each heifer for pH measurement. Intake, water consumption, intake by particle size, feed sorting, feeding behavior, behavioral activities, and rumen pH were recorded. Chemical composition and particle sizes of diets offered were assessed in the last week of each period. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Orthogonal contrasts determined the linear and quadratic effects of increasing peNDF proportion. T-test procedure determined whether heifers carried out sorting behavior. Particles >4 mm linearly increased (P = 0.001), and particles <4 mm linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Water consumption and feeding behavior were unaffected by treatment. As peNDF increased, intakes of DM and NDF linearly decreased (P = 0.001), whereas peNDF intake increased (P = 0.001). Intake of particles > 4 mm linearly increased, whereas intake of particles < 4 mm linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Diet 6.4% performed sorting for particles > 4 mm (P < 0.01), and diets 13.6% and 15.4% against particles > 4 mm (P < 0.01). Diet 10.4% tended to sort against particles > 4 mm (P < 0.10). Time spent ruminating linearly increased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Diets did not differ in mean and minimum rumen pH, but time under rumen pH thresholds (5.8, 5.7, 5.6, and 5.5) linearly decreased as peNDF increased (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the diet that best met the requirements of not compromising intake, limiting sorting behavior, and promoting time spent ruminating to reduce the number of hours under rumen pH thresholds, was the 10.4% diet.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Acidose/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(7): 1201-1215, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: We previously showed that 12-month high-fat diet (HFD) in pigs led to fattening and increased artery intima-media-thickness, which were partly reversed after 3-month return to control diet (CD). The aim of this study was to decipher underlying mechanism of action by using transcriptomic analyses of intima and media of aorta. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-two pigs were divided into three groups: CD for 12 months; HFD for 12 months; switch diet group (regression diet; RD): HFD for 9 months followed by CD for 3 months. After 12 months, RNA was isolated from aorta intima and media for nutrigenomic analyses. HFD significantly affected gene expression in intima, while RD gene expression profile was distinct from the CD group. This suggests that switch to CD is not sufficient to correct gene expression alterations induced by HFD but counteracted expression of a group of genes. HFD also affected gene expression in media and as for intima, the expression profile of media of pigs on RD differed from that of these on CD. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed nutrigenomic modifications induced by long-term HFD consumption on arterial intima and media. The return to CD was not sufficient to counteract the genomic effect of HFD.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Transcriptoma , Túnica Íntima/metabolismo , Túnica Média/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Nutrigenômica , Estado Nutricional , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567213

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of including Acacia mearnsii tannin extract (TA) as a feed additive on nutrition and productive performance of dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture and receiving supplementation with a concentrate feedstuff. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to either of the following treatments: concentrate without or with 20 g TA/kg dry matter (DM). Concentrate intake accounted for 32% of the total DM intake. Tannin addition increased the herbage DM intake by 22% (p < .05). There was no effect of TA inclusion on milk yield, milk composition, milk nitrogen (N) excretion, milk and plasma urea-N concentration, urinary excretion of total N, urea-N, and purine derivatives. However, TA inclusion increased the N intake and retention, total N excretion in manure, fecal N to urine N ratio, and decreased the dietary N efficiency for milk production and the percentage of ingested N excreted in urine (p < .05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture with a concentrate containing 20 g TA/kg DM showed the potential of decreasing the proportion of ingested N excreted in urine without affecting the productive performance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herbivoria , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538524

RESUMO

Our hypothesis suggests an improvement in carcass and meat quality of pasture-finished animals by introducing concentrate feed into diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of protein-energy supplementation on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures, and compare the results with those obtained from confined animals. Thirty 2-month-old intact lambs were divided into five treatments: pasture with mineral supplementation, pasture containing daily supplies of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% BW protein-energy supplementation, and confinement (reference treatment). All animals were slaughtered 104 days after the beginning of the experiment. Lambs submitted to 1.6% and 2.4% BW supplementation presented similar characteristics to animals kept in confinement and were superior to animals treated with 0 or 0.8% of BW supplementation levels (p < .05). Increases of subcutaneous fat thickness were verified for 0.0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4% BW, and confinement treatments, being respectively of 0.25, 0.74, 1.61, 1.69, and 1.98. Conversely, treatments had no influence on meat physical-chemical characteristics, being all considered moderately soft, juicy (tender), and with mild tastes and odors. Lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures have high-quality meat, but more protein-energy supplementation is needed to be an alternative for the feedlots for young animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Constituição Corporal , Brachiaria , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Herbivoria , Carne , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
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