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1.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 505-516, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617788

RESUMO

A growth trial was performed to optimise the inclusion of potassium (K) in feeds of Heteropneustes fossilis (body weight [BW] 6.92 ± 0.1 g). Eight isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets with varying dietary K levels were prepared by supplementing 0, 1.91, 3.82, 5.73, 7.64, 9.55, 11.46 and 13.37 g KCl/kg basal diet. Analysed dietary K levels were 0.16, 1.12, 2.08, 3.19, 4.18, 5.16, 6.11, 7.14 and 8.16 g/kg dry matter. BW gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein gain (PG) and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity were best in fish fed 4.18 g K/kg diet. The K concentrations in the whole body and vertebrae increased linearly with the increase up to 5.16 g K/kg diet and reached then a plateau. The K-retention [%] was highest in fish fed the basal diet and decreased with the further inclusion of dietary K up to 2.08 g/kg followed by no change up to diet containing 4.18 g K/kg and then declined further in fish fed higher levels of dietary K. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity was found to increase up to 4.18 g K/kg diet. Regression of BW gain, PG, gill Na+/K+-ATPase and vertebrae K concentration against varying levels of dietary K using broken-line model indicated that an inclusion of 5.44 g K/kg diet is the optimum for maximising growth and mineralisation of H. fossilis.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Potássio/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes-Gato/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Potássio/administração & dosagem , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo
2.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4041-4052, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381760

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of calcium to phosphorus (Ca:P) ratio in diets adequate in standardized total tract digestible (STTD) P on performance of 26- to 127-kg pigs fed diets with or without phytase. Pens of pigs (n = 1,134 in Exp. 1 and n = 1,215 in Exp. 2, initially 26.3 and 25.3 kg) were blocked by body weight (BW) and allotted to treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were 27 pigs per pen with 7 and 9 replicates per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Treatments were formulated to contain 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, 1.75:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 1, and 0.75:1, 1.00:1, 1.25:1, 1.50:1, and 2.00:1 analyzed Ca:P ratios in Exp. 2. These correspond to a range of 0.96:1 to 2.67:1 and 0.95:1 to 2.07:1 STTD Ca:STTD P ratios in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. Experiment 2 diets contained 1,000 phytase units of Ronozyme HiPhos 2500 (DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with release values of 0.132% STTD P, 0.144% total Ca, and 0.096% STTD Ca. Diets contained 122% of NRC (2012) STTD P estimates for the weight range across 4 phases. In Exp. 1, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI). Feed efficiency (G:F) worsened (quadratic, P < 0.05) at the highest ratio. Hot carcass weight (HCW) and bone ash increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) while carcass yield decreased (linear, P < 0.10) with increasing Ca:P ratio. The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.38:1, 1.25:1, and 1.93:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.82:1, 1.64:1, and 2.57:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. In Exp. 2, increasing Ca:P ratio increased (quadratic, P < 0.05) ADG and bone ash, and improved G:F (linear, P < 0.05). There was a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in HCW and decrease in carcass yield (P < 0.10). The maximum responses in ADG, HCW, and bone ash were estimated at 1.63:1, 1.11:1 to 1.60:1, and 1.25:1 analyzed Ca:P and at 1.75:1, 1.28:1 to 1.71:1, and 1.40:1 STTD Ca:STTD P, respectively. Expressing ADG on a STTD Ca:STTD P basis provided a more consistent estimate of the ideal Ca:P ratio among the 2 studies than analyzed Ca to analyzed P ratio. A STTD Ca:STTD P ratio between 1.75:1 to 1.82:1 can be used for 26- to 127-kg pigs that are fed diets adequate in STTD P with or without added phytase to maximize growth rate without reducing bone ash.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Necessidades Nutricionais , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
Meat Sci ; 158: 107890, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382221

RESUMO

Forty hairbreed male lambs were used to evaluate the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH, 0 and 0.15 mg/kg BW) and steroid implant (SI, without and with 52.5 mg trenbolone acetate and 7.5 mg 17ß-estradiol) on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, non-carcass components, wholesale cut yield, and meat quality. Supplemental ZH increased growth rate, feed efficiency, carcass weight, and dressing percentage, with no effect on wholesale cut yields. Feeding ZH increased muscle pH at 24 h. Supplemental ZH increased meat shear force, but decreased lightness, redness, and yellowness after frozen storage followed by a 14-day aging period. The SI administration increased dressing percentage and neck yield, but decreased testicle weight and meat redness, without affecting other variables. The LT area was greater with ZH + SI administration than with individual application of ZH or SI. Compared to individual administration, simultaneous application of ZH and SI did not result in improved growth performance, carcass traits and wholesale cut yields in hairbreed male lambs.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/normas , Carneiro Doméstico/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos de Trimetilsilil/farmacologia , Adrenérgicos/farmacologia , Anabolizantes/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Estradiol/farmacologia , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Congelamento , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/química , Acetato de Trembolona/farmacologia
5.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(1): 44-51, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274343

RESUMO

The study evaluated the effects of different doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) on growth performance, immune function and antioxidative capacity in piglets. In a 21-d trial, 35 weaned pigs were divided into five groups and diets were supplemented with 5.5 (control), 43.0, 80.5, 118.0 and 155.5 µg 25(OH)D3/kg, respectively. No treatment effects were observed for average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed to gain ratio. Increasing dietary 25(OH)D3 levels increased serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations linearly (p < 0.01), decreased the frequency of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells (p < 0.01), and the serum level of complement component 3 (p < 0.05). Supplementation of 80.5 and 118.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg enhanced the activity of serum glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) and addition of 43.0 µg 25(OH)D3/kg increased the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05). Overall, feeding high-dose 25(OH)D3 to weaned pigs partly improved immune functions and the antioxidative capacity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Calcifediol/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Calcifediol/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Desmame
6.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5789-5800, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265114

RESUMO

The anti-nutritional effects of dietary inositol phosphates (IP6 through IP3) have been recognized in broiler chickens; however, inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is more potent than the lower IP esters. The efficacies of 2 commercial phytases, a Buttiauxella sp. phytase (BSP) and a Citrobacter braakii phytase (CBP) at 500 and 1,000 FTU/kg, were studied on IP6-3 concentrations in the crop, proventriculus + gizzard, and distal ileum digesta, and ileal IP6 disappearance in broilers at day 22. Apparent ileal P and Ca digestibility, and bone quality at days 22 and 33 were also measured. Female Ross 308 broilers (n = 1,890; 30 birds × 7 diets × 9 replicates) were fed corn-soy-based crumbled diets. The 7 diets included a primary breeder recommendation-based positive control diet (PC); the PC marginally reduced in available P by 0.146% and Ca by 0.134% of the diet, (NC1) or moderately reduced by 0.174 and 0.159% of the diet, respectively (NC2). Other diets were the NC1 + BSP or CBP at 500 FTU/kg (NC1+500BSP and NC1+500CBP) and the NC2 + BSP or CBP at 1,000 FTU/kg (NC2+1,000BSP and NC2+1,000CBP). Each of the NC1 and NC2 had distal ileum IP6 disappearance similar to that of PC, but each had lower P digestibility and the majority of measured bone quality parameters than the PC. The ileal IP6 levels were decreased by 52.0 and 32.7% for NC1+500BSP and NC1+500CBP, respectively, relative to NC1 and by 73.6 and 50.9% for NC2+1,000BSP and NC2+1,000CBP, respectively, relative to NC2 (P < 0.001), with a similar effect for distal ileum IP6 disappearance. Overall, phytase in the NC diets increased P digestibility, and femur breaking strength and cortical bone mineral density at days 22 and 33. Overall, each of the phytases at each dose degraded IP6-3 across the gastrointestinal tract segments to increase P digestibility and the P and Ca utilization in bone. However, dietary BSP at 1,000 FTU/kg was most effective. Supplemental phytase degrades phytate to decrease the anti-nutritional effects in a dose- and phytase-dependent manner.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/química , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Citrobacter/química , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 384-398, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315463

RESUMO

Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg) maintained singly in a metabolic cage were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square experiment to investigate the effect of supplementing a ration with five different levels of distillers' grape residue (DGR) on ruminal degradability, whole tract digestibility and nitrogen (N) metabolism of growing lambs. The rations were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and contained 0, 3.85, 7.70, 11.55 and 15.41% DGR (DM basis). Each experimental period lasted for 18 d: 10 d for adaptation to the dietary treatment and 8 d for faecal, urinary, ruminal and duodenal digesta sample collections. The outflow rate of ruminal digesta increased (p = 0.032) linearly with the increased level of dietary neutral detergent fibre content, caused by the supplementation of DGR. As a result, the effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein decreased significantly with the treatments. Although the dietary intake of N, duodenal flow of total N, and the endogenous N at the duodenum were not affected by experimental treatments, N fractions in the digesta were altered. Ruminal microbial N decreased (p < 0.01) linearly; in contrast, ruminal un-degradable protein increased linearly (p < 0.01) in response to the increased addition of DGR. Although there was no significant difference in faecal N among treatments, N retention was increased linearly (p = 0.014), owing to the remarkable reduction (p = 0.016) of urinary N excretion with an increasing level of DGR. The results indicate that the DGR has some potential benefits of increasing the supply of bypass protein and of improving the utilisation efficiency of N for sheep. Therefore, the supplementation of DGR in ruminant feeding is recommended at levels not exceeding 10% of the diet.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Vitis/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo
8.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5504-5513, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329975

RESUMO

The interaction between bird type (broilers and layers) and corn particle size (fine, medium, and coarse) on the coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) of DM, nitrogen (N), starch, fat, gross energy (GE), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), and AMEn was investigated in a 2 by 3 factorial study of 6 dietary treatments. Whole corn was ground in a hammer mill to pass through screen sizes of 2.0, 5.0, and 8.0 mm for fine, medium, and coarse grades, respectively. A corn-soybean meal diet, mixed using the same batch of ingredients, was fed to both bird types. Titanium dioxide was included in all diets for digestibility measurements. 35-day-old Ross 308 male broilers and 59-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were used in this study. For each bird type, 108 birds of uniform body weights were accommodated in 18 replicates (6 replicates per particle size and 6 birds per replicate). The treatment diets were offered ad libitum for 7 d prior to the collection of ileal digesta. A bird type by particle size interaction was observed (P < 0.001) for the CAID of DM, starch and GE. In broilers, CAID of DM, starch and GE was unaffected by particle size, whilst in layers, increasing the corn particle size to medium and coarse resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) CAID for DM, starch and GE compared to fine particles. The CAID of N and fat was greater (P < 0.05) in broilers than layers and the opposite was observed (P < 0.05) for Ca and P. Regardless of bird type, coarse and medium-ground corn resulted in a greater (P < 0.05) Ca digestibility compared to finely-ground corn. Overall, broilers had a greater digestibility of nutrients than layers, except for Ca and P. Feeding medium and coarse corn particles benefited the CAID of DM, starch and GE in layers, suggesting that digestive system in these birds is probably more sensitive to feed particle size than broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo Energético , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Zea mays/química
9.
Theriogenology ; 138: 9-15, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279051

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on selenium supplementation on attainment of puberty in Saanen male goat kids. Forty Saanen male goats kids were divided into two groups: selenium supplemented (n = 20) and control (n = 20). The treatment group received sodium selenite at a ninety days interval for an experimental period of 150 days. All experimental Saanen male goat kids were fed Lucerne hay deficient in selenium. The development of the reproductive functions of the male goat kids was monitored until puberty. At the age of 5.5 months motile spermatozoa were collected from 65% of the supplemented group compared to 35% of the control. At 140 days following supplementation the treated group showed significantly higher semen volume per ejaculate and improved semen quality in the form of improved spermatozoa motility and concentration and a decreased percentage of dead spermatozoa, spermatozoa abnormalities and acrosome damage compared to the control. Supplementation with selenium significantly (P < 0.05) improved body weight, testicular measurements and decreased age at puberty. Selenium supplementation also led to higher (P < 0.05) LH and testosterone concentrations. It is concluded that selenium supplementation hastened age at attainment of puberty to 5.5 months in male Saanen kids as the control group attained puberty at 6 months. It also improved semen quality and reproductive hormones concentration of Saanen kids.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cabras/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Selênio/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 360-373, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342788

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON), a mycotoxin synthesised by the Fusarium, is known to affect the growth of pigs. This effect can be attenuated with sodium meta-bisulphite (SBS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of SBS with antioxidant blend on nutrient digestibility in pigs fed a diet contaminated naturally with DON. Six crossbred castrated pigs fitted surgically with single-T cannulas in the distal ileum received one of four barley-corn-soybean diets with or without SBS. After 8 d of feeding, faeces and ileal digesta were collected for 2 d. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of the dry matter (DM), energy, nutrients and DON, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), energy and DON were evaluated. The AID of phosphorus, calcium and some amino acids was increased (p < 0.05) in the DON diets whereas the ATTD of DM and energy tended to decrease (p = 0.064 and p = 0.071). SBS reduced the AID of DM, energy, ADF, ether extract, phosphorus and DON (p < 0.05) but had no effect on the ATTD of DM, energy, fibre or DON. These results show that DON improved the AID of some nutrients but tended to reduce the ATTD of energy, which could explain, although anorexia is the main effect of DON on live weight gain, the reported negative effect of DON on pig growth. Finally, SBS with antioxidant blend had reduced AID of some nutrients and intestinal absorption of DON.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Sulfitos/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Sulfitos/administração & dosagem , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricotecenos/administração & dosagem
11.
Theriogenology ; 138: 137-144, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352175

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the effects of l-arginine (L-Arg) supplementation on steroid hormone receptors in non-pregnant ovine endometrium. All experimental ewes were randomly assigned to either a control group (n = 6), a nutrient-restricted group (n = 6), or an L-Arg supplemented nutrient-restricted group (n = 6). The effects of L-Arg on estrogen receptor α/ß (ERα/ß) and progesterone receptor (PGR) expression in the ovine endometrium were assessed. Our results showed that levels of ERß and PGR expression were significantly increased by nutrient restriction, but L-Arg counteracted the effect of nutrient restriction on ERß and PGR expression (p < 0.05). Also, expression of endometrial ERα was substantially increased (p < 0.05) by L-Arg supplementation. Furthermore, ERα/ß and PGR were mainly detected in the endometrial luminal epithelium and glandular epithelium. Therefore, we isolated and identified endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) from sheep. Different concentrations of L-Arg were added to investigate the effects on ERα/ß and PGR in EECs. The expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, ERß, and PGR were significantly increased in response to low-concentration (200 µmol) L-Arg supplementation, which subsequently decreased with a high concentration (800 µmol) (p < 0.05). Otherwise, ERα expression was remarkably increased at both L-Arg concentrations in EECs (p < 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that L-Arg performed crucial roles in the regulation of ovine steroid hormone receptor expression in the endometrium. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical means for the normal function of endometrium in response to low nutrient levels.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Restrição Calórica , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Ovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Restrição Calórica/veterinária , Células Cultivadas , Endométrio/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Gravidez , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/metabolismo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5477-5487, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347655

RESUMO

Coccidiosis and rapid growth rate (GR) compromise bone mineralization in modern broilers. We tested the hypothesis that reducing GR via diet dilution during peak bone development will improve bone mineralization in both infected and uninfected broilers. A total of 384 male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to a basal grower diet (3,107 kcal/kg ME and 19.4% CP) diluted with 0, 5, 10, or 15% lignocellulose (n = 12 pens/treatment, 8 birds/pen) at day 10 of age. Prior to this, birds in each group received half the intended diet-dilution levels (day 8 to 10 of age) and a common starter diet (day 1 to 7 of age). At day 13 of age (day 0 post-infection, pi), birds were orally inoculated with either 7,000 sporulated Eimeria maxima oocysts (I) or water (C), forming a 4 diet-dilution level × 2 infection status factorial experiment. Performance was measured over 12 days pi and scaled to BW at infection (day 0 pi) to account for a priori BW differences. At day 12 pi (day 25 of age), 1 bird/pen (a total of 6 birds/treatment) was sampled to assess tibia and femur mineralization relative to BW, and carcass yield. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between infection status and diet-dilution level on ADFI/BW measured over day 1 to 12 pi, or on any bone variable. ADG/BW pi decreased (P < 0.01) with diet dilution amongst C birds, but was statistically similar (P > 0.05) amongst I birds. I compared to C birds had reduced breast meat (P < 0.05) and eviscerated carcass yield (P < 0.01), femur (P < 0.05) and tibia (P < 0.01) breaking strength (BS), and femur ash weight (AW) (P < 0.05). Diet dilution did not affect carcass yield, but improved femur BS (P < 0.001), and tended to improve (P < 0.1) femur and tibia AW. Overall, diet dilution significantly affected femur, more than tibia, variables: relative BS, robusticity index, and ash percentage. Reducing GR affected broiler long bone mineralization to a similar degree in the presence or absence of coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fêmur/fisiologia , Lignina/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Tíbia/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eimeria/fisiologia , Lignina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 92: 719-727, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271838

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of intestinal microbial manipulation by dietary probiotic supplementation on digestive enzyme activity, immune-related gene transcription, intestinal structure alteration, and viability against pathogenic challenge in olive flounder. Similar-sized flounders (14.92 ±â€¯0.21 g) were divided into three groups and supplemented with a control (without probiotic) or 1 × 108 CFU/g diet of each of Bacillus sp. SJ-10 (ProB) and Lactobacillus plantarum (ProL) for eight weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, the estimated intestinal microbial richness (Chao1) and diversity (Shannon) demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) abundance in the ProB group (484.80 ±â€¯88.75, 5.08 ±â€¯0.17) compared to the ProL (285.32 ±â€¯17.78, 4.54 ±â€¯0.09) and control groups (263.23 ±â€¯20.20, 4.30 ±â€¯0.20). A similar alteration phenomenon was also found at the phylum level, with a higher abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Acidobacteria. Trypsin and lipase activities were elevated in both the ProB and ProL groups compared to the control, but amylase was only higher in the ProB group. The expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß, and IL-6 were significantly higher in the ProB group than in the other two groups. There was a significant increase in transcription of IL-10 in both the ProB and ProL groups compared to the control. The length of villi and microvilli of probiotic-fed olive flounder was increased but was not significantly different from the control group. In an in vivo challenge experiment with Streptococcus iniae (1 × 108 CFU/mL), the survival rates of the ProB and ProL groups were 29.17% and 12.50%, respectively, when control mortality reached 100%. Therefore, intestinal microbiota manipulation by probiotic supplementation increased the richness of the bacterial population, digestive enzyme activity, intestinal immune gene transcription, and infectious disease protection in olive flounder.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Linguados/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Probióticos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Linguados/anatomia & histologia , Linguados/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/enzimologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem
14.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5601-5612, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222203

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of crude soybean lecithin (L) as an alternative energy source in broiler feeding and to study its influence on performance, fatty acid (FA) digestibility between 9 to 11 D and 36 to 37 D, feed AME content, and the FA profile of the abdominal fat pad (AFP). A basal diet was supplemented at 3% with soybean oil (S; experiment 1) or a monounsaturated vegetable acid oil (A; experiment 2) and increasing amounts of L (1, 2, and 3%) were included in replacement. The inclusion of L did not modify performance results (P > 0.05). In starter diets, the replacement of S by L reduced feed AME content (P < 0.001) and lowered PUFA digestibility (P = 0.028), whereas in the grower-finisher phase, a blend of 2% of S and 1% of L did not modify feed AME content or FA digestibility. When L was included instead of A, no effects on feed AME value and total FA digestibility (P > 0.05) were shown in the starter phase, whereas in grower-finisher diets, a blending of 2% of A and 1% of L enhanced feed AME content (P < 0.001) and total FA digestibility (P = 0.001). The FA profile of the AFP reflected the FA composition of the diets. Crude soybean lecithin represents an alternative energy source for broiler chickens, and it can be used in growing-finishing diets in replacement of 1% S. The best option to include both alternative fats (L and A) was 2% of L with 1% of A in starter diets and 1% of L with 2% of A in grower-finisher diets because they showed positive synergic effects. The results suggest that dietary FA profile have a bigger impact on the AFP saturation degree than the different dietary lipid molecular structures.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/metabolismo , Lecitinas/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Soja/química , Tecido Adiposo/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lecitinas/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem
15.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5613-5621, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222275

RESUMO

This study focused on analyzing the effects of inclusion of modern hybrid rye to corn-wheat diet on mechanical properties of bones and tendons. A total of 224 broiler chickens were fed a diet without rye inclusion or a diet containing 15% of hybrid rye cv. Brasetto. The diets were either unsupplemented or supplemented with xylanase (minimum activity 1000 FXU/g, dose 200 mg/kg of feed). Each dietary group consisted of 56 birds. On day 42, selected chickens (n = 7 from each group) were slaughtered. Tibia were analyzed for mineralization, geometry, and biomechanical characteristics of bone mid-diaphysis. The mechanical properties of digital flexor III tendon were also assessed. Bone mineral density and bone ash percentage did not differ when both diets were given without xylanase. Enzyme supplementation increased bone mineral density (P < 0.01) in both dietary groups, whereas bone ash percentage (P < 0.01) increased only for corn-wheat diet. Rye inclusion had no effect on bone mid-shaft geometrical traits related to tibia weight-bearing capacity (cross-sectional area, cortical index, and mean relative wall thickness). Performed bending test showed no effect of hybrid rye inclusion on bone mechanical endurance. When xylanase was supplemented, bone length (P < 0.01) and weight (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas yield load (P < 0.01), stiffness (P < 0.05), Young modulus (P < 0.05), elastics stress (P < 0.01), and ultimate stress (P < 0.01) increased, irrespective of rye presence. The tendon tensile strain test showed that in corn-wheat diet enzyme supplementation positively influenced rupture force (P < 0.05) and tendon stiffness (P < 0.01). Xylanase supplementation increased the value of energy required to tendon rupture, irrespective of rye inclusion (P < 0.05). Study showed that modern hybrid rye varieties can be introduced to corn-wheat diets of broiler chickens in the aspect of animal welfare related to the development and homeostasis of musculoskeletal system, irrespective of xylanase supplementation. The enzyme addition positively affected biomechanical properties of bones and tendons.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Secale/química , Tendões/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5622-5635, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222316

RESUMO

The aim of the current study was to evaluate egg production, quality, and apparent retention (AR) of components in response to a multi-dose application of a single strain Bacillus subtilis (SSB; DSM29784) in a corn-soybean meal basal diet fed to hens (19 to 48 wk of age). The treatments consisted of a basal diet with either no probiotic (control, CON), 1.1E+08 (low, LSSB), 2.2E+08 (medium, MSSB) or 1.1E+09 (high, HSSB) CFU/kg of diet. A total of 336, 19-wk old Shaver White layers were used at a stocking density of 7 and 6 hens/replicate-cage in layer I (week-19 to 28) and layer II (week-29 to 48) phases, respectively. Evaluated variables included feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg production, weight, mass, and egg quality (shell thickness, shell breaking strength, albumen height (AH), and Haugh unit (HU)). Excreta was collected at the end of week-28 for AR of components and apparent metabolizable energy (AME). Supplementation of SSB increased (P = 0.008) FI during peak egg-lay (week-24) and BW increased linearly (P = 0.019) in early layer II (week-32). In layer I, LSSB compared with CON increased EM (g/egg) by 3.3% (P = 0.049). In layer II, SSB inclusion tended to improve FCR (linear, P = 0.094; g FI: g EM). Although shell breaking strength was lowest at week-20 with HSSB (4.518 vs. 4.889 kgf for HSSB vs. CON; P = 0.045), AH and HU were improved at higher dose of SSB, in both phases (P ≤ 0.005). Apparent retention of dry matter, AME, and minerals were improved (P < 0.0001) in a dose response. Hence, while the low dose of B. subtilis DSM29784 improved hen performance and maintained egg quality in both phases, a higher dose of SSB improved the interior protein quality of eggs (AH and HU).


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5636-5647, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237336

RESUMO

Flaxseed cake (FSC) is a potential alternative feed source in poultry. However, cyanogenetic glycosides limit its widespread use in feed. In this study, we optimized the parameters of fermentation by Aspergillus niger and Candida utilis and compared the growth performance, serum lipid parameters, and organ indexes of Cherry Valley duckling feed with unfermented FSC (UFSC) or fermented FSC (FFSC). A total of 420 one-day-old male Cherry Valley ducklings were randomly assigned into a 1 plus 2 × 3 factorial design including 2 different FSC resources (UFSC and FFSC) at 3 levels (50, 100, or 150 g/kg) for 3 wk. Each treatment group included 6 pens with 10 ducklings per pen. The hydrocyanic acid (HCN) level was reduced under the following conditions: 1:0.8 FSC:water (w:v), inoculum ratio of 1 mL:1 mL, 30°C, and 60 h. FFSC had higher crude protein (CP) and calcium (Ca) levels and lower HCN levels compared with UFSC (P < 0.05). There was no interactive effect between FSC sources and levels on growth performance. Final body weight (FBW), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and average daily gain (ADG) in UFSC groups and ADFI in FFSC groups decreased linearly with increasing FSC levels (P < 0.01). There were no differences in FBW, ADG, or feed:gain ratio (F/G) among FFSC groups, and all 7 FSC groups had no differences in the F/G ratio (P > 0.05). Dietary FSC supplementation decreased triglyceride (TG) (P < 0.01), total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.01), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.01), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P < 0.01). No interactive effect between FSC levels and sources was observed for serum TG, TC, HDL, or LDL. Ducklings fed FFSC had lower TG (P < 0.01), TC (P = 0.05), and LDL (P < 0.01) levels compared with ducklings fed UFSC. The 150 g/kg FFSC group had the lowest TG, TC, HDL, and LDL levels among all 7 groups. Flaxseed cake supplementation decreased the relative weight of the left breast, but FFSC increased the relative weight of the gizzard compared with UFSC. In conclusion, fermentation could increase the nutritional value and usage of FSC in ducklings.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Patos/fisiologia , Fermentação , Linho/química , Valor Nutritivo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5669-5678, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247645

RESUMO

Growth performance, nutrient digestibility, jejunal morphology, plasma cytokine, and gene expression responses of broiler chickens (Cobb 500) to graded concentrations of dietary soybean bioactive peptide (SBP) and coccidia challenge (CC) were investigated in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, 384 male broiler chicks were used to investigate the effect of graded dietary concentrations of SBP on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology in a randomized complete block design with 8 replicate cages and 6 diets. Corn-soybean meal-based diet was supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 g of SBP/kg of diet. There were linear effects (P < 0.05) of graded concentrations of SBP on BW, BW gain, gain:feed, ileal villus height, and jejunal crypt depth at day 22 post hatching. There were linear effects (P < 0.01) of graded SBP concentrations on Ileal DM and energy digestibility. Experiment 2 was conducted to investigate the immune-protective properties of SBP on broiler chickens during a coccidia challenge. A total of 256 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 replicate cages in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 SBP levels (0 or 4 g/kg of diet) and with or without CC. On day 14 post hatching, birds in the challenged group received 20×, which is twice the recommended coccidia vaccine dose of 25 doses/kg BW, whereas the non-challenged group received physiological saline. Dietary SBP ameliorated the CC-induced effect (P = 0.01) on gain: feed. Coccidia challenge reduced (P < 0.05) jejunal villi height, whereas dietary SBP supplementation increased (P < 0.05) jejunal villi height. Dietary SBP attenuated the CC-induced effects (P < 0.05) on the expression of plasma IL-1ß, transforming growth factor-ß, claudin-1, and occludin genes. In conclusion, dietary SBP improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and jejunal morphology. In addition, dietary SBP reduced the impact of coccidia challenge, and may be beneficial in the feed of broiler chickens for alleviation of health-related effects of coccidia infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Soja/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eimeria/fisiologia , Masculino , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5541-5550, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180117

RESUMO

Growth performance and gastrointestinal (GIT) responses to a single-strain of Bacillus subtilis (SSB) were investigated using 960 Hybrid Converter Toms. A total of 4 iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous corn-soybean meal-based diets were allocated to 12 replicate cages/pens and fed (ad libitum) in a four-phase feeding program (starter; days 0 to 28, grower-1; days 29 to 56, grower-2; days 57 to 84, and finisher; days 85 to 126). The diets had either 0 (control), 1E+08 (low), 2E+08 (mid) or 1E+09 (high) cfu B. subtilis/kg. Feed intake (FI) and BW were recorded by phase. Excreta samples were collected towards the end of starter and grower-1 phases for apparent retention (AR) of components by marker method and litter moisture, respectively. Selected birds were necropsied on days 28 and 56 for GIT weight and samples for jejunal histomorphology and ceca digesta short chain fatty acids (SCFA). Supplemental SSB had linear and non-linear (P < 0.05) response on BW gain (BWG). Specifically, relative to the control, birds fed low SSB had higher BWG in starter and grower-1 phases whereas bird fed mid and high SSB had lower BWG in grower-2 and birds fed low and mid SSB had higher BWG in finisher phase. Consequently, birds fed low and mid SSB doses were heavier (P < 0.05) than control fed birds at the end of trial. The FCR response to SSB was linear and non-linear (P < 0.05) with birds fed low SSB showing lower FCR than control fed birds in starter, grower-1 and finisher phases. Supplemental SSB had linear and non-linear (P < 0.05) effects on AR of components (DM, ash, crude protein, crude fat, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy), litter moisture, GIT weight, jejunal histomorphology, and SCFA. Relative to control, birds fed high SSB showed higher AR of components, villi height, day 56 ceca digesta total SCFA concentration, and lower litter moisture. In conclusions, under condition of the current study, growth performance was optimized by low to mid SSB. Improved nutrient retention and indices of gut health suggested higher SSB doses may optimize growth performance under challenging farm conditions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Bacillus subtilis/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Perus/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Masculino , Soja/química , Perus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5525-5532, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180123

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 3 novel proteases in broilers. In experiment 1, 600 male, Cobb 500 broilers were allocated to 1 of 12 experimental diets (5 birds/pen and 10 replicates/diet). A control (C) diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Proteases 1, 2, or 3 were added to this diet at 3 doses (1x, 3x, or 9x) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The factorial was augmented with 2 treatments of phytase at 500 or 1,500 FTU/kg added to the C diet. In experiment 2, 2,050 male Ross 308 broilers were allocated to 1 of 10 experimental diets (25 birds/pen and 9 replicates/diet). A C diet was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Protease 1, 2, or 3 was then added to the C diet at 3 doses (1x, 2x, or 4x) in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments plus the C. In experiment 1, birds fed phytase gained more (P < 0.05) than birds fed protease, but neither were different than birds fed the C. Supplementation of 9x dose of any protease resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in BWG when compared with birds fed 1x dose of protease or phytase at 500 or 1,500 FTU/kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved (P < 0.05) in birds fed phytase compared with birds fed the C diet. Nitrogen digestibility was greater (P < 0.05) in birds fed protease 1 when compared with birds fed protease 2. Birds fed the 1x dose of protease or 500 FTU/kg of phytase had a greater (P < 0.05) N digestibility than birds fed 3x dose of protease. In experiment 2, protease supplementation significantly reduced (P < 0.05) BWG when compared with birds fed the C from hatch to 35 D post-hatch. Protease supplementation did not improve broiler growth performance or N digestibility above that of a nutrient adequate control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 FTU/kg of phytase.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
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