Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 716
Filtrar
1.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100962, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652522

RESUMO

Total replacement of dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi) by a novel consensus bacterial 6-phytase variant (PhyG) in phytate-rich diets (>0.3% phytate-P) was investigated in 2 trials using growth performance and bone quality as outcome measures. Both trials utilized a completely randomized design with 5 dietary treatments across 4 phases: starter (0-10 d), grower (10-21 d), finisher 1 (21-35 d), and finisher 2 (35-42 d). Treatments comprised a nutritionally adequate positive control (PC) diet containing monocalcium phosphate and 4 experimental diets (IPF1, IPF2, IPF3, and IPF4), all containing no added Pi and reduced in Ca by 0.2 to 0.3% units vs. PC. IPF1contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases); IPF2 contained PhyG at 1,000 FTU/kg (all phases) and was additionally reduced in digestible AA, ME, and sodium (-0.2 to -0.4% points, -74 kcal/kg, -0.04% points, respectively, vs. PC); IPF3 contained PhyG at 3,000 FTU/kg in starter, 2,000 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases; and IPF4 contained xylanase (2,000 U/kg) and PhyG (2,000 FTU/kg in starter, 1,500 FTU/kg in grower, and 1,000 FTU/kg in finisher phases) and was additionally reduced in ME (-71 kcal/kg vs. PC). Ross 308 broilers were used (trial 1: n = 1,200 mixed sex; 24 birds per pen × 10 replicates; trial 2: n = 1,300 males; 26 birds × 10 replicates). During all phases in both trials, all IPF treatments maintained or improved BW, ADG, ADFI, FCR and BW-corrected FCRc and bone quality parameters vs. PC. vs. PC, treatment IPF3 increased ADG during starter phase (+10.8%) and reduced overall FCRc (-12 points, P < 0.05) in Trial 1, and increased overall ADG (+4.4%), day 35 and day 42 BW (+3.5%, +4.9%), and reduced overall FCRc (-11 points) in Trial 2 (P < 0.05). IPF4 produced equivalent performance to IPF3 (both trials). These are the first data to demonstrate total replacement of Pi by microbial phytase during an entire growth cycle in broiler diets.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Osso e Ossos , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100963, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652544

RESUMO

Diets enriched with phytogenic feed additives (PFA) such as AV/HGP/16 premix (AVHGP), Superliv concentrate premix (SCP), and bacteriostatic herbal growth promotor (BHGP) with essential oils have been shown to improve feed efficiency (FE) in broilers. This FE improvement was achieved via modulation of hypothalamic neuropeptides, which results despite feed intake reduction, in increased breast yield without changes in body weight compared to the control group. To gain further insights into the mode of action of these PFA, the present study aimed to determine the potential involvement of signaling pathways associated with lipid and protein metabolism. One day-old male Cobb 500 chicks were randomly assigned into 1 of 4 treatments, comprising 8 replicates per treatment in a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (control) or 0.55 g/kg diet of AVHGP, SCP, or BHGP. The birds had ad libitum access to water and feed. On day 35, after blood sampling, the liver, abdominal adipose tissue (AT), and breast muscle samples were collected. The levels of phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)Ser2481 as well as its levels of mRNA and those of its downstream mediator RPS6B1 were significantly upregulated in the muscle of the PFA-fed groups compared with the control group. In the liver, the phosphorylated levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha at Ser79, the rate-limiting enzyme in fat synthesis, was significantly induced in the PFA-fed groups compared with the control group, indicating a lower hepatic lipogenesis. The hepatic expression of hepatic triglyceride lipase (LIPC) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was significantly upregulated in the AVHGP-fed group compared with the control group. These hepatic changes were accompanied by a significant downregulation of hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein in all the PFA groups and an upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma in the SCP-fed compared with the control group. In the AT, the mRNA abundances of ATGL and LIPC were significantly increased in both SCP- and BHGP-fed birds compared with the control group. Together these data indicate that PFA improve FE via modulation of muscle mTOR pathway and hepatic lipolytic/lipogenic programs, thus, favoring muscle protein synthesis and lowering hepatic lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Extratos Vegetais , Proteínas , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Aditivos Alimentares/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100800, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518302

RESUMO

A meta-analysis of 19 floor-pen trials (579 replicate pen observations) in diverse geographies, basal diets, seasons, and medication programs was carried out to evaluate the effects of 2 precision glycan microbiome metabolic modulators (MMM1 and MMM2) on the performance of broiler chickens. In each trial, negative-control (NC) diets were compared with either MMM1 (14 trials) or MMM2 (8 trials), supplemented at an intended dose of 500 g/MT from hatch to 31 to 42 d. A dose response of MMM2 was evaluated in 8 trials at doses of 100, 250, 500, and 1,000 g/MT, not all present in each trial. Linear mixed-effect models were constructed for the final BW, cumulative feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) corrected by mortality and BW (cFCR), and mortality, with Treatment as the fixed effect, nested random effects of Trial and Block, and adjustments for heterogeneity of variances. A significance level of P < 0.05 was used. In one of the studies, cecal content samples were collected at 42 d for analysis of microbiome gene abundance. Microbiome metabolic modulator 2 exhibited a reduction of the cFCR of 0.06 g feed/g BW gain compared with the NC and 0.03 g feed/g BW gain compared with MMM1, whereas MMM1 reduced the cFCR by 0.03 g feed/g BW gain compared with NC. Both MMM1 and MMM2 increased the final BW compared with the NC by 43 and 48 g/bird, respectively, with no difference among them. Compared with NC, feed intake was increased by MMM1 (+51 g/bird) and reduced by MMM2 (-74 g/bird). A one-directional dose response of the MMM2 ingredient was observed for the final BW (increasing) and cFCR (decreasing), whereas the feed intake response reached a minimum at 500 g/MT. The metagenomic analysis confirmed an increase in the abundance of genes belonging to the acrylate pathway, which is involved in propionate production, as well as arginine-N-succinyl transferase which is involved in the catabolism of arginine, in response to MMM2. Differential glycan structures of the MMM had an impact on the size and consistency of performance effects in broilers.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ceco , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético , Microbiota , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100897, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518313

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of compound small peptides of Chinese medicine (CSPCM) on the intestinal microbiota of broilers. A total of thirty-six 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 6 dietary treatments that include 250, 500, and 750 g/T of CSPCM in feed, 100 g/T of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium butyricum in feed, and 100 g/T of 50,000 IU xylanase in feed. Each treatment had 2 replicates with 2 cages (3 birds per cage). The jejunal digesta samples were collected from chickens at 42 d. Operational taxonomic unit analysis showed that adding CSPCM at a concentration of 750 g/T of feed can increase the number of operational taxonomic unit samples than other groups. Compared with the control group, adding 250 g/T of CSPCM of feed can improve content of Lactobacillus, Cupriavidus, Ochrobactrum, Candidatus_Arthromitus, Acinetobacter, and Sphingomonas. Adding 500 g/T of CSPCM in feed resulted in varying degrees of improvement in Candidatus_Arthromitus, Acinetobacter, and Sphingomonas. Adding 750 g/T of CSPCM in feed can increase the content of Lactobacillus and Candidatus_Arthromitus. In PICRUSt function prediction analysis, CSPCM acts on the body by creating an environment suitable for the growth of beneficial bacteria. Adding 250 g/T of CSPCM in feed can improve amino acid metabolism, endocrine system function, membrane transport, and cell mobility function. Adding 500 g/T of CSPCM in feed can improve replication and repair and membrane transport function. Adding 750 g/T of CSPCM in feed can increase carbohydrate metabolism, replication and repair, and membrane transport function. Adding B. subtilis and C. butyricum in feed increased replication and repair and membrane transport function. Adding xylanase in feed increased membrane transport function. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that dietary supplementation of CSPCM to broiler diets increased beneficial flora content, metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acid metabolism, the deposition of proteins, renewal of bacteria, and maintenance of vigorous vitality. Among the 3 additive quantities of 250 g/t, 500 g/t, and 750 g/t of CSPCM in feed, 250 g/t of CSPCM improved parameters that are necessary for improved growth and production.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Peptídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Dieta/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Peptídeos/farmacologia
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100947, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518311

RESUMO

This study investigated whether dietary resistant potato starch (RPS) inclusion could ameliorate the negative impact of a low nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) diet on growth performance, feather growth, feather follicles (FF) development, and carcass traits by improving nutrient utilization and cecal microbiome fermentation capacity in Pekin ducks. The experiment was performed with a 2 × 2 randomized block design with 2 levels of RPS (0 or 12%) and 2 levels of nPP (low or normal, low: 0.22% at 1-14 d and 0.18% at 15-35 d of age; normal: 0.40% at 1-14 d and 0.35% at 15-35 d of age) for a total of 4 treatments, each with 8 replicate pens per treatment of 12 birds per pen. As regards growth performance and carcass traits, RPS inclusion markedly increased (P < 0.05) BW of 14 and 35 d, BWG and FI of 1-14 d, 15-35 d, and 1-35 d as well as abdominal fat and breast meat percentage of 35 d in ducks fed low nPP diets; moreover, RSP inclusion significantly reduced (P < 0.05) mortality in ducks fed low nPP diets. As regards feather growth and follicles development of 35 d, RPS inclusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) the fourth primary feather length, absolute feather weight, and the density of primary FF in the back skin in ducks fed low nPP diets. In regard to nutrition utilization, RPS supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the availability of DM, CP, and energy, as well as dietary AME at 35 d of age in ducks fed low nPP diets. However, RPS supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids and the activities of cecal phytase and cellulase in ducks fed low nPP diets. These results indicate that RPS can improve nutrient availability to ameliorate the negative effects on performance and feather development caused by a low nPP diet in Pekin ducks.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Patos , Plumas , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Plumas/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Solanum tuberosum/química
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100971, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516469

RESUMO

Production of crystalline amino acids (AA) through microbial fermentation concomitantly provides an AA-enriched biomass that may serve as a cost-effective supplement for broiler chickens. We investigated the effects of feeding a fermentation biomass product containing approximately 62% Lys on growth performance, organ growth, and clinical outcomes of broilers. Beginning at 2 d post-hatch, a total of 360 Ross 308 chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments provided to 12 replicate cages of 6 birds. Practical corn-soybean meal-based dietary treatments included: negative control (NC; no supplementation of L-Lys, 1.01 and 0.86% standardized ileal digestible Lys in starter and grower phases, respectively), NC + 0.23% L-Lys HCl (positive control; PC), and NC supplemented with 0.30, 0.90, or 1.50% Lys biomass (LB) in both phases. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the study. Individual bird and feeder weights were recorded on study day 0, 10, 21, and 35. At study conclusion, birds from each treatment were randomly selected to collect blood and tissue samples. The PC and 0.30% LB diets elicited similar overall (day 0-35) body weight gain and birds were heavier (P < 0.001) than the NC and other LB treatments. The PC, 0.30% LB, and 0.90% LB groups had better (P < 0.001) overall feed conversion ratio than NC. Some LB-supplemented treatments elicited increased (P < 0.001) relative spleen and ileum weight compared with NC and PC. Heterophils were increased (P < 0.001) in LB treatments compared with PC and NC. Lymphocytes were decreased (P < 0.001) in LB treatments compared with NC, and 1.50% LB was similar to PC. This resulted in an increased (P < 0.001) heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in some LB treatments, which may have resulted from general AA supplementation or the LB product. Collectively, these results suggest that addition of up to 0.30% LB restored growth performance when added to a Lys-deficient practical diet and elicited results identical to the Lys-adequate PC diet with no negative clinical effects.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Crescimento , Lisina , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Biomassa , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 224-234, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357685

RESUMO

Inositol is the final product of phytate degradation, which has the potential to serve as an indicator of phytase efficacy. An experiment was conducted to evaluate effects of supplementing broiler diets with phytase on phytate degradation and plasma inositol concentrations at 28 d of age. Twenty-four Ross × Ross 708 male chicks were placed in battery cages (4 birds per cage) from 1 to 21 d of age and individually from 22 to 28 d of age. At 27 d of age, a catheter was placed in the brachial vein of broilers to avoid repeated puncture of the vein during blood collection. At 28 d of age, broilers received 1 of 3 experimental diets formulated to contain 0, 400, or 1,200 phytase units (FTU)/kg, respectively, in diet 1, 2, and 3. Blood was collected 1 h before feeding experimental diets and from 20 to 240 min after feeding experimental diets at 20-min intervals with a final blood collection at 480 min to determine plasma inositol concentrations. Inositol phosphate (IP) ester degradation was determined in gizzard contents and ileal digesta. Broilers provided the 1,200 FTU/kg phytase diet had 60% less (P < 0.01) IP6 concentration in gizzard content (1,264 vs. 4,176 nmol/g) and ileal digesta (13,472 vs. 33,244 nmol/g) than birds fed the 400 FTU/kg diet. Adding phytase at 1,200 FTU/kg increased (P < 0.01) inositol concentrations in gizzard content and ileal digesta of broilers by 2.5 (2,703 vs. 1,071 nmol/g) and 3.5 (16,485 vs. 4,667 nmol/g) fold, respectively, compared with adding 400 FTU/kg. Plasma inositol concentration of broilers was not different (P = 0.94) among the dietary treatments at each collection time. Inositol liberation in the digesta of broilers fed diets with 1,200 FTU/kg phytase did not translate to increased plasma inositol concentrations, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Plasma , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Inositol/sangue , Masculino , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Plasma/química , Plasma/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasma/enzimologia
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567213

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of including Acacia mearnsii tannin extract (TA) as a feed additive on nutrition and productive performance of dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture and receiving supplementation with a concentrate feedstuff. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to either of the following treatments: concentrate without or with 20 g TA/kg dry matter (DM). Concentrate intake accounted for 32% of the total DM intake. Tannin addition increased the herbage DM intake by 22% (p < .05). There was no effect of TA inclusion on milk yield, milk composition, milk nitrogen (N) excretion, milk and plasma urea-N concentration, urinary excretion of total N, urea-N, and purine derivatives. However, TA inclusion increased the N intake and retention, total N excretion in manure, fecal N to urine N ratio, and decreased the dietary N efficiency for milk production and the percentage of ingested N excreted in urine (p < .05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture with a concentrate containing 20 g TA/kg DM showed the potential of decreasing the proportion of ingested N excreted in urine without affecting the productive performance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herbivoria , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484296

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) on the growth and immunity of mouse pups in artificial rearing (AR) system. Mouse pups were reared in the AR system with artificial milk including 5% WPH (AR with WPH) or not (AR without WPH), and the remaining pups were reared by their mother (dam) for 14 days after birth. The body weight change and body weight gain rates in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those observed in the AR without WPH group and similar to those in the dam group. Moreover the feed and protein efficiencies in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those of the AR without WPH group. In addition, the supplement of WPH in the AR system was shown to significantly elevate the number of CD3+ CD8+ , B220+ CD19+ , IA/IE+ CD11c+ , and CD11b+ in the thymocyte and/or splenocyte, and the thymus weight. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified the amino acid sequences corresponding to some peptides, and indicated that VRTPEVDDE had the highest relative intensity among the peptides from tested WPH. Therefore, WPH would be required to not only promote growth, but also exert immunomodulatory activities in mouse pups in AR system.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos/imunologia , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite , Animais , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administração & dosagem , Baço/metabolismo , Timócitos/metabolismo
11.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437583

RESUMO

Indigestible fiber-protein-phytate complexes reduce the feeding value of soy products. We investigated the effects of multienzyme supplement (MES, Victus) on standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and minerals in roasted full-fat soybean (FFSB) seeds and expelled-extruded soybean meal (SBM) fed to growing pigs. The crude protein (CP) was 33.4% and 42.8% dry matter (DM) in FFSB seeds and SBM, respectively and corresponding values for crude fat were 17.4% and 11.8% DM. Semi-purified diets with 50% of either FFSB seeds or SBM as the sole source of AA were prepared without or with MES supplying phytase, protease, xylanase, and ß-glucanase at 2,200, 8,300, 400, and 100 U/kg of feed, respectively. Diets had TiO2 as an indigestible marker and the ratio of cornstarch to sucrose and corn oil was identical to calculate DE by the difference method. Eight ileal-cannulated barrows (22.1 ± 0.61 kg) were fed diets in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design to give eight replicates per diet. The period lasted for 9 d: 5 d for acclimation, 2 d for fecal, and 2 d for ileal digesta samples. There was no (P > 0.05) interaction between soy type and MES or MES effect on SID of AA; SBM had higher (P < 0.05) SID of CP, His, Leu, and Lys. There was no (P > 0.05) interaction between soy type and MES on energy digestibility. The FFSB seeds had higher ATTD of gross energy (GE, 80.2% vs. 76.6%; P < 0.01) than SBM. Pigs fed MES had higher (P < 0.05) ATTD of DM (91.3% vs. 87.7 %), GE (87.5% vs. 82.4%), CP (86.4% vs. 82.9%), crude fat (70.6% vs. 54.9%), Ca (63.2% vs. 60.2%), and P (67.5% vs. 63.2%). In conclusions, differences on AA and energy digestibility in soy products could be linked to processing and compositional differences. Although MES had no effect on SID of AA, the effects on the utilization of minerals and energy demonstrated the value of fiber-degrading enzymes, protease, and phytase in improving the nutritive value of soy products independent of processing.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Complexos Multienzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Soja/química , Suínos/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo
12.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2508-2518, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359587

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of genetic selection and threonine levels on meat quality in Pekin ducks. At 15 D of age, 192 lean ducks and 192 fatty ducks were selected and allotted to one of three treatments with 8 replicates with similar BW (8 ducks/cage), respectively. All ducks were fed the experimental diets (0.00, 0.15, and 0.30% added threonine) for 21 D from 15 to 35 D of age. The results showed that fatty ducks had higher (P < 0.001) feed intake, feed/gain ratio, abdominal fat percentage, and sebum percentage and lower (P = 0.001) breast muscle percentage compared with that of lean ducks. The fatty-type and lean-type ducks had similar weight gain and BW. Dietary threonine supplementation improved (P < 0.05) growth performance and increased breast muscle percentage in lean-type ducks, but it did not affect (P > 0.05) those indices in fatty-type ducks. Lean ducks had higher (P < 0.001) hepatic contents of total lipids, triglyceride, cholesterol, and plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, and dietary threonine supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) hepatic total lipid, cholesterol, and triglyceride contents in lean ducks, but it had no influence on hepatic lipids in fatty ducks (P > 0.05). Lean ducks had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), and C18-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the liver, PUFA in the breast muscle, and C18:3n6 and C18:3n3 in plasma and lower C20-PUFA and C22-PUFA in the liver and MUFA in plasma, compared with fatty ducks. Threonine supplementation increased PUFA, N3-PUFA, and n6-PUFA in plasma and hepatic fatty acids profiles in lean ducks (P > 0.05) but had on influence on total MUFA and total PUFA in the liver, breast muscle, and plasma in fatty ducks (P > 0.05). In conclusion, genetic selection toward meat production and threonine supplementation increases meat production and PUFA contents, which would influence eating quality, but it is benefit for human health.


Assuntos
Patos/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Seleção Genética , Treonina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Patos/sangue , Patos/genética , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/química , Músculos Peitorais/química , Plasma/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Treonina/administração & dosagem
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2566-2572, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359592

RESUMO

Use of local feed ingredients in poultry feed, such as oats, can be limited by their perceived less than ideal nutritional content. Dehulling oats is expensive, and it may be that removing hull is detrimental to the bird in terms of gastrointestinal (GI) development, therefore maintaining some of the high-fiber oat hull (OH) might reduce costs and improve potential for inclusion in poultry diets. Male broilers were fed diets with oats replacing 30% of wheat in diets, either dehulled or with graded inclusions of OH from day of hatch until day 35. Each diet was fed to 8 pens of 8 birds and performance recorded weekly. Samples were collected at day 21 and 35 for analysis of ileal amino acid digestibility, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), and gross gut development measures. No detrimental effect was seen on bird weight with hull inclusion, though higher inclusion levels did deleteriously effect feed intake because of increased gut fill from the fiber. Nitrogen corrected AME was also adversely effected in the highest hull inclusion diets. However, amino acid digestibility was improved with hull addition, which may be because of an increase in GI tract length, improving nutrient absorption. Gizzard development was also significantly improved, and thereby, more efficient grinding of diet may also have improved digestibility. At a lower level of hull inclusion (3% total diet) where digestibility is improved without any detrimental effects on gut fill and intake. Oat hull is well known to improve gut development, especially of the gizzard, with resultant increases in digestibility. This is usually attributed to the mechanical effect of fiber in the gizzard having a grinding effect. However in this study, all fiber was finely ground, so the improvements seen cannot be attributed to a physical cause. Oat including diets with some hull remaining are a cost effective way of using oats as a raw material while maximizing bird performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Avena/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/economia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(5): 2650-2654, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359601

RESUMO

Three experiments were conducted to determine ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values for canola meal (CM) using 3 different types of balance assays. The first experiment was an ad libitum-fed chick experiment which evaluated the effect of phytase on ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention values. Chicks were fed a P-deficient cornstarch-dextrose-45% CM basal diet (0.13% nonphytate P) as diet 1 or that diet plus 125 or 250 FTU/kg of phytase, respectively, from 8 to 21 D of age. The digestibility/retention of P was 38% and phytase linearly increased both ileal digestibility and excreta retention of P (P < 0.05). The second experiment was a precision-fed chick assay conducted to determine ileal digestibility of P in CM at 21 D. Mean ileal P digestibility was determined to be 47.5% in chicks fed 6 g and 40.0% in chicks fed 9 g of CM and the values were not significantly different. Experiment 3 was an ad libitum-fed chick assay to determine ileal P digestibility and excreta P retention for CM with and without increasing levels of dietary supplemental Ca. The chicks were fed P-deficient - dextrose - CM diets containing increasing levels of 13.5, 27, 40.5, or 54% CM, respectively, with Ca:nonphytate P ratio maintained at 2:1 in diets 1-4 and 6:1 in diets 5-8. Based on regression analysis of ileal digesta or excreta P output on dietary P concentration, digestibility/retention of P in CM was 30%. Ileal P digestibility (and to a lesser extent excreta P retention) at 21 D was reduced by increased Ca:P ratio. The results of this study indicated that the 3 balance assays yielded reasonably consistent values of 30-40% for P digestibility/retention and ileal P digestibility was greatly affected by Ca:P ratio.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Eliminação Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fósforo/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Íleo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 2026-2032, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241487

RESUMO

Yeast culture (YC) positively affects the performance of laying hens. The purpose of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanism for the YC-mediated performance improvement. Sixty 67-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly allocated into 2 experimental groups with 5 replicates of 6 birds each. One group was fed a control diet, whereas the other received the control diet supplemented with YC at 3.0 g/kg; treatment lasted for 8 wk. The results showed that dietary YC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the total egg weight (11.2-13.6%) and egg-laying rate (13.0-13.5%) but decreased (P < 0.05) the feed/egg ratio by 9.3 to 11.0% during weeks 5 to 6 and 7 to 8 compared with the control. However, egg quality, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, egg weight, albumen height, egg yolk color, and Haugh unit, was not affected (P > 0.05) by YC supplementation. Furthermore, dietary YC supplementation increased (P < 0.05) chymotrypsin and ɑ-amylase activities by 54.8 to 62.5% in the duodenal chyme and reduced (P < 0.05) plasma endotoxin by 44.1%. YC dietary supplementation also upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of intestinal barrier-related genes (occludin and claudin 1) and antimicrobial peptides genes (ß-defensin 1 and 7 and cathelicidin 1 and 3) in the duodenum or jejunum compared with the control. In conclusion, dietary YC supplementation improved the performance of aged laying hens, potentially through the upregulation of intestinal digestive enzyme activities and intestinal health-related gene expression.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão , Intestinos/enzimologia , Fermento Seco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Fermento Seco/administração & dosagem
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1528-1539, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111320

RESUMO

Two experiments were performed, using broilers or turkeys, each utilizing a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, to compare their response to phytase and xylanase supplementation with growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and ileal phytate degradation as response criteria. For both experiments, 960 Ross 308 or 960 BUT 10 (0-day-old) birds were allocated to 6 treatments: (1) control diet, containing phytase at 500 FTU/kg; (2) the control diet with xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg); (3) the control diet supplemented on top with phytase (1,500 FTU/kg); (4) diet supplemented with 1,500 FTU/kg phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg); (5) the control diet supplemented with phytase (3,000 FTU/kg); and (6) diet supplemented with 3,000 FTU/kg phytase and xylanase (16,000 BXU/kg). Each treatment had 8 replicates of 20 birds each. Water and diets based on wheat, soybean meal, oilseed rape meal, and barley were available ad libitum. Body weight gain and feed intake were measured from 0 to 28 D, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) corrected for mortality was calculated. Ileal digestibility for dry matter and minerals on day 7 and 28 were analyzed in addition to levels of inositol phosphate esters (InsP6-3) and myo-inositol. Statistical comparisons were performed using ANOVA. Xylanase supplementation improved 28D FCR in broilers and turkeys. Increasing doses of phytase reduced FI and improved FCR only in broilers. In broilers, the age × phytase interaction for phosphorous digestibility showed that increasing phytase dose was more visible on day 7, than on day 28. Mineral digestibility was lower in 28-day-old turkey compared with 7-day-old turkey. InsP6 disappearance increased with increasing phytase levels in both species, with lower levels analyzed in turkeys. InsP6 disappearance was greater in younger turkeys (day 7 compared with day 28). In conclusion, although broilers and turkeys shared several similarities in their growth and nutrient utilization responses, the outcomes of the 2 trials also differed in many aspects. Whether this is because of difference in diets (InsP or Ca level) or differences between species needs further investigation.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Perus/fisiologia , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Perus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1540-1550, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111321

RESUMO

This study investigated the influence of meat and bone meal (MBM), phytase, and antibiotics (AB) on the performance, intestinal pH, ileal digestibility, cecal microbiota, and tibial mineralization in Ross 308 broilers challenged with necrotic enteritis (NE). A total of 672-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were allocated to 8 treatments with 6 replicate pens, with 14 birds each. The study employed a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: MBM (no or yes), AB (no or yes, zinc bacitracin + salinomycin), and phytase level (500 or 1,500 FTU/kg; both using 500 matrix recommendations). Diets were based on wheat-soybean meal-canola meal. All birds were challenged with Eimeria spp on day 9 and Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) strain EHE-NE18 on day 14 and day 15. On day 21 (postchallenge), birds fed MBM had reduced weight gain (WG; P < 0.05) relative to without MBM. A 2-way phytase × AB interaction for WG on day 14 (P < 0.001) and day 21 (P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio on day 21 (P < 0.001) and day 42 (P < 0.01) indicated positive effects of high phytase on bird performance in the presence of AB. On day 42, a 3-way MBM × phytase × AB interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for WG, showing high phytase increased WG with AB, relative to the birds without AB in the presence of MBM. A 2-way MBM × phytase interaction (P < 0.01) was observed for apparent ileal digestibility of Ca and P on day 16, whereby there was a notable reduction in Ca and P digestibility in birds fed MBM-free diets and a low phytase level, but with the high phytase level, Ca and P digestibility was not influenced by MBM. In conclusion, in NE challenged birds, high phytase has a beneficial effect on leg health and mineral utilization to the extent that it can replace MBM and has beneficial effects on bird performance in the presence of AB.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , 6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Produtos Biológicos/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções por Clostridium/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/fisiologia , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eimeria/fisiologia , Enterite/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Tíbia/fisiologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1551-1563, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111322

RESUMO

Reducing dietary CP can reduce N pollution. Much research has been reported in corn-based diets; however, the amino acid (AA) profiles of wheat-based diets differ. Poor performance as a result of reduced protein (RP) has been overcome in corn-based diets with essential AA and glycine (Gly) supplementation. The current study examined RP levels and Gly in wheat-based diets. An industry standard protein (SP) diet plus 3 RP diets with and without Gly supplementation, to match the SP treatment at 0.713 and 0.648% digestible Gly for the grower and finisher periods respectively, were fed to male broilers from day 10 of age. Grower CP included 22.5, 20.6, 18.3, and 17.7% (days 10-21) and finisher CP included 19.7, 17.8, 16.2, and 15.5% (days 21-35). Performance, meat yield, N efficiency, water intake, and apparent ileal digestibility of N and AA were measured. No difference in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, or feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed at 20% CP compared to the SP treatment. However, further reducing protein reduced BWG (P < 0.001), feed intake (P < 0.001), and increased FCR (P < 0.001). Supplementation of 0.713% Gly in the grower period increased BWG (P < 0.001) and reduced FCR (P < 0.001). Relative meat yield was not affected by dietary protein, however reducing CP increased relative fat pad weight (P < 0.001). Nitrogen efficiency increased with decreased CP in both grower (R2 = 0.69) and finisher (R2 = 0.80) treatments. Water intake decreased (R2 = 0.83) with decreasing CP intake. Apparent ileal digestibility of AA and N were higher in RP diets (P < 0.05). The benefits of reduced water intake and increased N efficiency and the disadvantages of poor performance and increased body fat in RP corn-based diets have been identified in RP wheat-based diets. Furthermore, at 18.5% CP the supplementation of crystalline AA and Gly can maintain BWG and FCR observed in SP diets.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Líquidos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Íleo/fisiologia , Masculino , Carne/análise , Distribuição Aleatória , Triticum/química
19.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(3): 237-255, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159388

RESUMO

To formulate low-protein diets for blue foxes with sufficient amounts of amino acids (AA), AA digestibility and AA requirements of the animals are crucial information. Therefore, a digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance trial was conducted with 20 blue foxes to determine the macronutrient and AA digestibility and N utilisation in low-protein diets supplemented with DL-methionine (Met) and L-histidine (His). In addition, plasma urea and plasma AA were measured. The diets were designated as P24 (control), P20, P20M, P16M and P16MH and contained energy from digestible crude protein (DCP) at 24%, 20% or 16% of total dietary metabolisable energy (ME). The 20% protein level was fed with or without Met and the 16% protein level was fed with Met and with or without His. The apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein linearly decreased with decreasing dietary protein level. The ATTD of dry matter, organic matter and crude carbohydrates increased when wheat starch was added as a replacement for protein. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and ATTD methods were compared to determine the AA digestibility. The decreasing dietary protein supply decreased the ATTD of most of the AA: threonine, tryptophan (Trp), valine, alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), glutamic acid, glycine (Gly), proline (Pro), serine (Ser) and total AA. The AID of the AA was constant between diets. Diverging AA showed higher or lower digestibility when determined in the AID or ATTD methods. Isoleucine, lysine, Met, Ala and tyrosine showed higher levels of AID. Arginine, His, cysteine (Cys), Trp, Asp, Gly, Pro and Ser showed higher levels of ATTD, which may reflect the net loss of these AA in the large intestine. Met and His supplementation improved the ATTD and AID of the AA in question, respectively, but did not affect the other variables examined. N retention did not differ between diets and renal N excretion decreased with decreasing protein level; thus N utilisation improved. It was concluded that the protein supply and AA composition in low-protein diets with supplemented Met were adequate for adult blue foxes, since the lower protein supply improved N utilisation and did not affect N retention. However, His supplementation failed to reach the designed level and therefore showed no clear results.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Digestão , Raposas/fisiologia , Histidina/metabolismo , Íleo/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Racemetionina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Histidina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Racemetionina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Vet Rec ; 187(4): e28, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) probiotic strain on nutritional status and faecal and microbiological parameters in a group of purebred boxers. METHODS: Forty healthy adult boxer dogs were randomly assigned to a treated (LACTO) group receiving a commercial diet supplemented with L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) to a final concentration of 5.0 x 109 colony-forming unit/kg of food, and a control (CTR) group receiving the same diet but without the probiotic (placebo). Nutritional status (body weight, skinfold thickness, body condition score) and faecal quality parameters were analysed. RESULTS: No differences in body weight and skin thickness were found during the whole experimental period. Dogs in the LACTO group showed a significantly higher body condition score than those in the CTR group (4.86±0.55 v 4.65±0.65), and no significant differences were recorded in body weight and skinfold thickness. The LACTO group showed a significantly lower faecal moisture (in per cent) compared with the CTR group (0.67±0.007 v 0.69±0.007). Faecal hardness (in kg) was higher in the LACTO group than in the CTR group (0.86±0.047 v 0.70±0.051), and faecal score also improved in the LACTO group (3.78±0.95 v 4.25±0.91). A significant difference in total Escherichia coli counts as well as in lactobacilli counts between the CTR and LACTO groups was only detected at 28 days. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of L acidophilus D2/CSL (CECT 4529) significantly improved the nutritional status and faecal parameters of dogs.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães/microbiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...