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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13489, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314599

RESUMO

Enteric methane (CH4 ) emission in cattle generally decreases by approximately 1 g/g dry matter intake (DMI) with an increase in dietary lipids of 10 g/kg dry matter (DM). The effect of dietary lipids on CH4 emission in yaks has not been reported and is the subject of this study. Four Datong yaks were used in a 4 × 4 Latin-square design in which the four treatments included restricted intakes of double-low rapeseed differing in form and lipid (ether extract-EE) content: (a) rapeseed meal (EE 32.6 g/kg DM); (b) rapeseed meal and rapeseed cake (EE 45.8 g/kg DM); (c) rapeseed meal and whole cracked rapeseed (EE 54.5 g/kg DM) and (d) rapeseed meal and rapeseed oil (EE 62.7 g/kg DM). The digestibility of feed components did not differ among treatments. The ruminal total volatile fatty acids (p = .082) and acetic acid (p = .062) concentrations tended to be lowest in yaks consuming the diet with highest lipid content. In addition, CH4 production was lowest in this group (p = .004), and declined by 1.75 g/g DMI per 10 g/kg DM reduction in dietary lipid content, a rate substantially faster than in cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Brassica napus/química , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Gases , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , Tibet
2.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13481, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161615

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of adaptation to grazing in early spring on herbage intake, ruminal fermentation parameters, blood metabolite concentrations, and body weight change in dairy cows. The experiment was conducted on eight rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows in the early spring period. Four cows were adapted to grazing by stocking for 4 hr for 1 week (ADP group). The other cows were kept in a barn during the period (CON group). Then, both groups of cows were stocked together throughout a day on a 1 ha pasture for 3 weeks (experimental period). In the first week of the experimental period, compared to the CON group, the ADP group had a higher herbage intake, ruminal NH3 -N and total VFA concentration, and blood urea concentration, but the NEFA concentration was lower in the ADP group (p < .01). During the subsequent weeks, there were little differences in ruminal fermentation parameters and blood metabolites. Cows in the ADP group maintained their body weight, but cows in the CON group lost 60 kg of body weight in the first week of the experimental period.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Fermentação , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13473, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078508

RESUMO

Dairy cows often suffer metabolic disorders due to the challenges of the transition period. The aim of study was to determine the effects of feeding pomegranate by-product silage (PBS) on feed intake and some blood parameters, such as non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA), interleukin-1 (IL-1), serum amyloid-A (SAA), prostaglandin F2α metabolites (PGFM), and progesterone (P4) in fresh Holstein cows. The experimental groups were as follows: CON (0 g PBS of DM) and PBS (120 g PBS of DM). Results showed that replacing corn silage with PBS had no effect on dry matter intake (DMI) throughout the study. The CON group had highest (p < .05) NEFA at 14 d postpartum and serum BHBA was decreased by feeding PBS, especially on days 21 (p < .05) and 28 (p < .05) and the entire study (p < .01). Cows fed PBS had lower (p < .05) serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) than CON cows at different times. Feeding PBS decreased (p < .01) serum IL-1 compared to CON group (216.7 versus. 515.5 Pg/ml) at 28 d postpartum, and also cows fed 120 g PBS had higher (p < .01) serum P4. It was concluded that feeding PBS had no adverse effect on feed intake, milk production, and some reproductive parameters. Moreover, PBS positively affected serum metabolites in fresh dairy cows.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Romã (Fruta) , Silagem , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Animais , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Inflamação , Interleucina-1/sangue , Lactação , Malondialdeído/sangue , Reprodução
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13472, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078546

RESUMO

Dietary manipulation has the potential to mitigate methane (CH4 ) emission and to maintain or enhance livestock productivity. We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of replacing oat hay by leguminous forages (alfalfa hay [AH], 0, 8, 16, and 24%, experiment 1; common vetch hay [CVH], 0, 10, 20, and 30%, experiment 2) on energy metabolism of crossbred Simmental cattle. In experiment 1, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations increased quadratically with increasing AH proportions (p = .006) with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of approximately 50:50, whereas the CH4 energy to gross energy intake ratio (CH4 -E:GEI) was significantly lower with 16% AH compared with 24% AH diet (p < .05). In experiment 2, there were no differences in the total VFA concentrations among the four diet groups with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of around 60:40 (p > .05); however, CH4 -E:GEI was significantly lower in the 30% CVH diet compared with the 10% CVH diet (p < .05). There was no significant difference in feed conversion efficiency among the four diet groups in each experiment. The results suggest that substituting 16 and 30% oat hay by AH and CVH provide optimal diets with forage-to-concentrate ratios of 50:50 and 60:40, respectively, which may reduce CH4 emission without compromising the feed conversion efficiency of crossbred Simmental cattle.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético , Medicago sativa , Metano/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Vicia sativa , Animais , Digestão , Fermentação , Gases , Masculino
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13407, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567213

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of including Acacia mearnsii tannin extract (TA) as a feed additive on nutrition and productive performance of dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture and receiving supplementation with a concentrate feedstuff. Fourteen multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to either of the following treatments: concentrate without or with 20 g TA/kg dry matter (DM). Concentrate intake accounted for 32% of the total DM intake. Tannin addition increased the herbage DM intake by 22% (p < .05). There was no effect of TA inclusion on milk yield, milk composition, milk nitrogen (N) excretion, milk and plasma urea-N concentration, urinary excretion of total N, urea-N, and purine derivatives. However, TA inclusion increased the N intake and retention, total N excretion in manure, fecal N to urine N ratio, and decreased the dietary N efficiency for milk production and the percentage of ingested N excreted in urine (p < .05). In conclusion, supplementing dairy cows grazing a high-quality temperate pasture with a concentrate containing 20 g TA/kg DM showed the potential of decreasing the proportion of ingested N excreted in urine without affecting the productive performance.


Assuntos
Acacia/química , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Herbivoria , Lactação/metabolismo , Leite/química , Taninos/administração & dosagem , Taninos/farmacologia , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Taninos/isolamento & purificação
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13392, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557991

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of Allium mongolicum Regel (AM) supplementation on nitrogen (N) balance, ruminal fermentation, and antioxidant properties. Sixteen male calves were assigned randomly to four groups, and the four were added with 0 (CON), 200 mg/kg (body weight; BW) (Low AM; LA), 400 mg/kg (BW) (Middle AM; MA), or 800 mg/kg (BW) (High AM; HA) per day for each individual. AM was added on dry matter (DM) basis. The experiment lasted for 58 days. Supplementation of AM could significantly increase average daily gain, DM digestibility, acid detergent fiber digestibility, and retained N/Intake N. N digestibility and molar proportion of propionate in the MA and HA treatments were higher than that in the CON treatment (p < .05), respectively. AM supplementation significantly increased the molar concentration of total volatile fatty acid in the rumen fluid (p < .05). The ratio of acetate to propionate in the MA and HA groups was lower than that in the CON treatment (p < .05). Furthermore, AM supplementation significantly reduced methane (CH4 ) (p < .05) emissions. AM supplementation significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase. The MA group could significantly increase the activities of glutathione peroxidase and decrease the content of malondialdehyde. Our results indicated that AM supplementation could affect the nutrient digestibility, CH4 emission, and antioxidant capacity of Simmental calves.


Assuntos
Allium , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Metano/metabolismo , Animais , China , Fermentação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
8.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13391, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558027

RESUMO

One hundred Yorkshire × Landrace sows were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments (diet ND: 6,000 IU vitamin D3 /d feed; diet 25-D: 200 µg/day 25OHD3 feed). The experiment began on d 90 of gestation and continued until weaning on day 21 of lactation. In sows that received 25OHD3 , the growth rate of the piglets before weaning was significantly accelerated (0.266 kg/day, p < .05). Sow serum was collected after weaning, and those in the 25OHD3 group were found to have significantly higher serum calcium (CA) and phosphorus (PI) levels (p < .05). Interestingly, the oestrus cycle of sows fed 25OHD3 was significantly shortened (p < .05), the oestrus time was concentrated on the fifth day after weaning, and the piglets were born with a higher degree of uniformity (p < .05). Colostrum was collected on the day of delivery, and the colostrum of sows fed 25OHD3 contained higher milk fat content than the control group (p < .05). 25OHD3 supplementation increased the mRNA and protein expression of INSIG1 and SREBP1, which regulate milk fat synthesis, in the mammary gland of lactating sows (p < .05). In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets improved reproductive performance, milk fat content and the mRNA and protein levels of genes regulating milk fat synthesis in lactating sows.


Assuntos
25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/administração & dosagem , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Lactação/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/genética , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Suínos/genética , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Lactação/fisiologia , Gotículas Lipídicas , Fósforo/metabolismo , Gravidez , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538524

RESUMO

Our hypothesis suggests an improvement in carcass and meat quality of pasture-finished animals by introducing concentrate feed into diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of protein-energy supplementation on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures, and compare the results with those obtained from confined animals. Thirty 2-month-old intact lambs were divided into five treatments: pasture with mineral supplementation, pasture containing daily supplies of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% BW protein-energy supplementation, and confinement (reference treatment). All animals were slaughtered 104 days after the beginning of the experiment. Lambs submitted to 1.6% and 2.4% BW supplementation presented similar characteristics to animals kept in confinement and were superior to animals treated with 0 or 0.8% of BW supplementation levels (p < .05). Increases of subcutaneous fat thickness were verified for 0.0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4% BW, and confinement treatments, being respectively of 0.25, 0.74, 1.61, 1.69, and 1.98. Conversely, treatments had no influence on meat physical-chemical characteristics, being all considered moderately soft, juicy (tender), and with mild tastes and odors. Lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures have high-quality meat, but more protein-energy supplementation is needed to be an alternative for the feedlots for young animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal , Constituição Corporal , Brachiaria , Dieta/veterinária , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Herbivoria , Carne , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502191

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) isotopic discrimination (i.e. the difference in natural 15N abundance between the animal proteins and the diet; Δ15N) is known to correlate with N use efficiency (NUE) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in ruminants. However, results from the literature are not always consistent across studies, likely due to isotopic discrimination pathways that may differ with the nature of diets. The objective of the present study was to assess at which level, from rumen to tissues, Δ15N originates and becomes related to NUE and FCE in fattening yearling bulls when they are fed two contrasted diets. Twenty-four Charolais yearling bulls were randomly divided into two groups and fed during 8 months, from weaning to slaughter, either 1) a high starch diet based on corn silage supplying a balanced N to energy ratio at the rumen level (starch) or 2) a high fiber diet based on grass silage supplying an excess of rumen degradable N (fiber). All animals were slaughtered and samples of different digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, ileal and fecal contents), animal tissues (duodenum, liver and muscle), blood and urine were collected for each animal. Ruminal content was further used to isolate liquid-associated bacteria (LAB), protozoa and free ammonia, while plasma proteins were obtained from blood. All samples along with feed were analyzed for their N isotopic composition. For both diets, the digestive contribution (i.e. the N isotopic discrimination occurring before absorption) to the Δ15N observed in animal tissues accounted for 65 ± 11%, leaving only one third to the contribution of post-absorptive metabolism. Concerning the Δ15N in digestive pools, the majority of these changes occurred in the rumen (av. Δ15N = 2.12 ± 0.66‰), with only minor 15N enrichments thereafter (av. Δ15N = 2.24 ± 0.41‰), highlighting the key role of the rumen on N isotopic discrimination. A strong, significant overall relationship (n = 24) between Δ15N and FCE or NUE was found when using any post-absorptive metabolic pool (duodenum, liver, or muscle tissues, or plasma proteins; 0.52 < r < 0.73; P ≤ 0.01), probably as these pools reflect both digestive and post-absorptive metabolic phenomena. Fiber diet compared to starch diet had a lower feed efficiency and promoted higher (P ≤ 0.05) Δ15N values across all post-absorptive metabolic pools and some digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, and ileal contents). The within-diet relationship (n = 12) between Δ15N and feed efficiency was not as strong and consistent as the overall relationship, with contrasted responses between the two diets for specific pools (diet x pool interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Our results highlight the contrasted use of N at the rumen level between the two experimental diets and suggests the need for different equations to predict FCE or NUE from Δ15N according to the type of diet. In conclusion, rumen digestion and associated microbial activity can play an important role on N isotopic discrimination so rumen effect related to diet may interfere with the relationship between Δ15N and feed efficiency in fattening yearling bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468653

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional effects of rice feeding and carnitine addition to a diet for broiler chicks. Thirty-six male 10-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: corn-based diet (corn group), rice-based diet (rice group), and each diet with added carnitine (100 ppm). The experimental period was 2 weeks. Rice feeding resulted in significantly higher growth performance (body weight gain and feed efficiency) compared to corn feeding. Carnitine addition also resulted in higher growth performance. Breast muscle and thigh muscle weight (g) were significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice and those fed diets with added carnitine. Liver mRNA expression of IGF-I was significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice compared to those fed corn. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of muscle atrogin-1 or liver CPT-I between broiler chicks fed rice and those fed corn, not between broilers chicks fed diets containing carnitine or not. Overall, these results show that rice feeding and carnitine addition improve the growth performance of broiler chicks by increasing mRNA expression of liver IGF-I. In addition, carnitine action is not affected by different cereals (corn and rice).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Oryza , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Zea mays
12.
Behav Processes ; 175: 104122, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259623

RESUMO

Nutritional stress during the earliest stages of an animal's life can have long-term effects on its behavior and reproductive performance, but the effects of brief periods of nutritional stress later in life are less well-studied. We manipulated female diet in Narnia femorata (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and investigated to what extent nutritional stress during sexual maturation affects subsequent sexual behavior and long-term offspring production. We show that nutritional stress at this key point during early adulthood can have lasting effects on reproduction, impairing long-term offspring production despite the subsequent return of good nutrition. These results demonstrate that nutritional availability during late stages of development, in young adults, can be crucial to future fitness. We found no effect of temporary nutritional stress on female receptivity to mating or attractiveness to males; although females that were less receptive also produced fewer offspring in the next month. Overall, we demonstrate that even brief periods of nutritional deprivation late in development can have drastic long-term effects, apparently beyond compensation, and despite a good early nutritional environment.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Hemípteros
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219967

RESUMO

Sleep is one of the essential behaviors in mammalian health and welfare. In this study, we focused on how concentrate-rich diets (Conc) can influence the sleep of cattle. We hypothesized that Conc would suppress the daily sleep of cows because of behavioral frustration according to shorter eating and rumination. We subjected six Japanese black cows according to crossover experimental design. There were two diet treatments. In the Conc group, 70% of required TDN was supplied by concentrate and 30% by grass silage. On the other hand, in roughage fed group (Rough), all required TDN was supplied by grass silage. Maintenance behaviors, postures of cows, and sleep posture were measured by electronic devices. Cows fed with Conc spent less time in eating and rumination and spent more time in rest than Rough. However, contrary to our hypothesis, cows fed with Conc showed longer daily sleep posture duration (96.2 min/day vs. 69.1 min/day) and more frequent sleep posture bouts (15.4 times/day vs. 11.1 times/day) than Rough. We discussed about following possible explanations why cows fed with Conc slept longer as satisfaction, illness, displacement behavior, and shifting sleep posture.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Postura/fisiologia , Silagem , Sono/fisiologia , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978186

RESUMO

The house cricket, Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) is one of the most important species of industrialized insects in the United States. Within the past five years the market of cricket powder as a food ingredient has been growing with increasing consumer interest on more sustainable sources of food. However, high labor costs of cricket production and high prices of cricket feed formulations result in cricket powder market prices much higher than other protein-rich food ingredients, making cricket powder only competitive within the novelty food market. In this study new diets formulated using by-products were developed using dietary self-selection followed by regression analysis. Crickets selected among seven different combinations of ingredients. Consumption ratios of food ingredients and by-products were used to determine macro and micro-nutrient intake. Regression analysis was used to determine the individual nutrient intake effect on cricket biomass production. Intake of vitamin C, sterol, manganese, and vitamins B1 and B5 had the most significant impact on live biomass production. Four diets were formulated based on this information and compared with a reference (Patton's 13) and a commercial diet. Although, crickets reared on Patton's diet 13 produced the most dry-weight biomass and developed the fastest, diet 4 (consisting of 92% by-products) generated the most profit (with a cost of $0.39 USD per kg) after an economic analysis that did not include the commercial formulation. Dry-weight biomass production was not significantly different among the four new diets and the commercial diet. This study demonstrated the value of dietary self-selection studies in developing oligidic insect diets and in studies of insect nutrition. This is the first such study involving farmed edible crickets and agricultural by-products. Four new cricket diet formulations contain between 62 and 92% agricultural by-products are included.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/economia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos/economia , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Agricultura , Ciências da Nutrição Animal , Animais
15.
Meat Sci ; 161: 107964, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683223

RESUMO

Thirty-two crossbred Merino branco male lambs were randomly allocated to eight diets, combining two forms of alfalfa presentation (chopped or ground), with four barley grain levels (0%, 11.2%, 21.3% and 33% dry matter (DM)), balanced by low starch agro-industrial by-products (LSBP). The diets were supplemented with 6% soybean oil and included 40% of alfalfa in DM. The lambs were individually housed and the trial lasted six weeks. Intake of DM, average daily weight gain (ADG) and carcass weight were higher with ground alfalfa (P < 0.01). Replacing barley grain by LSBP reduced linearly DM intake and ADG (P < 0.001) but increased meat tenderness (P = 0.046). Regardless of the treatments, meat showed a healthy biohydrogenation fatty acid (FA) profile, with high proportions of t11-18:1, c9,t11-18:2 and a t10-18:1/t11-18:1 ratio clearly below 1. The reduction of barley in diet had a moderate positive impact on meat FA composition, decreasing t10-18:1, which was enhanced by the increase of forage particle size.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Medicago sativa/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Rúmen/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Masculino , Carne Vermelha , Ovinos
16.
J Appl Microbiol ; 128(4): 950-965, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463982

RESUMO

In ruminants, high fermentation capacity is necessary to develop more efficient ruminant production systems. Greater level of production depends on the ability of the microbial ecosystem to convert organic matter into precursors of milk and meat. This has led to increased interest by animal nutritionists, biochemists and microbiologists in evaluating different strategies to manipulate the rumen biota to improve animal performance, production efficiency and animal health. One of such strategies is the use of natural feed additives such as single-celled fungi yeast. The main objectives of using yeasts as natural additives in ruminant diets include; (i) to prevent rumen microflora disorders, (ii) to improve and sustain higher production of milk and meat, (iii) to reduce rumen acidosis and bloat which adversely affect animal health and performance, (iv) to decrease the risk of ruminant-associated human pathogens and (v) to reduce the excretion of nitrogenous-based compounds, carbon dioxide and methane. Yeast, a natural feed additive, has the potential to enhance feed degradation by increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids during fermentation processes. In addition, microbial growth in the rumen is enhanced in the presence of yeast leading to the delivery of a greater amount of microbial protein to the duodenum and high nitrogen retention. Single-celled fungi yeast has demonstrated its ability to increase fibre digestibility and lower faecal output of organic matter due to improved digestion of organic matter, which subsequently improves animal productivity. Yeast also has the ability to alter the fermentation process in the rumen in a way that reduces methane formation. Furthermore, yeast inclusion in ruminant diets has been reported to decrease toxins absorption such as mycotoxins and promote epithelial cell integrity. This review article provides information on the impact of single-celled fungi yeast as a feed supplement on ruminal microbiota and its function to improve the health and productive longevity of ruminants.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Fungos/metabolismo , Rúmen/química , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18496, 2019 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811253

RESUMO

Dose-response studies of dietary leucine (Leu) in weaners are needed for a proper diet formulation. Dietary Leu effect was assessed in a 3-weeks dose-response trial with a 2 (genotype) x 5 (diets) factorial arrangement on one-hundred weaned pigs (9 to 20 kg body weight (BW)). Pigs differed for a polymorphism at the aminoadipate-semialdehyde synthase (AASS) gene, involved in lysine (Lys) metabolism. Pigs received experimental diets (d7 to d28) differing for the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys: 70%, 85%, 100%, 115%, 130%. Daily feed intake (ADFI), daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain (F:G) in all pigs and ADG and F:G in two classes of BW were analyzed using regression analysis with curvilinear-plateau (CLP) and linear quadratic function (LQ) models. Amino acid (AA) concentrations in plasma, liver, muscle and urine were determined. AASS genotype did not affect the parameters. Dietary Leu affected performance parameters, with a maximum response for ADG and F:G between 100.5% and 110.7% SID Leu:Lys, higher than the usually recommended one, and between 110.5% and 115.4% and between 94.9% and 110.2% SID Leu:Lys for ADG for light and heavy pigs respectively. AA variations in tissues highlighted Leu role in protein synthesis and its influence on the other branched chain AAs.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta , L-Aminoadipato-Semialdeído Desidrogenase/genética , Leucina/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Genótipo , Suínos
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19216, 2019 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844130

RESUMO

Rumen microbiota is of paramount importance for ruminant digestion efficiency as the microbial fermentations supply the host animal with essential sources of energy and nitrogen. Early separation of newborns from the dam and distribution of artificial milk (Artificial Milking System or AMS) could impair rumen microbial colonization, which would not only affect rumen function but also have possible negative effects on hindgut homeostasis, and impact animal health and performance. In this study, we monitored microbial communities in the rumen and the feces of 16 lambs separated from their dams from 12 h of age and artificially fed with milk replacer and starter feed from d8, in absence or presence of a combination of the live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-1077 and selected yeast metabolites. Microbial groups and targeted bacterial species were quantified by qPCR and microbial diversity and composition were assessed by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing in samples collected from birth to 2 months of age. The fibrolytic potential of the rumen microbiota was analyzed with a DNA microarray targeting genes coding for 8 glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. In Control lambs, poor establishment of fibrolytic communities was observed. Microbial composition shifted as the lambs aged. The live yeast supplement induced significant changes in relative abundances of a few bacterial OTUs across time in the rumen samples, among which some involved in crucial rumen function, and favored establishment of Trichostomatia and Neocallimastigaceae eukaryotic families. The supplemented lambs also harbored greater abundances in Fibrobacter succinogenes after weaning. Microarray data indicated that key cellulase and hemicellulase encoding-genes were present from early age in the rumen and that in the Supplemented lambs, a greater proportion of hemicellulase genes was present. Moreover, a higher proportion of GH genes from ciliate protozoa and fungi was found in the rumen of those animals. This yeast combination improved microbial colonization in the maturing rumen, with a potentially more specialized ecosystem towards efficient fiber degradation, which suggests a possible positive impact on lamb gut development and digestive efficiency.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Dieta/métodos , Fibrobacter/fisiologia , Fungos/fisiologia , Microbiota/fisiologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Desmame
19.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0214778, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877130

RESUMO

Mathematical models that describe gas production are widely used to estimate the rumen degradation digestibility and kinetics. The present study presents a method to generate models by combining existing models and to propose the von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model based on this method. The proposed model was compared with the logistic two-compartment one to indicate which best describes the kinetic curve of gas production through the semi-automated in vitro technique from different pinto peanut cultivars. The data came from an experiment grown and harvested at the Far South Animal Sciences station (Essul) in Itabela, BA, Brazil and gas production was read at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 h after the start of the in vitro fermentation process. The parameters were estimated by the least squares method using the iterative Gauss-Newton process in the software R version 3.4.1. The best model to describe gas accumulation was based on the adjusted coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, mean absolute deviation, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion. The von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model had the best fit to describe the cumulative gas production over time according to the methodology and conditions of the present study.


Assuntos
Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13370, 2019 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527678

RESUMO

Larval Drosophila encounter and feed on a diverse microbial community within fruit. In particular, free-living yeast microbes provide a source of dietary protein critical for development. However, successional changes to the fruit microbial community may alter host quality through impacts on relative protein content or yeast community composition. For many species of Drosophila, fitness benefits from yeast feeding vary between individual yeast species, indicating differences in yeast nutritional quality. To better understand these associations, we evaluated how five species of yeast impacted feeding preference and development in larval Drosophila suzukii. Larvae exhibited a strong attraction to the yeast Hanseniaspora uvarum in pairwise yeast feeding assays. However, larvae also performed most poorly on diets containing H. uvarum, a mismatch in preference and performance that suggests differences in yeast nutritional quality are not the primary factor driving larval feeding behavior. Together, these results demonstrate that yeast plays a critical role in D. suzukii's ecology and that larvae may have developed specific yeast associations. Further inquiry, including systematic comparisons of Drosophila larval yeast associations more broadly, will be necessary to understand patterns of microbial resource use in larvae of D. suzukii and other frugivorous species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Leveduras/química , Leveduras/metabolismo
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