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1.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0214778, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877130

RESUMO

Mathematical models that describe gas production are widely used to estimate the rumen degradation digestibility and kinetics. The present study presents a method to generate models by combining existing models and to propose the von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model based on this method. The proposed model was compared with the logistic two-compartment one to indicate which best describes the kinetic curve of gas production through the semi-automated in vitro technique from different pinto peanut cultivars. The data came from an experiment grown and harvested at the Far South Animal Sciences station (Essul) in Itabela, BA, Brazil and gas production was read at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, 20, 24, 28, 32, 48, 72, and 96 h after the start of the in vitro fermentation process. The parameters were estimated by the least squares method using the iterative Gauss-Newton process in the software R version 3.4.1. The best model to describe gas accumulation was based on the adjusted coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, mean absolute deviation, Akaike information criterion, and Bayesian information criterion. The von Bertalanffy-Gompertz two-compartment model had the best fit to describe the cumulative gas production over time according to the methodology and conditions of the present study.


Assuntos
Arachis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arachis/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Rúmen/metabolismo
2.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4032-4040, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374120

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestible phosphorus (STTD P) requirement for 11- to 23-kg nursery pigs fed diets with or without phytase. A total of 1,080 and 2,140 pigs (PIC 359 × Camborough, Hendersonville, TN; initially 11.4 ± 0.29 and 11.1 ± 0.24 kg) were used in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. There were 23 to 27 pigs per pen with 6 and 12 replicate pens per treatment in Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, respectively. After weaning, pigs were fed a common pelleted diet with 0.45% STTD P for 7 d, and a common phase 2 meal diet with 0.40% STTD P for 14 d in Exp. 1 and 18 d in Exp. 2. Pens of pigs were then allotted to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with body weight (BW) as the blocking factor. In Exp. 1, dietary treatments consisted of 0.26%, 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, and 0.53% STTD P. Treatments were achieved with the inclusion of monocalcium phosphate at the expense of corn. In Exp. 2, diets contained 1,000 phytase units (FYT; Ronozyme Hiphos 2500, DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., Parsippany, NJ) with assumed release value 0.132% STTD P, and treatments consisted of 0.30%, 0.33%, 0.38%, 0.43%, 0.48%, 0.53%, and 0.58% STTD P. These STTD P concentrations included the expected phytase release of 0.132% STTD P. In both experiments, a similar 1.17:1 Ca:P ratio was maintained across treatments. Statistical models included linear model (LM), quadratic polynomial (QP), broken-line linear (BLL), and broken-line quadratic (BLQ). In Exp. 1, increasing STTD P increased (linear, P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, G:F, final BW, and grams of STTD P intake per day and per kilogram of gain. There was also a marginal quadratic response for G:F (P < 0.066). In Exp. 2, ADG and G:F increased quadratically (P < 0.05), whereas ADFI increased linearly (P = 0.060) with increasing STTD P. The BLL and QP model provided similar fit to G:F in Exp. 1, estimating the requirement for maximum G:F at 0.34% and 0.42%, respectively. The BLL was the best fitting model for ADG and G:F in Exp. 2, estimating the breakpoint at 0.40% and 0.37% STTD P, respectively. The BLL and BLQ models estimated the breakpoint for ADG as a function of STTD P intake in grams per day at 2.92 and 3.02 g/d, respectively. These data provide empirical evidence that for 11- to 23-kg pigs, the NRC (2012) accurately estimates the STTD P requirement on a g/d basis. As a percentage of the diet, the STTD P requirement for diets without or with 1,000 FYT added phytase ranged from 0.34% to 0.42%.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Suínos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays
3.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2911-2927, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278584

RESUMO

Geophagy, the intentional consumption of earth materials, has been recorded in humans and other animals. It has been hypothesized that geophagy is an adaptive behavior, and that clay minerals commonly found in eaten soil can provide protection from toxins and/or supplement micronutrients. To test these hypotheses, we monitored chimpanzee geophagy using camera traps in four permanent sites at the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, from October 2015-October 2016. We also collected plants, and soil chimpanzees were observed eating. We analyzed 10 plant and 45 soil samples to characterize geophagic behavior and geophagic soil and determine (1) whether micronutrients are available from the soil under physiological conditions and if iron is bioavailable, (2) the concentration of phenolic compounds in plants, and (3) if consumed soils are able to adsorb these phenolics. Chimpanzees ate soil and drank clay-infused water containing 1:1 and 2:1 clay minerals and > 30% sand. Under physiological conditions, the soils released calcium, iron, and magnesium. In vitro Caco-2 experiments found that five times more iron was bioavailable from three of four soil samples found at the base of trees. Plant samples contained approximately 60 µg/mg gallic acid equivalent. Soil from one site contained 10 times more 2:1 clay minerals, which were better at removing phenolics present in their diet. We suggest that geophagy may provide bioavailable iron and protection from phenolics, which have increased in plants over the last 20 years. In summary, geophagy within the Sonso community is multifunctional and may be an important self-medicative behavior.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Ferro/farmacocinética , Pan troglodytes , Pica , Solo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Argila , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais/análise , Plantas/química , Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário , Solo/química , Uganda
4.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 887-893, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111649

RESUMO

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of free-range system (FRS) and conventional cage-rearing system (CRS) on growth performance, carcass yield, meat quality, lymphoid organ indices, and serum biochemistry of Wannan Yellow chickens. At 56 days of age, a total of 640 male chickens were randomly allocated to FRS and CRS groups, each of which included 4 replicates with 80 chickens in each replicate. The experiment lasted from 56 to 112 days of age. The results showed that CRS chickens exhibited better final body weight, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, and feed conversion ratio, whereas FRS chickens showed better breast and leg yields, shear force, meat color, lower drip loss, and decreased abdominal fat deposition. Moreover, the absolute thymus weight and thymus to body weight ratio of FRS birds were significantly higher than those of CRS birds (p < 0.05). Additionally, FRS chickens had significantly reduced glucose, total protein, triglyceride, and cholesterol contents, but enhanced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the FRS has advantages in breast and leg yields, meat quality, and some serum biochemical parameters of Wannan Yellow chickens, whereas it has negative effects on growth performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne , Ração Animal , Animais , Glicemia , Proteínas Sanguíneas , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/veterinária , Peso Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Masculino , Timo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180616, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038540

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of stocking density and dietary supplementation of probiotic (Lactobacillus) on growth, traits of carcass, lymphoid organs and intestinal microbial count of Japanese quail. Quail chicks (one week old) were randomly allotted to 6 groups in a 2×3 factorial experiment included 2 levels of stocking density (100, and 75 cm2/bird) and 3 levels of probiotic (0.00, 0.02 and 0.04 g/kg diet). Quail reared at 100 cm2/ bird showed significantly the highest body weight and daily gain. Quail reared at 75 cm2/ bird had significantly the lower average of feed consumption and the best ratio of feed conversion. Increasing level of probiotic up to 0.04 g/kg led to a significant decrease in dressing percentage by about 2.7 % compared to the control. Interaction effect was insignificant on carcass traits studied except for liver percentage which was significantly higher for birds fed diet supplemented with probiotic at 0.04 g/kg of diet and reared at 100 cm2/bird. Rearing quail at 100 cm2/bird stocking density significantly increased bursa weight. Birds fed diet supplemented with probiotic at 0.02 g/kg of diet and reared at 100 cm2/bird showed significantly the highest (p = 0.043) spleen weight when compared with the other groups. In conclusion, the low (100 cm2/bird) stocking density was sufficient to give better performance of Japanese quail than the other group. Probiotic supplementation diminished the stressful effect of crowding on growing Japanese quail.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Lactobacillus , Probióticos , Codorniz/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Carga Bacteriana , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Probióticos/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
6.
Anim Sci J ; 90(7): 870-879, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099149

RESUMO

Three experiments were carried out to determine the crude protein requirements for maintenance (CPm) and weight gain (CPg) of meat quail and to develop protein-requirement prediction models. Experiment 1 was conducted to determine CPm by the nitrogen-balance technique. The regression of nitrogen balance on nitrogen intake revealed a CPm requirement of 2.94 g/kg0.75 /day. Experiment 2 was aimed at determining CPm by the comparative-slaughter technique. Retained nitrogen (RN) and nitrogen intake (NI) were quantified considering the metabolic weight of the birds. The linear regression of RN on NI provided a CPm estimate of 6.63 g/kg0.75 /day. Experiment 3 was conducted to determine CPg. The regression of body nitrogen from the carcasses on fasted body weight revealed CPg estimates of 407.68 (0-7 days), 501.76 (8-14 days), 470.40 (0-14 days), 517.44 (15-21 days), 627.20 (22-28 days), 423.36 (29-35 days), and 517.44 mg/g (15-35 days). The protein-requirement prediction models developed for meat quail aged 0-7, 8-14, 0-14, 15-21, 22-28, 29-35, and 15-35 days were CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.408.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.502.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.470.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0,517.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.627.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.423.G; CP = 2.94.W0.75  + 0.517.G, respectively, where: W0.75  =  metabolic weight (kg), and G =  daily weight gain (g).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Estatísticos , Necessidades Nutricionais , Codorniz/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Manutenção do Peso Corporal , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180011, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090788

RESUMO

Elephant grass (EG) (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) have great importance in tropical and subtropical climates, especially on dairy farms. Normally, EG is established alone under high fertilization levels. EG in organic production system can improve low production costs and environmental issues, are still little known. The aim of this research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value, extraction/ export nutrient and forage yield and animal responses. Three production systems of EG were analyzed: (i) EG mixed spontaneous-growing species (SGE) in warm-season and ryegrass (R) in cool-season under organic production; (ii) EG mixed SGE + R under conventional system (positive control); and (iii) EG based under conventional production (control). Holstein cows were used in a rotational stocking. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Seven grazing cycles were performed during the experimental period (312 days). Herbage yield, forage intake, and stocking rate were 12548; 10270; 19168 kg ha-1 and 2.5; 2.6; 2.7% and 3.3; 2.1; 4.5 AU ha-1 day-1, respectively. Crude protein of EG was 17.9; 15.4; 16.4%, respectively. Mixed pastures, in conventional and organic production, had a better forage distribution throughout the seasons. Highest forage yield and extraction/ export nutrient was reported in pure EG within the conventional system.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Pennisetum , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Leite , Valor Nutritivo
8.
Anim Sci J ; 90(6): 728-736, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006927

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of rice whole crop silage (RWCS) on growth, plasma levels of vitamin A, ß-carotene, vitamin E and IGF-1, and expression of genes involved in muscle protein degradation and synthesis in Japanese Black calves. Eleven calves were divided into RWCS (fed RWCS ad libitum and concentrate, n = 5) and control groups (fed hay ad libitum and concentrate, n = 6). Final body weight and dairy gain were significantly larger in the RWCS group compared with the control group. Plasma ß-carotene and vitamin E concentrations were significantly higher in the RWCS group compared with control group. Although plasma vitamin E concentration in the RWCS group significantly increased from 4 to 9 months of age, it did not increase in the control group. At 6 months of age in the RWCS group, ubiquitin B (p < 0.05) and calpain 1 (p = 0.097) mRNA expression were lower than control group, but they were not different between groups at 9 months of age. These results indicate that RWCS increases plasma ß-carotene level and promotes muscle growth because of a decrease in the rate of protein degradation, but the effect is lost with the increase in plasma vitamin E level.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oryza , Proteólise , Silagem , Vitamina A/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , beta Caroteno/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Animais , Calpaína/genética , Calpaína/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ubiquitina/genética , Ubiquitina/metabolismo
9.
Poult Sci ; 98(10): 4656-4663, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001631

RESUMO

The effects of dietary Lactobacillus (BCRC 16092) and inulin on growth performance, intestinal microflora, mineral utilization, and tissue mineral contents were evaluated in broilers. The experiment was conducted using 1,152 one-day-old broilers randomly distributed to 9 treatments in a factorial arrangement (3 × 3) using 3 levels of inulin (0, 1, and 2%) and 3 levels of Lactobacillus addition (108, 109, and 1010 CFU/kg). Broilers (1 D of age; 8 replicates per treatments and 16 broilers per replicate) with an initial body weight of 48.36 ± 0.21g were evaluated for 42 D. A 4-D mineral digestibility trial was conducted during the final week of the experiment. The results showed that Lactobacillus supplementation can increase average daily gain and nutrient digestibility and improve feed/gain in broilers (P < 0.05). Moreover, Lactobacillus and inulin supplementation increased the numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria, increased serum concentration of IgG and IgA, and decreased the numbers of Escherichia coli and pH in ileum and cecum. The present study demonstrated Lactobacillus and inulin fed to broilers has a positive effect on gut microbiota, growth and nutrient utilization, immune system, and mineral metabolism.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Inulina/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/química , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002676

RESUMO

Limited information is available on how fetal growth retardation (FGR) affects the lung in the neonatal period in males and females. This led us to test the hypothesis that FGR alters lung mechanics and the surfactant system during the neonatal period. To test this hypothesis a model of FGR was utilized in which pregnant rat dams were fed a low protein diet during both the gestation and lactation period. We subsequently analyzed lung mechanics using a FlexiVent ventilator in male and female pups at postnatal day 7 and 21. Lung lavage material was obtained at postnatal day 1, 7 and 21, and was used for analysis of the surfactant system which included measurement of the pool size of surfactant and its subfraction as well as the surface tension reducing ability of the surfactant. The main result of the study was a significantly lower lung compliance and higher tissue elastance which was observed in FGR female offspring at day 21 compared to control offspring. In addition, female LP offspring exhibited lower surfactant pool sizes at postnatal day 1compared to controls. These changes were not observed in the male offspring. It is concluded that FGR has a different impact on pulmonary function and on surfactant in female, as compared to male, offspring.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Surfactantes Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/etiologia , Lactação , Pulmão/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar , Fatores Sexuais
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20180479, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994768

RESUMO

Thirty-six African Black ostrich chicks were used to investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) levels (180, 210 and 240 g/kg), stocking density (4.5 and 3 m2/bird) and their interactions. A factorial arrangement was used to examine the impact of treatments on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks during 2 to 10 weeks of the age. Results indicated that factors studied did not change growth performance traits. The highest value of protein efficiency ratio was observed in ostrich chicks fed diet contained 240 g/kg diet. Birds fed diet contained 240 g CP /kg diet and kept at stocking density of 3 m2 per bird had numerically the highest protein efficiency ratio. Shank girth and tibiotarsus length decreased with increasing dietary CP level. Stocking density did not change values of body measurements, except tibiotarsus length at 6 weeks of age, which increased in birds kept at the lower density than the higher. Body height at 10 weeks of age was significantly affected by the interactions between dietary CP and stocking density. In conclusion, results affirmed that ostrich chicks can grow on diets containing low levels of CP (180-210 g/kg). Our results provide a comprehensive set of morphometric data for ostrich chicks as affected by the factors studied.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Struthioniformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
12.
Anim Sci J ; 90(5): 619-627, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821084

RESUMO

Focus of this study was to evaluate the most suitable breed/crossbred and the appropriate nutritional strategies to increase marbling in beef muscle and to improve its healthy properties, in particular the n-3 fatty acids content. One hundred and seventy-six heifers of three crossbreed commonly reared by Emilia-Romagna farmers: 48 Bleu Belge × Freisian (ITA), 48 Charolais × Aubrac (FRA), and 80 Angus (ANG) were used. Animals of each breed were randomly subdivided in two experimental groups that received two diets, differing for the dietary lipid source. Control group (C) received a basal diet containing protected vegetable fats, whereas treated one (T) received the same basal diet supplemented with 0.9 kg/head/day of extruded flaxseed. After slaughtering, a sample of Longissimus thoracis was collected from each animal for meat quality analysis. Our results demonstrated that, in a shorter fattening period, ANG animals obtained the best dry matter intake, average daily gain and the best fattening scores. ITA and ANG meat presented the highest marbling scores. ANG breed had the highest amount of C18:1, the highest unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio. The T animals, independently from breed, showed the highest amount of α-linolenic acid (ALA). In addition, ANG-T meat presented the highest ALA content.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Cruzamento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Carne Vermelha , Ração Animal , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Linho , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Carne Vermelha/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
13.
Anim Sci J ; 90(5): 649-654, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924229

RESUMO

We investigated the effect of rice grain conservation methods on feed intake, milk production, blood metabolites, and rumen fermentation in dairy cows. Raw rice grain was dried before crushing (DRY), ensiled after crushing (ENS-A), or ensiled before crushing (ENS-B). Twelve multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with three dietary treatments comprising ad libitum access to one of three total mixed rations (TMRs; containing DRY, ENS-A, or ENS-B at 17% of dietary dry matter) plus a standard allowance of 2.0 kg/day of dairy concentrates. The dietary treatments did not affect the feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition. The selected blood constituents were not influenced by the rice conservation method. The ruminal lactic acid and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and the VFA proportion in the cows were not influenced by the rice conservation method. These results demonstrate that the rice grain conservation method has little impact on lactation performance when cows are fed a TMR containing 17% treated rice grain (dry matter basis).


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Fermentação , Lactação/fisiologia , Oryza , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo
14.
Anim Sci J ; 90(5): 637-648, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854727

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of condensed barley distillers soluble (CBDS) on growth rate, rumen fermentation, plasma metabolite, and myofiber properties, and gene expression related to metabolism in the skeletal muscles of Japanese Black calves, compared with soybean meal and corn. Twenty-four calves were divided into four groups: fed 5% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (low CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (control); and fed 15% CBDS based on the hay dry matter weight (high CBDS) and fed soybean meal and corn at the same nutrition level (high soy). The daily gain was larger in the low (p = 0.08) and high (p < 0.05) CBDS groups compared with the control group. In the CBDS-fed groups, plasma ß-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were significantly higher at 6 months of age (p < 0.05), the percentage of type I myofibers was significantly lower and their diameters were significantly larger at 9 months of age (p < 0.05), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b mRNA expression was significantly lower (p < 0.05) and citrate synthase mRNA expression tended to be lower (low; p = 0.06, high; p = 0.05) compared with control group. Thus, feeding CBDS promotes growth and leads to animals with more glycolytic and less oxidative muscle metabolism.


Assuntos
Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação , Expressão Gênica , Hordeum , Músculo Esquelético/citologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miofibrilas , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem , Animais , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Citrato (si)-Sintase/genética , Citrato (si)-Sintase/metabolismo , Glicólise , Masculino , Oxirredução , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Soja , Zea mays
15.
Anim Sci J ; 90(4): 547-553, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793461

RESUMO

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of plant extract YGF251 supplementation in different protein level diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbial shedding, and fecal gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 144 pigs (24.72 ± 1.54 kg) were randomly assigned to the treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary protein levels (15.50%, 14.00% or 12.50%) and plant extract YGF251 levels (0 or 0.05%) with 6 replications per treatment and 4 pigs per pen. Pigs fed low protein diets had reduced average daily gain (p < 0.05) and increased feed conversion ratio (p < 0.01) compared with pigs fed high protein diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of nitrogen was decreased (p < 0.05) when reducing dietary protein level. Fecal ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions were reduced (p < 0.05) when reducing dietary protein level. In conclusion, the results of the current study indicated that reducing dietary protein level impaired growth performance and nitrogen digestibility but reduced ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions in growing pigs. Dietary supplementation with 0.05% herbal extract YGF251 was not effective in improving growth performance, nutrient digestibility, or in decreasing gas emission in different protein diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Derrame de Bactérias , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Gases/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Suínos/microbiologia , Suínos/fisiologia
16.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 68(5): 472-478, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801772

RESUMO

The health enhancer yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) is widely used in diets for different animals. Two main types of SC-based products are commercially available, one containing live yeasts and one containing SC fermentation by-products, which are supposedly not dependent on live yeasts for their physiological effects in vivo. Culture-based techniques were applied to study yeasts in two types of commercial products: a product containing live SC (LSC) and a SC fermentation product (SCFP). Three temperatures (25, 30 and 39°C) and two pH levels (4 and 7) were tested. The product with LSC contained an average of 1·21 × 109 colony-forming units (CFUs) of yeasts per g contents (min: 1 × 108 , max: 3 × 109 ). In contrast, the SCFP contained an average of 4·67 × 103 (min: 3 × 102 , max: 1·9 × 104 ) CFUs per g contents (c. 1 million times less than the concentration of yeasts in the product with LSC). Both temperature and pH level affected the number of CFUs but this effect differed between the two products. Biochemical tests identified the two yeasts as SC, which differed in their ability to ferment maltose (negative in the SCFP). This report encourages more research on commercial microbial strains for animal nutrition that can lead to a better understanding of their mode of action in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Probiotics (or direct fed microbials) are increasingly popular in Animal Nutrition. Different products containing live micro-organisms or microbial-derived products are commercially available to enhance health and boost commercial traits. The characteristics of these products dictate their physiological effects and determine their potential to increase profitability from livestock. For the first time, this report presents data about the numbers and phenotype of the health enhancer Saccharomyces cerevisiae in two widely available commercial products in Animal Nutrition. These findings may be useful for scientists and producers around the globe and have the potential to open up novel venues for research.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Probióticos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Animais , Gatos , Bovinos , Galinhas , Cães , Fermentação , Cavalos , Coelhos , Suínos
17.
Anim Sci J ; 90(1): 71-80, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362202

RESUMO

This study evaluated methane (CH4 ) emission, intake, digestibility, and nitrogen efficiency in sheep fed diets containing replacement levels (0%, 33%, 50%, and 67% of soybean meal with euglena). In this experiment, four Corriedale wether sheep with an initial body weight of 53.8 ± 4.6 were arranged in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. This experiment lasted 84 days, divided into four experimental periods. Each period lasted 21 days, which consists of 14 days of adaptation to the diets, 5 days to collect samples, and 2 days to collect gas emission from sheep. Methane emission expressed as L/kg DM intake or g/kg DM intake reduced by up to 37% and the energy loss via CH4 (% of GE intake) reduced by up to 34%. No differences (p > 0.05) were observed in DM and OM intake and whole tract apparent DM digestibility due to substitution of soybean meal with euglena. The total CP loss reduced significantly (linear, p < 0.001) and CP efficiency increased linearly (p = 0.03) with increasing concentration of euglena. As a result, nitrogen balance and average daily weight gain remained unchanged despite higher nitrogen concentration in soybean supplemented group. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal with euglena reduced methane emission without affecting the performance of animals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Euglena gracilis , Metano/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiologia , Soja , Animais , Gases , Masculino
18.
Anim Sci J ; 90(1): 108-116, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30467947

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of brown rice particle size on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy and nutrients in diets fed to pigs at four different stages and determine the optimal particle size (OPS) of brown rice for young pigs and adult sows. Eighteen weanling piglets (initial body weight (BW): 10.2 ± 0.4 kg), 18 growing barrows (initial BW: 35.6 ± 1.5 kg), 24 gestating sows (initial BW: 220 ± 2.8 kg), and 24 lactating sows (initial BW: 208 ± 3.8 kg) were allotted to 1 of 3 or 4 diets based on completely randomized design with six replicates per diet. Within each stage, brown rice-soybean meal diets were formulated, and the only difference among diets was the brown rice used was ground to the specified particle size. Each stage lasted 19 days, including 7 days for cage adaptation, 7 days for diet adaptation, and 5 days for total feces and urine collection. For weanling and growing pigs, the results showed that pigs fed brown rice milled to 600 µm had a greater ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and crude protein (CP) than pigs fed brown rice ground to 800 µm. However, there was no improvement in the ATTD of energy and nutrients for pigs fed brown rice milled to 600 µm versus 400 µm. The concentration of nitrogen (N) in feces significantly reduced (p < 0.01) as brown rice particle size decreased from 800 to 400 µm. However, there were no differences in phosphorus (P) output and absorbed P among diets. For gestating and lactating sows, a reduction in particle size from 1,000 to 800 µm significantly improved (p < 0.01) the ATTD of DM, GE, and CP in diets. However, there was also no improvement in the ATTD of energy and nutrients for pigs fed brown rice milled from 800 to 400 µm. In conclusion, considering the energy required for milling and nutrient digestibility, milling brown rice to 600 and 800 µm are recommended in diets for young pigs and adult sows, respectively. The OPS of brown rice for pigs at different physiological stages should be considered to economically and accurately formulate diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oryza , Tamanho da Partícula , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/economia , Animais , Dieta/economia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez
19.
Dev Psychobiol ; 61(1): 17-28, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460679

RESUMO

It has become increasingly evident that the methylation of DNA, known as an epigenetic marker, affects behavior in animals. In our previous study, a methyl-donors (folate, methionine, and choline)-deficient (FMCD) diet during the juvenile period could be shown to affect anxiety-like behavior and fear memory, accompanied by alteration in some gene expression and their methylations in the hippocampus. One question is whether the fear memory of a parent affects the fear responses of offspring. To explore this question in the present study, C57BL/6 J male (F0) mice were given a FMCD diet from 3 to 12 weeks of age. After confirming the effect of the FMCD diet on the behavior and gene expression of F0 mice, their male offspring (F1-FMCD mice) were examined using the same behavioral batteries and genetic analysis. F0 diet-based differences in F1 behavior were observed, accompanied by the differences in the expression of memory-related genes (Camk2α and PP1) and promoter methylation of the PP1 gene in the hippocampus. Our results add evidence that behavior and gene expression of the F1 generation could be altered due to differences in the father's intake of methyl-donor nutrients.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Colina/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/fisiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Metionina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metionina/deficiência , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Neuropeptídeo Y/metabolismo
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(4): 1706-1715, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508158

RESUMO

A laying hen trial was conducted from 22 to 47 wk of age to determine the digestible lysine (DLYS) requirement of laying hens by using an increasing CP titration method. A total of 896 Lohmann LSL-Lite caged layers (22 wk of age) were allotted to 8 dietary treatments and each treatment had 8 replications of 14 hens. The first 7 experimental diets initially contained DLYS levels increasing from 0.565 to 0.980% with respective protein levels increasing from 13.8 to 21.7%. Dietary treatment 8 was a control diet which was calculated to contain 18.6% CP and 0.807% DLYS. These DLYS levels were reduced from 0.468 to 0.845% for diets 1 to 7 (0.688% for diet 8) at week 12 so that greater differences in production parameters could be obtained. Increasing DLYS levels had a significant (P < 0.05) effect on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and feed efficiency. However, DLYS levels had no significant effect on egg component measurements such as percentage of yolk, white, and solids. Broken line regression, maximum of the quadratic polynomial (QP max) regression, and the intercept of the broken line and QP regressions were used to estimate the DLYS requirement. Broken line regression yielded the lowest requirement and QP max regression yielded the highest, with the intercept of the broken line and QP regressions yielding an intermediate requirement estimate. The DLYS requirements were consistently lower for egg production than for egg mass and feed efficiency. For egg mass and feed efficiency, DLYS requirements were 655 and 690, 817 and 866, and 706 and 778 mg/hen/d for the broken line, QP max, and the intercept of the broken line and QP regressions, respectively.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Lisina/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lisina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
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