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1.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 209-220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114781

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for an adequate diet, well adapted to the body's needs and the current level of physical activity, becomes of particular importance. Many dietary compounds participate in the functioning of the immune system, while vitamins D, C, A (including beta-carotene), E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, amino acids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and intestinal microbiota are crucial in various types of defence processes. There has been no evidence that consumed food and its compounds, including those with pro-/prebiotic properties, play a significant role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or alleviating its course. However, in terms of the nutritional value of food and the prevention of dysbiosis, recommending a varied diet with a high proportion of plant-based foods and an adequate amount of animal-based foods has a sound scientific basis. Malnutrition, underweight and obesity are considered independent and prognostic risk factors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reduce a patient's chances of survival. Therefore, ensuring good nutritional status, including healthy body weight, is a reasonable approach in the prevention of viral infection SARS-CoV-2 or alleviating its course. The document is accompanied by two catalogues of practical nutritional recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed to the general population and children.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Academias e Institutos/normas , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia , Saúde Pública , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico
2.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(2): 209-220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267053

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 pandemic, care for an adequate diet, well adapted to the body's needs and the current level of physical activity, becomes of particular importance. Many dietary compounds participate in the functioning of the immune system, while vitamins D, C, A (including beta-carotene), E, B6, B12, folic acid, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, amino acids, n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and intestinal microbiota are crucial in various types of defence processes. There has been no evidence that consumed food and its compounds, including those with pro-/prebiotic properties, play a significant role in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection or alleviating its course. However, in terms of the nutritional value of food and the prevention of dysbiosis, recommending a varied diet with a high proportion of plant-based foods and an adequate amount of animal-based foods has a sound scientific basis. Malnutrition, underweight and obesity are considered independent and prognostic risk factors of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, which reduce a patient's chances of survival. Therefore, ensuring good nutritional status, including healthy body weight, is a reasonable approach in the prevention of viral infection SARS-CoV-2 or alleviating its course. The document is accompanied by two catalogues of practical nutritional recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressed to the general population and children.


Assuntos
Dieta Saudável/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/normas , Estado Nutricional , Recomendações Nutricionais , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Academias e Institutos/normas , Adulto , COVID-19 , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Valor Nutritivo , Polônia , Saúde Pública , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946331

RESUMO

We investigated the association between dietary micronutrient intakes and the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Ansan-Ansung study of the Korean Genome and Epidemiologic Study (KoGES), a population-based prospective cohort study. Of 9079 cohort participants with a baseline estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and a urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) <300 mg/g and who were not diagnosed with CKD, we ascertained 1392 new CKD cases over 12 year follow-up periods. The risk of CKD according to dietary micronutrient intakes was presented using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a full multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for multiple micronutrients and important clinico-epidemiological risk factors. Low dietary intakes of phosphorus (<400 mg/day), vitamin B2 (<0.7 mg/day) and high dietary intake of vitamin B6 (≥1.6 mg/day) and C (≥100 mg/day) were associated with an increased risk of CKD stage 3B and over, compared with the intake at recommended levels (HR = 6.78 [95%CI = 2.18-21.11]; HR = 2.90 [95%CI = 1.01-8.33]; HR = 2.71 [95%CI = 1.26-5.81]; HR = 1.83 [95%CI = 1.00-3.33], respectively). In the restricted population, excluding new CKD cases defined within 2 years, an additional association with low folate levels (<100 µg/day) in higher risk of CKD stage 3B and over was observed (HR = 6.72 [95%CI = 1.40-32.16]). None of the micronutrients showed a significant association with the risk of developing CKD stage 3A. Adequate intake of micronutrients may lower the risk of CKD stage 3B and over, suggesting that dietary guidelines are needed in the general population to prevent CKD.


Assuntos
Dieta , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Fatores de Risco
4.
Life Sci ; 277: 119611, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33984359

RESUMO

AIMS: We assessed the influence of maternal overweight on the behavioral neurodevelopment of male and female offspring in prepubertal age by reducing the litter size. MAIN METHODS: To reduce litter size in Wistar rats, the offspring of generation 0 (G0) were culled for 12 pups (6 males and 6 females: normal litter, NL-G1) or 4 pups (2 males and 2 females: small litter, SL-G1). In G1 dams, overweight was characterized, maternal behavior and locomotor activity were assessed. At G2, we quantified the ultrasonic vocalizations in post-natal day 5 (PND5); we evaluated olfactory discrimination in the homing behavior test on PND13; and in PND28-32 (prepubertal age), we performed the following tests: social play behavior, hole board, object recognition, and open field. At the end of the experiments, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were dissected to quantify the synaptophysin by western blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Our data demonstrated that a reduction in litter size was able to induce maternal overweight without altering the parameters related to overweight in the offspring. The SL-G2 offspring showed deficits in early social communication, olfactory discrimination, social play behavior, and the exploration of objects, in addition to increasing repetitive and stereotyped movements. There were also changes in the synaptophysin levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the offspring from reduced litter dams. In conclusion, maternal overweight caused by litter reduction impairs behavioral neurodevelopment, inducing autism-like symptoms in the offspring. SIGNIFICANCE: This study alerts the public about the negative consequences of maternal overweight in the descendants.


Assuntos
Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etiologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5550267, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884263

RESUMO

We aimed to investigate the oral health of children in terms of the presence of dental caries, periodontal health, halitosis, and dentofacial changes in patients who had adenotonsillar hypertrophy related to mouth breathing and compared these findings with nasal breathing healthy and adenotonsillectomy-operated children. The patient group comprised 40 mouth-breathing children who were diagnosed with adenotonsillar hypertrophy, while the control group consisted of 40 nasal breathing children who had no adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Forty children who had undergone an adenotonsillectomy operation at least 1 year prior to the study were included in the treatment group. Oral examinations of all children were conducted, and the parents were asked about medical and dental anamnesis, demographic parameters, toothbrushing and nutrition habits, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and symptoms of their children. Demographic parameters, toothbrushing and nutrition habits, and the presence of bad oral habits did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). Adenotonsillectomy is associated with a remarkable improvement in symptoms; however, some symptoms persist in a small number of children. The salivary flow rate, dmft/s, DMFT/S index, plaque, and gingival index scores did not differ between groups (p > 0.05). The patient group showed higher rates of halitosis when compared with the treatment and control groups (p < 0.001). Mouth breathing due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy caused various dentofacial changes and an increase in Class II division 1 malocclusion (p < 0.001). It was shown that adenotonsillar hypertrophy does not negatively affect OHRQoL, it could be a risk factor for dental caries, periodontal diseases, and halitosis, but by ensuring adequate oral health care, it is possible to maintain oral health in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Also, it is recommended that orthodontic treatment should start as soon as possible if it is required. In this context, otorhinolaryngologists, pedodontists, and orthodontists should work as a team in the treatment of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Tonsila Faríngea/patologia , Saúde Bucal , Tonsila Palatina/patologia , Tonsila Faríngea/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/patologia , Oclusão Dentária , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Halitose/complicações , Halitose/patologia , Humanos , Hipertrofia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Tonsila Palatina/fisiopatologia , Índice Periodontal , Escovação Dentária
6.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808074

RESUMO

Genomics technologies can be used to study the relationship between the human genome, nutrition, and health [...].


Assuntos
Genômica , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Medicina de Precisão , Humanos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808247

RESUMO

Magnesium plays an important role in many physiological functions. Habitually low intakes of magnesium and in general the deficiency of this micronutrient induce changes in biochemical pathways that can increase the risk of illness and, in particular, chronic degenerative diseases. The assessment of magnesium status is consequently of great importance, however, its evaluation is difficult. The measurement of serum magnesium concentration is the most commonly used and readily available method for assessing magnesium status, even if serum levels have no reliable correlation with total body magnesium levels or concentrations in specific tissues. Therefore, this review offers an overview of recent insights into magnesium from multiple perspectives. Starting from a biochemical point of view, it aims at highlighting the risk due to insufficient uptake (frequently due to the low content of magnesium in the modern western diet), at suggesting strategies to reach the recommended dietary reference values, and at focusing on the importance of detecting physiological or pathological levels of magnesium in various body districts, in order to counteract the social impact of diseases linked to magnesium deficiency.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Magnésio , Magnésio/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Magnésio/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Recomendações Nutricionais
8.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922108

RESUMO

Regular physical exercise and a healthy diet are major determinants of a healthy lifespan. Although aging is associated with declining endurance performance and muscle function, these components can favorably be modified by regular physical activity and especially by exercise training at all ages in both sexes. In addition, age-related changes in body composition and metabolism, which affect even highly trained masters athletes, can in part be compensated for by higher exercise metabolic efficiency in active individuals. Accordingly, masters athletes are often considered as a role model for healthy aging and their physical capacities are an impressive example of what is possible in aging individuals. In the present review, we first discuss physiological changes, performance and trainability of older athletes with a focus on sex differences. Second, we describe the most important hormonal alterations occurring during aging pertaining regulation of appetite, glucose homeostasis and energy expenditure and the modulatory role of exercise training. The third part highlights nutritional aspects that may support health and physical performance for older athletes. Key nutrition-related concerns include the need for adequate energy and protein intake for preventing low bone and muscle mass and a higher demand for specific nutrients (e.g., vitamin D and probiotics) that may reduce the infection burden in masters athletes. Fourth, we present important research findings on the association between exercise, nutrition and the microbiota, which represents a rapidly developing field in sports nutrition.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atletas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Caracteres Sexuais , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Publicações
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(5): 1083-1092, 2021 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876183

RESUMO

The dietary modification (DM) clinical trial, within the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), studied a low-fat dietary pattern intervention that included guidance to increase vegetables, fruit, and grains. This study was motivated in part from uncertainty about the reliability of observational studies examining the association between dietary fat and chronic disease risk by using self-reported dietary data. In addition to this large trial, which had breast and colorectal cancer as its primary outcomes, a substantial biomarker research effort was initiated midway in the WHI program to contribute to nutritional epidemiology research more broadly. Here we review and update findings from the DM trial and from the WHI nutritional biomarker studies and examine implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. The WHI included the randomized controlled DM trial (n = 48,835) and a prospective cohort observational (OS) study (n = 93,676), both among postmenopausal US women, aged 50-79 y when enrolled during 1993-1998. Also reviewed is a nutrition and physical activity assessment study in a subset of 450 OS participants (2007-2009) and a related controlled feeding study among 153 WHI participants (2010-2014). Long-term follow-up in the DM trial provides evidence for intervention-related reductions in breast cancer mortality, diabetes requiring insulin, and coronary artery disease in the subset of normotensive healthy women, without observed adverse effects or changes in all-cause mortality. Studies of intake biomarkers, and of biomarker-calibrated intake, suggest important associations of total energy intake and macronutrient dietary composition with the risk for major chronic diseases among postmenopausal women. Collectively these studies argue for a nutrition epidemiology research agenda that includes major efforts in nutritional biomarker development, and in the application of biomarkers combined with self-reported dietary data in disease association analyses. We expect such efforts to yield novel disease association findings and to inform disease prevention approaches for potential testing in dietary intervention trials. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Saúde da Mulher , Feminino , Humanos , Estado Nutricional
10.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916929

RESUMO

The impairment of liver function frequently causes various type of malnutrition, as the liver is one of the most important organs involved in maintaining nutritional homeostasis [...].


Assuntos
Dieta , Hepatite/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Autofagia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Hepatite/sangue , Hepatite/genética , Hepatite/microbiologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Oligoelementos/análise
11.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919141

RESUMO

The adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which synthesizes and secretes a variety of adipokines, including adiponectin with its anti-inflammatory properties. Its expression is influenced by numerous factors such as age, sex, body weight and adipose tissue content. However, dietary factors, i.e., diet structure and the percentage of individual nutrients and products, are very important modulators. Beneficial dietary habits are the Mediterranean diet, DASH diet, diet based on plant products and diet with reduced energy value. Moreover, the share of individual products and nutrients which increase the concentration of adiponectin is worth noting. This group may include monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fiber, polyphenols, alcohol and milk products. Conversely, dietary ingredients which have a negative effect on the concentration of adiponectin are typical components of the Western diet: saturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, monosaccharides and disaccharides, and red meat. Furthermore, a diet characterized by a high glycemic index such as a high-carbohydrate low-fat diet also seems to be unfavorable. Due to the fact that available knowledge should be systematized, this study aimed to summarize the most recent research on the influence of dietary factors on the concentration of adiponectin.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Dieta , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923822

RESUMO

The liver is an important organ and plays a key role in the regulation of metabolism and in the secretion, storage, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous substances. The impact of food and nutrition on the pathophysiological mechanisms of liver injury represents a great controversy. Several environmental factors including food and micronutrients are involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage. Conversely, some xenobiotics and micronutrients have been recognized to have a protective effect in several liver diseases. This paper offers an overview of the current knowledge on the role of xenobiotics and micronutrients in liver damage.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Xenobióticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/etiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924119

RESUMO

Nutrition has an important impact on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In particular, several studies have addressed its role in their pathogenesis, showing how the incidence of IBD significantly increased in recent years. Meanwhile, nutrition should be considered a component of the treatment of the disease, both as a therapy itself, and especially in the perspective of correcting the various nutritional deficiencies shown by these patients. In this perspective, nutritional suggestions are very important even in the most severe forms of IBD, requiring hospitalization or surgical treatment. Although current knowledge about nutrition in IBD is increasing over time, nutritional suggestions are often underestimated by clinicians. This narrative review is an update summary of current knowledge on nutritional suggestions in IBD, in order to address the impact of nutrition on pathogenesis, micro- and macro-nutrients deficiencies (especially in the case of sarcopenia and obesity), as well as in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Apoio Nutricional , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
14.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922353

RESUMO

In recent years, adipose tissue has attracted a lot of attention. It is not only an energy reservoir but also plays important immune, paracrine and endocrine roles. BMAT (bone marrow adipose tissue) is a heterogeneous tissue, found mostly in the medullary canal of the long bones (tibia, femur and humerus), in the vertebrae and iliac crest. Adipogenesis in bone marrow cavities is a consequence of ageing or may accompany pathologies like diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM), T2DM, anorexia nervosa, oestrogen and growth hormone deficiencies or impaired haematopoiesis and osteoporosis. This paper focuses on studies concerning BMAT and its physiology in dietary interventions, like obesity in humans and high fat diet in rodent studies; and opposite: anorexia nervosa and calorie restriction in animal models.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/fisiologia , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Animais , Restrição Calórica , Dieta , Humanos
15.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5536893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860032

RESUMO

Objectives: This study was aimed at comparing the predictors of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors between smoking and nonsmoking medical students at An-Najah National University located in Palestine. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed during the academic year 2017/2018. Medical students were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that involved the predictors of Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. With the use of a suitable available sample composed of a total of 430 medical students, 400 had successfully completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 24 software. Results: The sample included 400 medical students with a mean age of 18.7 years, 311 (77.7%) were females, and 89 (22.3%) were males. The prevalence of smokers in the sample was 110 (27.5%). For the health status of over half the students, 211 (52.8%) were excellent. The total HPLP-II score for smoking students resulted to be significantly lower in comparison to nonsmoking students (131.2 versus 135.7). This significant difference was clear in the interpersonal relation subscale (25.6 versus 26.8) for smoking and nonsmoking students, respectively. The score differences in other subscales were generally lower in smoking students. However, these differences were not consistent with statistical significance. Conclusion: The significant lower total Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II score in smoking students necessitates the urgent need for awareness programs, not only towards smoking but also on how to enhance student health-promoting lifestyle behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803183

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal tract can assess the nutrient composition of ingested food. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms in specialised epithelial cells lining the gastrointestinal tract, the enteroendocrine cells, trigger the release of gut hormones that provide important local and central feedback signals to regulate nutrient utilisation and feeding behaviour. The evidence for nutrient-stimulated secretion of two of the most studied gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), along with the known cellular mechanisms in enteroendocrine cells recruited by nutrients, will be the focus of this review. The mechanisms involved range from electrogenic transporters, ion channel modulation and nutrient-activated G-protein coupled receptors that converge on the release machinery controlling hormone secretion. Elucidation of these mechanisms will provide much needed insight into postprandial physiology and identify tractable dietary approaches to potentially manage nutrition and satiety by altering the secreted gut hormone profile.


Assuntos
Células Enteroendócrinas/metabolismo , Polipeptídeo Inibidor Gástrico/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Secreções Corporais , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Período Pós-Prandial
17.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803407

RESUMO

Infectious diseases and infections remain a leading cause of death in low-income countries and a major risk to vulnerable groups, such as infants and the elderly. The immune system plays a crucial role in the susceptibility, persistence, and clearance of these infections. With 70-80% of immune cells being present in the gut, there is an intricate interplay between the intestinal microbiota, the intestinal epithelial layer, and the local mucosal immune system. In addition to the local mucosal immune responses in the gut, it is increasingly recognized that the gut microbiome also affects systemic immunity. Clinicians are more and more using the increased knowledge about these complex interactions between the immune system, the gut microbiome, and human pathogens. The now well-recognized impact of nutrition on the composition of the gut microbiota and the immune system elucidates the role nutrition can play in improving health. This review describes the mechanisms involved in maintaining the intricate balance between the microbiota, gut health, the local immune response, and systemic immunity, linking this to infectious diseases throughout life, and highlights the impact of nutrition in infectious disease prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/imunologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Lactente , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Masculino
18.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800650

RESUMO

Aging is associated with impairment in skeletal muscle mass and contractile function, predisposing to fat mass gain, insulin resistance and diabetes. The impact of Vitamin D (VitD) supplementation on skeletal muscle mass and function in older adults is still controversial. The aim of this review was to summarize data from randomized clinical trials, animal dietary intervention and cell studies in order to clarify current knowledge on the effects of VitD on skeletal muscle as reported for these three types of experiments. A structured research of the literature in Medline via PubMed was conducted and a total of 43 articles were analysed (cells n = 18, animals n = 13 and humans n = 13). The results as described by these key studies demonstrate, overall, at cell and animal levels, that VitD treatments had positive effects on the development of muscle fibres in cells in culture, skeletal muscle force and hypertrophy. Vitamin D supplementation appears to regulate not only lipid and mitochondrial muscle metabolism but also to have a direct effect on glucose metabolism and insulin driven signalling. However, considering the human perspective, results revealed a predominance of null effects of the vitamin on muscle in the ageing population, but experimental design may have influenced the study outcome in humans. Well-designed long duration double-blinded trials, standardised VitD dosing regimen, larger sample sized studies and standardised measurements may be helpful tools to accurately determine results and compare to those observed in cells and animal dietary intervention models.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800688

RESUMO

Milk contains several important nutrients that are beneficial for human health. This review considers the nutritional qualities of essential fatty acids (FAs), especially omega-3 (ω-3) and omega-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) present in milk from ruminant and non-ruminant species. In particular, the impact of milk fatty acids on metabolism is discussed, including its effects on the central nervous system. In addition, we presented data indicating how animal feeding-the main way to modify milk fat composition-may have a potential impact on human health, and how rearing and feeding systems strongly affect milk quality within the same animal species. Finally, we have presented the results of in vivo studies aimed at supporting the beneficial effects of milk FA intake in animal models, and the factors limiting their transferability to humans were discussed.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/análise , Leite/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia
20.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652752

RESUMO

The use of dietary supplements has become increasingly common over the past 20 years. Whereas supplements were formerly used mainly by elite athletes, age and fitness status no longer dictates who uses these substances. Indeed, many nutritional supplements are recommended by health care professionals to their patients. Creatine (CR) is a widely used dietary supplement that has been well-studied for its effects on performance and health. CR also aids in recovery from strenuous bouts of exercise by reducing inflammation. Although CR is considered to be very safe in recommended doses, a caveat is that a preponderance of the studies have focused upon young athletic individuals; thus there is limited knowledge regarding the effects of CR on children or the elderly. In this review, we examine the potential of CR to impact the host outside of the musculoskeletal system, specifically, the immune system, and discuss the available data demonstrating that CR can impact both innate and adaptive immune responses, together with how the effects on the immune system might be exploited to enhance human health.


Assuntos
Creatina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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