Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 25.396
Filtrar
1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(2): 207-219, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674226

RESUMO

Pandemics have shaped humanity over and over again, but the coronavirus outbreak of 2019-2020 is in a world at the tipping point of catastrophic climate change. Its origins and distinction derive from over-population with inequity and an industrial revolution since the 17th century which has exploited fossil fuels as a globalised energy source, a period now described as the anthropocene. Asymptotic ecosystem loss and dysfunction, for people whose being is socioecological, makes ultimate survival tenuous. Microbial forms of life jump species when habitats are destroyed, or their host misused. Our innate immunity depends on our general health and fitness- social, mental, physical, and nutritional, in step with nature and its rhythms through walking in it, enjoying sunlight and sleep. Biodiversity and the associated benefit of food variety, after being breast-fed, is the key descriptor of a healthful, sustainable, accessible, and acceptable way of eating. How this pattern might contribute to our resilience in the face of a highly transmissible and biologically evasive virus is becoming clear. It may also be possible to compliment usefully preventive vaccination and therapeutic healthcare and rehabilitation through a greater understanding of our nutritional biology.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/imunologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição/fisiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Ecossistema , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 721-769, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The US faces remarkable food and nutrition challenges. A new federal effort to strengthen and coordinate nutrition research could rapidly generate the evidence base needed to address these multiple national challenges. However, the relevant characteristics of such an effort have been uncertain. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to provide an objective, informative summary of 1) the mounting diet-related health burdens facing our nation and corresponding economic, health equity, national security, and sustainability implications; 2) the current federal nutrition research landscape and existing mechanisms for its coordination; 3) the opportunities for and potential impact of new fundamental, clinical, public health, food and agricultural, and translational scientific discoveries; and 4) the various options for further strengthening and coordinating federal nutrition research, including corresponding advantages, disadvantages, and potential executive and legislative considerations. METHODS: We reviewed government and other published documents on federal nutrition research; held various discussions with expert groups, advocacy organizations, and scientific societies; and held in-person or phone meetings with >50 federal staff in executive and legislative roles, as well as with a variety of other stakeholders in academic, industry, and nongovernment organizations. RESULTS: Stark national nutrition challenges were identified. More Americans are sick than are healthy, largely from rising diet-related illnesses. These conditions create tremendous strains on productivity, health care costs, health disparities, government budgets, US economic competitiveness, and military readiness. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has further laid bare these strains, including food insecurity, major diet-related comorbidities for poor outcomes from COVID-19 such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, and insufficient surveillance on and coordination of our food system. More than 10 federal departments and agencies currently invest in critical nutrition research, yet with relatively flat investments over several decades. Coordination also remains suboptimal, documented by multiple governmental reports over 50 years. Greater harmonization and expansion of federal investment in nutrition science, not a silo-ing or rearrangement of existing investments, has tremendous potential to generate new discoveries to improve and sustain the health of all Americans. Two identified key strategies to achieve this were as follows: 1) a new authority for robust cross-governmental coordination of nutrition research and other nutrition-related policy and 2) strengthened authority, investment, and coordination for nutrition research within the NIH. These strategies were found to be complementary, together catalyzing important new science, partnerships, coordination, and returns on investment. Additional complementary actions to accelerate federal nutrition research were identified at the USDA. CONCLUSIONS: The need and opportunities for strengthened federal nutrition research are clear, with specific identified options to help create the new leadership, strategic planning, coordination, and investment the nation requires to address the multiple nutrition-related challenges and grasp the opportunities before us.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pesquisa/normas , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Humanos , Militares , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/economia , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Agriculture/economia , United States Dept. of Health and Human Services/economia
7.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-530053

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S124-S130, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592913

RESUMO

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) emerged as an epidemic from China, with quick spread globally. The disease can lead to serious problems, like pneumonia or even death especially among vulnerable people with existing health conditions. Its treatment and management require huge efforts from medical professionals often at the cost of their own health and life. Nutrition is the epicenter for the management of such diseases which works synergistically with the medical treatment for quick and better recovery. It has been associated with great human and economic toll and it is still not contained. Currently over two million people are affected and over 300,000 deaths globally. However, due to its newness and unfamiliarity, the understanding of this novel virus is still evolving. This viral infection poses numerous metabolic challenges to those severely affected and addressing them is a key to better outcomes. Medical nutritional therapy is thus among the mainstay of core components of comprehensive treatment measures for patients with COVID-19. This manuscript therefore aims to highlight the role of nutritional management and support in covid-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Terapia Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias
9.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S124-S130, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609381

RESUMO

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) emerged as an epidemic from China, with quick spread globally. The disease can lead to serious problems, like pneumonia or even death especially among vulnerable people with existing health conditions. Its treatment and management require huge efforts from medical professionals often at the cost of their own health and life. Nutrition is the epicenter for the management of such diseases which works synergistically with the medical treatment for quick and better recovery. It has been associated with great human and economic toll and it is still not contained. Currently over two million people are affected and over 300,000 deaths globally. However, due to its newness and unfamiliarity, the understanding of this novel virus is still evolving. This viral infection poses numerous metabolic challenges to those severely affected and addressing them is a key to better outcomes. Medical nutritional therapy is thus among the mainstay of core components of comprehensive treatment measures for patients with COVID-19. This manuscript therefore aims to highlight the role of nutritional management and support in covid-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Terapia Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias
10.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-605619

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S124-S130, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515395

RESUMO

Corona virus disease (COVID-19) emerged as an epidemic from China, with quick spread globally. The disease can lead to serious problems, like pneumonia or even death especially among vulnerable people with existing health conditions. Its treatment and management require huge efforts from medical professionals often at the cost of their own health and life. Nutrition is the epicenter for the management of such diseases which works synergistically with the medical treatment for quick and better recovery. It has been associated with great human and economic toll and it is still not contained. Currently over two million people are affected and over 300,000 deaths globally. However, due to its newness and unfamiliarity, the understanding of this novel virus is still evolving. This viral infection poses numerous metabolic challenges to those severely affected and addressing them is a key to better outcomes. Medical nutritional therapy is thus among the mainstay of core components of comprehensive treatment measures for patients with COVID-19. This manuscript therefore aims to highlight the role of nutritional management and support in covid-19 disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Terapia Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Humanos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias
12.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care ; 23(4): 288-293, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487876

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Covid-19 pandemic has daunted the world with its enormous impact on healthcare, economic recession, and psychological distress. Nutrition is an integral part of every person life care, and should also be mandatorily integrated to patient care under the Covid-19 pandemic. It is crucial to understand how the Covid-19 does develop and which risk factors are associated with negative outcomes and death. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to have studies that respect the basic tenets of the scientific method in order to be trusted. The goal of this review is to discuss the deluge of scientific data and how it might influence clinical reasoning and practice. RECENT FINDINGS: A large number of scientific manuscripts are daily published worldwide, and the Covid-19 makes no exception. Up to now, data on Covid-19 have come from countries initially affected by the disease and mostly pertain either epidemiological observations or opinion papers. Many of them do not fulfil the essential principles characterizing the adequate scientific method. SUMMARY: It is crucial to be able to critical appraise the scientific literature, in order to provide adequate nutrition therapy to patients, and in particular, to Covid-19 infected individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Transtornos Nutricionais , Terapia Nutricional/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Humanos , Transtornos Nutricionais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/etiologia , Transtornos Nutricionais/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Fatores de Risco
14.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(5): e730-e736, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353320

RESUMO

Intervention coverage-the proportion of the population with a health-care need who receive care-does not account for intervention quality and potentially overestimates health benefits of services provided to populations. Effective coverage introduces the dimension of quality of care to the measurement of intervention coverage. Many definitions and methodological approaches to measuring effective coverage have been developed, resulting in confusion over definition, calculation, interpretation, and monitoring of these measures. To develop a consensus on the definition and measurement of effective coverage for maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health and nutrition (MNCAHN), WHO and UNICEF convened a group of experts, the Effective Coverage Think Tank Group, to make recommendations for standardising the definition of effective coverage, measurement approaches for effective coverage, indicators of effective coverage in MNCAHN, and to develop future effective coverage research priorities. Via a series of consultations, the group recommended that effective coverage be defined as the proportion of a population in need of a service that resulted in a positive health outcome from the service. The proposed effective coverage measures and care cascade steps can be applied to further develop effective coverage measures across a broad range of MNCAHN services. Furthermore, advances in measurement of effective coverage could improve monitoring efforts towards the achievement of universal health coverage.


Assuntos
Saúde/tendências , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Saúde do Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232680, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: N-of-1 designs gain popularity in nutritional research because of the improving technological possibilities, practical applicability and promise of increased accuracy and sensitivity, especially in the field of personalized nutrition. This move asks for a search of applicable statistical methods. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the differences of three popular statistical methods in analyzing treatment effects of data obtained in N-of-1 designs. METHOD: We compare Individual-participant data meta-analysis, frequentist and Bayesian linear mixed effect models using a simulation experiment. Furthermore, we demonstrate the merits of the Bayesian model including prior information by analyzing data of an empirical study on weight loss. RESULTS: The linear mixed effect models are to be preferred over the meta-analysis method, since the individual effects are estimated more accurately as evidenced by the lower errors, especially with lower sample sizes. Differences between Bayesian and frequentist mixed models were found to be small, indicating that they will lead to the same results without including an informative prior. CONCLUSION: For empirical data, the Bayesian mixed model allows the inclusion of prior knowledge and gives potential for population based and personalized inference.


Assuntos
Ciências da Nutrição/métodos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Metanálise como Assunto , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Tamanho da Amostra
16.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108781

RESUMO

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
17.
Nutrients ; 12(4)2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340216

RESUMO

Public health practices including handwashing and vaccinations help reduce the spread and impact of infections. Nevertheless, the global burden of infection is high, and additional measures are necessary. Acute respiratory tract infections, for example, were responsible for approximately 2.38 million deaths worldwide in 2016. The role nutrition plays in supporting the immune system is well-established. A wealth of mechanistic and clinical data show that vitamins, including vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and folate; trace elements, including zinc, iron, selenium, magnesium, and copper; and the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid play important and complementary roles in supporting the immune system. Inadequate intake and status of these nutrients are widespread, leading to a decrease in resistance to infections and as a consequence an increase in disease burden. Against this background the following conclusions are made: (1) supplementation with the above micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids is a safe, effective, and low-cost strategy to help support optimal immune function; (2) supplementation above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), but within recommended upper safety limits, for specific nutrients such as vitamins C and D is warranted; and (3) public health officials are encouraged to include nutritional strategies in their recommendations to improve public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Viroses/imunologia , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
19.
Georgian Med News ; (299): 47-55, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242844

RESUMO

The physical development of children is one of the main criteria for the health status of the child population, reflecting the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. Dynamic study of schoolchildren's physical development allows one to determine the characteristics of the formations of their morphofunctional parameters and then influence the health of the whole population. The study of the orientation of time shifts in physical development has an important predictive preventive component and is the basis for updating regional standards every 5-10 years. Objective - to identify the main trends in the physical development of schoolchildren in Kazakhstan according to anthropometric measurements among schoolchildren of Almaty over the past 60 years (1956, 1972(2), 1983, 1989, 2005, 2017). Object of study: 13136 schoolchildren of 7-16 years old, various general education institutions (schools) of Almaty, who studied in 1956, in 1972, in 1983, in 1989, in 2005, and in 2017, which were used to carry out transverse and longitudinal studies of physical development using a standardized anthropometric method using standard tools. A comparative analysis of the basic indicators of physical development (length and body weight), conducted between 1956 and 2017, shows a pronounced tendency to increase them across all ages. The largest increase in basic body size in both boys and girls was in the period from 1956 to 1972 (p <0.05). Later, until 2005, stabilization and even slowing down of the observed processes of increasing somatometric indicators was noted. The economic crisis that swept the country in the 1990 led to a significant decrease in the mass-growth indicators in children of both sexes in 2005. The results of a 2017 study indicate a "new round of acceleration" of modern children of Kazakhstan of both sexes. A retrospective study of the physical development of schoolchildren, conducted in Kazakhstan over the past 60 years, showed a pronounced tendency to increase the basic mass and growth indicators, especially in males, and the acceleration of the period of puberty. In modern schoolchildren, there was a change in the timing of the annual "crosses" of growth curves at an earlier age period. For children of Kazakhstan in the new millennium, a decrease in the degree of correlative connections between length and body weight is characteristic, which indicates their disharmonious development.


Assuntos
Crescimento , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Antropometria , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA