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1.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(1): 60-66, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627568

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Predicting nasal soft tissue envelope (STE) thickness is an important component of the preoperative evaluation for rhinoplasty that presently lacks validated tools. OBJECTIVE: Assess for patient facial features and factors that can help predict nasal STE thickness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective review and prospective assessment conducted at an academic tertiary referral center. This study included 190 adult patients and four expert raters. The patients had high-resolution maxillofacial CT scans and standardized facial photographs on file and did not have a history of nasal fracture, septal perforation, rhinoplasty, or other surgery or medical conditions altering nasal form. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Assess each face for features that could help predict nasal STE thickness: sebaceous quality of skin, visibility of nasal tip cartilages, presence of freckles, presence of telangiectasias, Fitzpatrick skin type, patient age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Measure actual nasal STE thickness using high-resolution CT scans. Analyze which facial features and patient factors help predict nasal STE thickness. RESULTS: Pearson correlations were calculated between actual nasal STE thickness and patient facial features and factors. These showed that more sebaceous skin, telangiectasias, higher Fitzpatrick skin type, male sex, and higher BMI were associated with a thicker nasal STE. Increased visibility of nasal tip cartilages, freckles, lower Fitzpatrick skin type, female sex, and lower BMI were associated with a thinner nasal STE. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: There are patient facial features and factors that can help surgeons predict nasal STE thickness before rhinoplasty. An accurate prediction of nasal STE thickness can improve preoperative planning for rhinoplasty, allowing implementation of pre-, intra-, and post-operative treatments to optimize the nasal STE, which may ultimately improve patient outcomes and satisfaction.


Assuntos
Nariz/anatomia & histologia , Rinoplastia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nariz/diagnóstico por imagem , Fotografação , Exame Físico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Telangiectasia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0227462, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382701

RESUMO

An age-old hypothesis proposes that object motion across the receptor surface organizes sensory maps (Lotze, 19th century). Skin patches learn their relative positions from the order in which they are stimulated during motion events. We propose that reversing the local motion within a global motion sequence ('motion scrambling') provides a good test for this idea, and present results of the first experiment implementing the paradigm. We used 6-point apparent motion along the forearm. In the Scrambled sequence, two middle locations were touched in reversed order (1-2-4-3-5-6, followed by 6-5-3-4-2-1, in a continuous loop). This created a double U-turn within an otherwise constant-velocity motion, as if skin patches 3 and 4 physically swapped locations. The control condition, Orderly, proceeded at constant velocity at inter-stimulus onset interval of 120 ms. The 26.4-minute conditioning (delivered in twenty-four 66-s bouts) was interspersed with testing of perceived motion direction between the two middle tactors presented on their own (sequence 3-4 or 4-3). Our twenty participants reported motion direction. Direction discrimination was degraded following exposure to Scrambled pattern and was 0.31 d' weaker than following Orderly conditioning (p = .007). Consistent with the proposed role of motion, this could be the beginning of re-learning of relative positions. An alternative explanation is that greater speed adaptation occurred in the Scrambled pattern, raising direction threshold. In future studies, longer conditioning should tease apart the two explanations: our re-mapping hypothesis predicts an overall reversal in perceived motion direction between critical locations (for either motion direction), whereas the speed adaptation alternative predicts chance-level performance at worst, without reversing.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Condicionamento Psicológico , Percepção de Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Antebraço/inervação , Antebraço/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento (Física) , Psicofísica/métodos , Pele/inervação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
4.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(5): 384-389, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047558

RESUMO

To satisfy the daily demand of skin condition maintenance, make non-invasive real-time detection, and get proper quantitative evaluation of skin viscoelasticity parameters at the same time, a portable non-invasive detection system to acquire real-time skin tissue viscoelasticity is developed. The system relies mainly on a single-degree-of-freedom forced vibration model, with spring-damp-mass, and on dynamic micro indentation method. The experiment is conducted on two kinds of springs, and on pigskin tissues as well, the system's suitability, accuracy and stability are confirmed. The skin viscoelasticity detection in vivo is also carried out on 20 subjects with different ages, the differences of skin viscoelasticity in various parts of the body are investigated, and the correlations between age and skin viscoelasticity are clarified.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele , Elasticidade , Humanos , Tempo , Viscosidade
5.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(4): 494-496, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972609

RESUMO

Stem cells have recently garnered increased attention, especially pertaining to their use in cutaneous rejuvenation. Their popularity has continued to grow with patients and consumers alike, which has followed the substantial marketing bolstering them. Although limited, studies have begun to demonstrate promise in the field of esthetics. We review the prominent studies in the literature to shed more light on the use of stem cells for cosmetic practitioners.


Assuntos
Técnicas Cosméticas , Dermatologia , Estética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Rejuvenescimento/fisiologia , Envelhecimento da Pele , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea , Diferenciação Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Humanos , Pele , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
6.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1003-1006, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972218

RESUMO

The significance of hand hygiene for preventing the transmission of microorganisms and reducing the spread of infection has been brought into sharp focus following the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In the months since the initial outbreak, international public health campaigns and practitioner education has concentrated on hand washing and hand sanitising, with very little reference to hand drying, if any at all. However, hand drying is integral to effective hand hygiene, and is important in controlling the spread of microorganisms and maintaining healthy skin integrity. This research commentary will focus on two issues of importance with regards to hand drying: microbial transmission and skin irritation, with implications for healthcare practitioners and practice considered. It is argued that a more holistic approach to hand hygiene must be the ambition if health professional and public behaviour is to become embedded and sustained.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Mãos/virologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 5911-5926, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848396

RESUMO

Purpose: Chronic refractory wounds are a multifactorial comorbidity of diabetes mellitus with the characteristic of impaired vascular networks. Currently, there is a lack of effective treatments for such wounds. Various types of mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (MSC-exos) have been shown to exert multiple therapeutic effects on skin regeneration. We aimed to determine whether a constructed combination of human umbilical cord MSC (hUCMSC)-derived exosomes (hUCMSC-exos) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) hydrogel could improve wound healing. Materials and Methods: We topically applied human umbilical cord-derived MSC (hUCMSC)-derived exosomes (hUCMSC-exos) encapsulated in a thermosensitive PF-127 hydrogel to a full-thickness cutaneous wound in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. The material properties and wound healing ability of the hydrogel and cellular responses were analyzed. Results: Compared with hUCMSC-exos, PF-127-only or control treatment, the combination of PF-127 and hUCMSC-exos resulted in a significantly accelerated wound closure rate, increased expression of CD31 and Ki67, enhanced regeneration of granulation tissue and upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and factor transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFß-1). Conclusion: The efficient delivery of hUCMSC-exos in PF-127 gel and improved exosome ability could promote diabetic wound healing. Thus, this biomaterial-based exosome therapy may represent a new therapeutic approach for cutaneous regeneration of chronic wounds.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Exossomos/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Poloxâmero/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Pé Diabético/patologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Masculino , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/lesões , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Estreptozocina , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Cicatrização/fisiologia
8.
J Nippon Med Sch ; 87(3): 110-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous wound healing is a complex, dynamic physiological process. Traditional methods of promoting wound healing are not always effective. Consequently, alternative modalities, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are needed. We examined the effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of PDT in a murine model of acute wound healing. METHODS: Two excisional wounds were produced, one on each side of the midline, in C57bL/6J mice. Methyl 5-aminolevulinate hydrochloride (MAL) was applied to the right-side wound. After 1 to 3 hours of incubation, the wound was irradiated with red light. The left-side wound was not treated with MAL or red light. On Day 14, the wounds were excised and subjected to histological and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: During the first week, no difference was seen between the two sides. However, at week 2, PDT-treated wounds exhibited delayed re-epithelialization. On Day 14, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining showed a continuous epithelial lining in untreated wounds. In contrast, PDT-treated wounds partially lacked epithelium in the wound bed. Masson's Trichrome (MTC) staining showed a thicker dermis and more collagen fibers and inflammatory cells in PDT-treated wounds than in untreated wounds. Immunohistochemical analyses showed significantly fewer CD31+ blood vessels and greater collagen III density in PDT-treated wounds than in untreated wounds. However, treated and untreated wounds did not differ in collagen I density. CONCLUSIONS: PDT delayed acute wound healing in a murine model of secondary intention wound healing.


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Pele/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos
9.
Gene ; 758: 144968, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707304

RESUMO

The hair follicle is an excellent mini-system illustrating the mechanisms governing organogenesis and regeneration. Although the general mechanisms modulating skin and hair follicle development are widely studied in mouse and chicken models, the delicate network regulating skin and hair diversity remains largely unclear. Sheep is an additional model to address the various wool characteristics observed in nature. The coarse and fine wool sheep with diverse fibers were examined to show differences in the primary wool follicle size and skin thickness. The molecular dynamics in skin staged at the primary wool follicle induction between two sheep lines were investigated by RNA-sequencing analyses to generate 1994 differentially expressed genes revealing marker genes for epithelium (6 genes), dermal condensate (38 genes) and dermal fibroblast (58 genes) highly correlated with skin and wool follicle morphological differences. The DEGs were enriched in GO terms represented by epithelial cell migration and differentiation, regulation of hair follicle development and ectodermal placode formation, and KEGG pathways typified by WNT and Hedgehog signaling pathways governing the differences of skin structure. The qPCR detection of 9 genes confirmed the similar expression tendency with RNA-sequencing profiles. This comparative study of coarse and fine wool sheep skin reveals the presence of skin and wool follicle differences at primary wool follicle induction stage, and indicates the potential effectors (APCDD1, FGF20, DKK1, IGFBP3 and SFRP4) regulating the skin compartments during the early morphogenesis of primary wool follicles to shape the variable wool fiber thickness in later developmental stages.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Folículo Piloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folículo Piloso/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/genética , Lã/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ovinos , Transcriptoma/genética , Via de Sinalização Wnt
10.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(4): 420-437, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614224

RESUMO

Physiological synchronization is the study of how individuals in interaction coregulate their physiology. The topic has sparked increasing interest in counseling and psychotherapy research, where it has been found to be associated with the therapeutic alliance, clinicians' empathy and patients' outcome. Physiological synchronization allows researcher to investigate subtle but fundamental aspects of the clinical process through objective measures. In this article, we aim to offer a guide to researchers and clinicians to explore this growing field of study. We begin by reviewing the existing literature of physiological synchronization in clinical relationships, and then we provide practical guidelines for research. We discuss the various aspects involved in synchronization studies: study design, selection of physiological signals, data analytic approaches, and interpretation of results. To better illustrate how to implement these types of design, we provide a running example describing the data collection and analysis of a single-case study. In the example we discuss both how to conduct a longitudinal nomothetic analysis, as well as a moment-to-moment idiographic exploration of the clinical content. In this latter analysis, in particular, we show how physiological synchronization can be used in combination with 2 transcripts analysis tools, the Patient Attachment Coding System, and the Therapist Attunement Scales to reach a deeper understanding of the ongoing processes. We conclude by arguing that research in counseling and psychotherapy has much to gain from and contribute to the overall development of our understanding of physiological synchronization in human interaction. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Aliança Terapêutica , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Empatia , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Hum Cell ; 33(4): 990-1005, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617892

RESUMO

Orchestrated control of multiple overlapping and sequential processes is required for the maintenance of epidermal homeostasis and the response to and recovery from a variety of skin insults. Previous studies indicate that membrane-associated serine protease matriptase and prostasin play essential roles in epidermal development, differentiation, and barrier formation. The control of proteolysis is a highly regulated process, which depends not only on gene expression but also on zymogen activation and the balance between protease and protease inhibitor. Subcellular localization can affect the accessibility of protease inhibitors to proteases and, thus, also represents an integral component of the control of proteolysis. To understand how membrane-associated proteolysis is regulated in human skin, these key aspects of matriptase and prostasin were determined in normal and injured human skin by immunohistochemistry. This staining shows that matriptase is expressed predominantly in the zymogen form at the periphery of basal and spinous keratinocytes, and prostasin appears to be constitutively activated at high levels in polarized organelle-like structures of the granular keratinocytes in the adjacent quiescent skin. The membrane-associated proteolysis appears to be elevated via an increase in matriptase zymogen activation and prostasin protein expression in areas of skin recovering from epidermal insults. There was no noticeable change observed in other regulatory aspects, including the expression and tissue distribution of their cognate inhibitors HAI-1 and HAI-2. This study reveals that the membrane-associated proteolysis may be a critical epidermal mechanism involved in responding to, and recovering from, damage to human skin.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Expressão Gênica , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele/genética , Pele/lesões , Cicatrização/genética , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/genética , Ferimentos e Lesões/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Precursores Enzimáticos/genética , Precursores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/genética , Proteínas Secretadas Inibidoras de Proteinases/metabolismo , Proteólise , Serina Endopeptidases/fisiologia , Pele/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16856-16863, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632002

RESUMO

Recent advances in soft materials and mechanics activate development of many new types of electrical medical implants. Electronic implants that provide exceptional functions, however, usually require more electrical power, resulting in shorter period of usages although many approaches have been suggested to harvest electrical power in human bodies by resolving the issues related to power density, biocompatibility, tissue damage, and others. Here, we report an active photonic power transfer approach at the level of a full system to secure sustainable electrical power in human bodies. The active photonic power transfer system consists of a pair of the skin-attachable photon source patch and the photovoltaic device array integrated in a flexible medical implant. The skin-attachable patch actively emits photons that can penetrate through live tissues to be captured by the photovoltaic devices in a medical implant. The wireless power transfer system is very simple, e.g., active power transfer in direct current (DC) to DC without extra circuits, and can be used for implantable medical electronics regardless of weather, covering by clothes, in indoor or outdoor at day and night. We demonstrate feasibility of the approach by presenting thermal and mechanical compatibility with soft live tissues while generating enough electrical power in live bodies through in vivo animal experiments. We expect that the results enable long-term use of currently available implants in addition to accelerating emerging types of electrical implants that require higher power to provide diverse convenient diagnostic and therapeutic functions in human bodies.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar , Fótons , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação , Animais , Frequência Cardíaca , Camundongos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Transdutores
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(4): 893-902, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The utility of dermal regeneration templates for treating high-risk diabetic foot wounds is unclear. The authors report wound healing and major amputation outcomes among a cohort of diabetic patients with complex diabetic foot wounds treated in a multidisciplinary setting. METHODS: All patients with complex diabetic foot wounds treated with a dermal regeneration template (March of 2013 to February of 2019) were captured in a prospective institutional database. Wound severity was classified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) classification system to determine limb salvage prognosis at baseline. Wound healing and major amputation rates were reported using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A stepwise Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent characteristics associated with wound healing. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients with 107 complex diabetic foot wounds were treated (mean age, 61.2 ± 3.3 years; 63.5 percent male and 61.2 percent African American). Most diabetic foot wounds were high-risk (wound, ischemia, and foot infection stage 3 or 4, 93.5 percent), corresponding to a predicted 25 to 50 percent risk of major amputation at 1 year. Dermal regeneration template use resulted in successful wound granulation in 66.7 percent of cases, with a mean time to complete wound healing of 198 ± 18 days. Twelve- and 18-month wound healing rates were 79.0 ± 5.0 percent and 93.0 ± 3.3 percent, respectively. Major amputation was required in 11.2 percent of patients. Independent predictors of poor wound healing included lack of bone involvement, higher WIfI stage, and prior dermal regeneration template failure. CONCLUSION: Application of a dermal regeneration template to complex diabetic foot wounds at high risk for major amputation results in good wound healing and excellent limb salvage outcomes among diabetic patients treated in a multidisciplinary setting. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Pé Diabético/cirurgia , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização , Amputação , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10950, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616939

RESUMO

Skin conductance monitoring is one of the promising methods for objectively evaluating pain. However, skin conductance might possibly increase in response to sympathetic stimulation other than pain. In this study, we aimed to test whether skin conductance monitoring can distinguish physical pain stimulation (heat, mechanical and cold stimulation) from other sympathetic stimuli (stimulation by noise and painful images). Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in this prospective observational study. The number of fluctuations in skin conductance (NFSC) and normalized skin conductance level (nSCL) were measured and compared with pain scores on a self-reported pain scale (numerical pain scale [NPS]). Both NFSC and nSCL increased during mechanical stimulation. Further, nSCL, but not NFSC, well reflected heat stimulus intensity, suggesting its ability to quantitatively evaluate pain. nSCLs during physical pain stimulation were greater than those during other sympathetic stimulations. However, NFSC was not able to completely distinguish between the stimuli. These results suggest that nSCL could better differentiate physical pain stimuli from other sympathetic stimuli than NFSC. In comparisons between subjective and objective pain assessment in the same individual, nSCL correlated better with NPS score, indicating the possibility of being able to monitor the transition of pain. Monitoring changes in skin conductance using nSCL might be useful for objectively detecting physical pain.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso Autônomo/métodos , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Monitorização Fisiológica , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Física , Estudos Prospectivos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Adulto Jovem
15.
Clin Dermatol ; 38(2): 251-253, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32513404

RESUMO

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become a popular and trendy treatment in dermatology for various skin ailments, most notably for acne scars, traumatic scars, hair regrowth, and cutaneous rejuvenation. Although PRP has been utilized in the world of orthopedics for many years, its recent entry into dermatology has been wrought with controversy, especially as some have marketed it to consumers as a type of cure-all; however, the studies behind PRP treatment, especially for cutaneous rejuvenation, are currently limited, while we await additional larger studies. Clinicians should have an understanding of the evidence behind such new trends, especially in the fast-pace world of esthetics.


Assuntos
Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Rejuvenescimento , Dermatopatias/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Cosméticos , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Envelhecimento da Pele , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9626, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32541901

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is associated with skin ageing and disease in humans. However, it is difficult to evaluate the effects of oxidative stress on the skin in vivo using conventional invasive methods. In this study, we performed two-dimensional imaging of ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) generated by excited species in oxidative reaction to determine regional variations in oxidative stress in human facial skin and analysed the relationship between UPE intensity and biophysical properties in vivo. UPE imaging of the facial skin of volunteers revealed regional variations in oxidative stress. The nose, its surrounding regions, and the area between eyebrows showed higher UPE intensity than other facial regions, indicating high oxidative stress in these regions. In contrast, only the region surrounding the eyes showed age-related alterations in UPE intensity; moreover, wrinkle score in these regions was correlated with UPE intensity. These results suggest that oxidative stress in the skin induces wrinkle formation. UPE intensity was correlated with porphyrin score in the skin; however, no correlation was observed between UPE intensity and skin colour parameters. This study provides insights into the treatment of facial skin areas vulnerable to ageing and helps improve our understanding of topical skin diseases related to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Pele/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem , Envelhecimento da Pele/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Wound Care ; 29(5): 270-280, 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of a fabricated dressing containing kaolin for skin regeneration in a rat model of excisional wounds. METHOD: In the present study, kaolin was loaded into electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/chitosan polymer blend to develop a composite nanofibrous dressing. To make the yarns, kaolin with weight ratio of 5% was added to PVA/chitosan polymer blend and subsequently formed into nanofibres using the electrospinning method. Scaffolds were evaluated for to their microstructure, mechanical properties, surface wettability, water vapour transmission rate, water-uptake capacity, blood uptake capacity, blood compatibility, microbial penetration test, the number of colonies, and cellular response with the L929 cell line. Rats with full-thickness excisional wounds were treated with kaolin-containing and kaolin-free dressings. RESULTS: The study showed that rats treated with the kaolin-incorporated mats demonstrated a significant closure to nearly 97.62±4.81% after 14 days compared with PVA/chitosan and the sterile gauze, which showed 86.15±8.11% and 78.50±4.22% of wound closure, respectively. The histopathological studies showed that in the PVA/chitosan/kaolin group, dense and regular collagen fibres were formed, while wounds treated with sterile gauze or PVA/chitosan scaffolds had random and loose collagen fibres. CONCLUSION: Our results show the potential applicability of PVA/chitosan/kaolin scaffolds as a wound care material.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Quitosana , Caulim , Álcool de Polivinil , Regeneração , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Ferida Cirúrgica/terapia , Tecidos Suporte , Cicatrização , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 14(4): 281-288, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463018

RESUMO

Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) fish skin is an excellent natural material with remarkable mechanical properties owing to the unique structures of the helical stacking fibres. In this work, the authors studied the potential role of the sturgeon fish skin in the protective function through testing and analysed the structural features and mechanical properties of the stratum compactum in the fish skin. Scanning electron microscopy images of the sturgeon fish skin revealed that the skin was primarily composed of the stratum compactum. The stratum compactum was characterised by the helically arranged fibre structures and the helical-ply angle decreased from the anterior region of the fish body to the posterior region. Mechanical tests containing tension and penetration experiments demonstrated that the stratum compactum provided the sturgeon fish skin the capability to effectively resist bite and laceration by predators. Furthermore, the experimental results also confirmed that the sturgeon fish skin showed two distinct mechanisms against tension and penetration. These findings may provide a novel biomimetic design template for both flexible and tough body armour.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Pele , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Pele/química , Pele/ultraestrutura
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386296

RESUMO

Thirty five barrows (initial body weight [BW]: 15.1 ± 1.0 kg) were used to determine the effect of partially replacing Gly + Ser with Thr in reduced crude protein (CP) diets on growth performance, protein deposition in carcass and viscera, and skin collagen abundance during the late nursery phase to 25 kg BW. Pigs were individually fed one of five iso-nitrogenous diets (n = 7) for 21 d. The basal diet met estimated essential amino acids (AA) requirements by using all essential AA plus Gly and Ser in free form (CON; 12.1% CP; as-fed, analyzed contents). The remaining four diets were formulated by reducing total Gly and Ser concentrations to 60% or 20% of the CON diet. The N removed with Gly and Ser was replaced with either crystalline Thr or Glu. Total analyzed Thr made up either 1.59% (T1; 12.5% CP) or 2.34% (T2; 12.2% CP) of the Thr-supplemented diets, and total analyzed Glu made up either 3.47% (G1; 12.7% CP) or 4.64% (G2; 12.9% CP) of the Glu-supplemented diets. Pigs were slaughtered on day 21 to determine body composition and skin collagen abundance via bright field microscopy. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) and G:F and final carcass weights were greater for pigs fed diets supplemented with Glu (G1 + G2) vs. those fed diets supplemented with Thr (T1 + T2; P < 0.05, P = 0.060, and P = 0.050 for ADG, G:F, and final carcass weight, respectively); intermediate values were observed for CON. Nitrogen retention in carcass plus viscera and the AA profile of deposited protein in the carcass were not influenced by dietary treatment. Pigs fed the T2 and G2 diets had greater retention of Thr (vs. CON and G2) and Glu (vs. CON and T2) in the viscera protein, respectively (P < 0.05). The apparent utilization efficiency of standardized ileal digestible Thr for protein deposition in carcass plus viscera was less for pigs fed T2 (15.1%) vs. those fed CON (56.7%) or G2 (58.6% ± 2.9%) diets (P < 0.001). Only pigs fed T1 had skin collagen abundance not different from CON; pigs fed G1, G2, and T2 had reduced skin collagen abundance compared with CON and T1 (P < 0.01). Using Glu as an N source when Gly and Ser were reduced to 60% and 20% of CON in reduced CP diets maintained ADG for pigs between 15 and 25 kg BW, whereas supplying Thr as a N source reduced ADG and carcass weight. When dietary Gly and Ser were supplied at 60% of CON, only Thr supplementation rescued skin collagen abundance. Therefore, supplemental Thr at excess levels is not sufficient to replace N from Gly and Ser in reduced CP diets fed to late nursery pigs, despite supporting skin collagen abundance as a secondary indicator of Gly status.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Serina/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Treonina/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Serina/administração & dosagem , Pele/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Treonina/administração & dosagem , Vísceras , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
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