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1.
Mol Pharmacol ; 97(4): 250-258, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015008

RESUMO

Phenytoin is a hydantoin derivative that is used clinically for the treatment of epilepsy and has been reported to have antiarrhythmic actions on the heart. In a failing heart, the elevated diastolic Ca2+ leak from the sarcoplasmic reticulum can be normalized by the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) inhibitor, dantrolene, without inhibiting Ca2+ release during systole or affecting Ca2+ release in normal healthy hearts. Unfortunately, dantrolene is hepatotoxic and unsuitable for chronic long-term administration. Because phenytoin and dantrolene belong to the hydantoin class of compounds, we test the hypothesis that dantrolene and phenytoin have similar inhibitory effects on RyR2 using a single-channel recording of RyR2 activity in artificial lipid bilayers. Phenytoin produced a reversible inhibition of RyR2 channels from sheep and human failing hearts. It followed a hyperbolic dose response with maximal inhibition of ∼50%, Hill coefficient ∼1, and IC50 ranging from 10 to 20 µM. It caused inhibition at diastolic cytoplasmic [Ca2+] but not at Ca2+ levels in the dyadic cleft during systole. Notably, phenytoin inhibits RyR2 from failing human heart but not from healthy heart, indicating that phenytoin may selectively target defective RyR2 channels in humans. We conclude that phenytoin could effectively inhibit RyR2-mediated release of Ca2+ in a manner paralleling that of dantrolene. Moreover, the IC50 of phenytoin in RyR2 is at least threefold lower than for other ion channels and clinically used serum levels, pointing to phenytoin as a more human-safe alternative to dantrolene for therapies against heart failure and cardiac arrythmias. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: We show that phenytoin, a Na channel blocker used clinically for treatment of epilepsy, is a diastolic inhibitor of cardiac calcium release channels [cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2)] at doses threefold lower than its current therapeutic levels. Phenytoin inhibits RyR2 from failing human heart and not from healthy heart, indicating that phenytoin may selectively target defective RyR2 channels in humans and pointing to phenytoin as a more human-safe alternative to dantrolene for therapies against heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenitoína/farmacologia , Canal de Liberação de Cálcio do Receptor de Rianodina/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Dantroleno/farmacologia , Dantroleno/uso terapêutico , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Vesículas Extracelulares , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo , Ovinos
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(22): 2103-2113, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The choice of drugs for patients with status epilepticus that is refractory to treatment with benzodiazepines has not been thoroughly studied. METHODS: In a randomized, blinded, adaptive trial, we compared the efficacy and safety of three intravenous anticonvulsive agents - levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate - in children and adults with convulsive status epilepticus that was unresponsive to treatment with benzodiazepines. The primary outcome was absence of clinically evident seizures and improvement in the level of consciousness by 60 minutes after the start of drug infusion, without additional anticonvulsant medication. The posterior probabilities that each drug was the most or least effective were calculated. Safety outcomes included life-threatening hypotension or cardiac arrhythmia, endotracheal intubation, seizure recurrence, and death. RESULTS: A total of 384 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive levetiracetam (145 patients), fosphenytoin (118), or valproate (121). Reenrollment of patients with a second episode of status epilepticus accounted for 16 additional instances of randomization. In accordance with a prespecified stopping rule for futility of finding one drug to be superior or inferior, a planned interim analysis led to the trial being stopped. Of the enrolled patients, 10% were determined to have had psychogenic seizures. The primary outcome of cessation of status epilepticus and improvement in the level of consciousness at 60 minutes occurred in 68 patients assigned to levetiracetam (47%; 95% credible interval, 39 to 55), 53 patients assigned to fosphenytoin (45%; 95% credible interval, 36 to 54), and 56 patients assigned to valproate (46%; 95% credible interval, 38 to 55). The posterior probability that each drug was the most effective was 0.41, 0.24, and 0.35, respectively. Numerically more episodes of hypotension and intubation occurred in the fosphenytoin group and more deaths occurred in the levetiracetam group than in the other groups, but these differences were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: In the context of benzodiazepine-refractory convulsive status epilepticus, the anticonvulsant drugs levetiracetam, fosphenytoin, and valproate each led to seizure cessation and improved alertness by 60 minutes in approximately half the patients, and the three drugs were associated with similar incidences of adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ESETT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01960075.).


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/análogos & derivados , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Método Duplo-Cego , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Infusões Intravenosas , Injeções Intramusculares , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD001911, 2019 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2017. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, carbamazepine and phenytoin are commonly-used broad spectrum antiepileptic drugs, suitable for most epileptic seizure types. Carbamazepine is a current first-line treatment for focal onset seizures in the USA and Europe. Phenytoin is no longer considered a first-line treatment, due to concerns over adverse events associated with its use, but the drug is still commonly used in low- to middle-income countries because of its low cost. No consistent differences in efficacy have been found between carbamazepine and phenytoin in individual trials; however, the confidence intervals generated by these trials are wide, and therefore, synthesising the data of the individual trials may show differences in efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with carbamazepine compared with phenytoin when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset seizures (simple or complex focal and secondarily generalised), or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). SEARCH METHODS: For the latest update, we searched the following databases on 13 August 2018: the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy's Specialised Register and CENTRAL; MEDLINE; the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov); and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We handsearched relevant journals and contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators, and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials comparing monotherapy with either carbamazepine or phenytoin in children or adults with focal onset seizures or generalised onset (tonic-clonic) seizures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Our primary outcome was time to treatment failure. Our secondary outcomes were time to first seizure post-randomisation, time to six-month remission, time to 12-month remission, and incidence of adverse events. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain trial-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. MAIN RESULTS: IPD were available for 595 participants out of 1102 eligible individuals, from four out of 11 trials (i.e. 54% of the potential data). For remission outcomes, a HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for phenytoin; and for first seizure and withdrawal outcomes, a HR greater than 1 indicates an advantage for carbamazepine. Most participants included in analysis (78%) were classified as experiencing focal onset seizures at baseline and only 22% were classified as experiencing generalised onset seizures; the results of this review are therefore mainly applicable to individuals with focal onset seizures.Results for the primary outcome of the review were: time to treatment failure for any reason related to treatment (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 0.94, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.26, moderate-certainty evidence); time to treatment failure due to lack of efficacy (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 0.99, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.41, moderate-certainty evidence); both showing no clear difference between the drugs and time to treatment failure due to adverse events (pooled HR adjusted for seizure type for 546 participants: 1.27, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.86, moderate-certainty evidence), showing that treatment failure due to adverse events may occur earlier on carbamazepine than phenytoin, but we cannot rule out a slight advantage to carbamazepine or no difference between the drugs.For our secondary outcomes (pooled HRs adjusted for seizure type), we did not find any clear differences between carbamazepine and phenytoin: time to first seizure post-randomisation (582 participants): 1.15, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.40, moderate-certainty evidence); time to 12-month remission (551 participants): 1.00, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.26, moderate-certainty evidence); and time to six-month remission (551 participants): 0.90, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.12, moderate-certainty evidence).For all outcomes, results for individuals with focal onset seizures were similar to overall results (moderate-certainty evidence), and results for the small subgroup of individuals with generalised onset seizures were imprecise, so we cannot rule out an advantage to either drug, or no difference between drugs (low-certainty evidence). There was also evidence that misclassification of seizure type may have confounded the results of this review, particularly for the outcome 'time to treatment failure'. Heterogeneity was present in analysis of 'time to first seizure' for individuals with generalised onset seizures, which could not be explained by subgroup analysis or sensitivity analyses.Limited information was available about adverse events in the trials and we could not compare the rates of adverse events between carbamazepine and phenytoin. Some adverse events reported on both drugs were abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, drowsiness, motor and cognitive disturbances, dysmorphic side effects (such as rash). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-certainty evidence provided by this systematic review does not show any differences between carbamazepine and phenytoin in terms of effectiveness (retention) or efficacy (seizure recurrence and seizure remission) for individuals with focal onset or generalised onset seizures.However, some of the trials contributing to the analyses had methodological inadequacies and inconsistencies, which may have had an impact on the results of this review. We therefore do not suggest that results of this review alone should form the basis of a treatment choice for a person with newly-onset seizures. We did not find any evidence to support or refute current treatment policies. We implore that future trials be designed to the highest quality possible, with consideration of masking, choice of population, classification of seizure type, duration of follow-up, choice of outcomes and analysis, and presentation of results.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Carbamazepina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Humanos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Indução de Remissão , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(4): 1056-1061, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222537

RESUMO

Background Valproic acid is one of several antiepileptic medications requiring therapeutic drug monitoring due to its complex and wide pharmacokinetic interindividual variability. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the population pharmacokinetics of valproic acid in adult Saudi patients and to identify factors that explain its pharmacokinetic variability. Setting Tertiary referral teaching hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method A retrospective chart review was performed at King Saud University Medical City of patients who received oral valproic acid. The population pharmacokinetic models were developed using Monolix 4.4. After development of the base model, we investigated several covariates including age, sex, weight, total daily dose, and cotherapy with carbamazepine and phenytoin. Main outcome measures the pharmacokinetic parameters of valproic acid and the variables that contributing towards its inter-individual variability. Results The analysis included a total of 54 valproic acid plasma concentrations from 54 patients (42.5% male). The data were sufficiently described by a one-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination processes. Average parameter estimates for valproic acid apparent clearance (CL/F) and apparent volume of distribution (V/F) were 0.14 L/h and 37.7 L (fixed), respectively. The inter-individual variability (coefficients of variation) in CL/F was 12%. The most significant covariates for valproic acid CL/F were age, body weight, total daily dose, and cotherapy with carbamazepine and phenytoin. Conclusion This model showed significant inter-individual variability between subjects. Our findings showed that patient age, body weight, total daily dose, and cotherapy with carbamazepine and phenytoin are the most significant covariates of valproic acid clearance. Collectively, healthcare providers should take these factors in consideration for optimal valproic acid dosage regimen.


Assuntos
Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Ácido Valproico/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Valproico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Neurology ; 92(20): e2339-e2348, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare the cost and effectiveness of nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic drugs (non-BZD AEDs) for treatment of BZD-resistant convulsive status epilepticus (SE). METHODS: Decision analysis model populated with effectiveness data from a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature, and cost data from publicly available prices. The primary outcome was cost per seizure stopped ($/SS). Sensitivity analyses evaluated the robustness of the results across a wide variation of the input parameters. RESULTS: We included 24 studies with 1,185 SE episodes. The most effective non-BZD AED was phenobarbital (PB) with a probability of SS of 0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.69-0.88), followed by valproate (VPA) (0.71 [95% CI: 0.61-0.79]), lacosamide (0.66 [95% CI: 0.51-0.79]), levetiracetam (LEV) (0.62 [95% CI: 0.5-0.73]), and phenytoin/fosphenytoin (PHT) (0.53 [95% CI: 0.39-0.67]). In pairwise comparisons, PB was more effective than PHT (p = 0.002), VPA was more effective than PHT (p = 0.043), and PB was more effective than LEV (p = 0.018). The most cost-effective non-BZD AED was LEV (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [ICER]: $18.55/SS), followed by VPA (ICER: $94.44/SS), and lastly PB (ICER: $847.22/SS). PHT and lacosamide were not cost-effective compared to the other options. Sensitivity analyses showed marked overlap in cost-effectiveness, but PHT was consistently less cost-effective than LEV, VPA, and PB. CONCLUSION: VPA and PB were more effective than PHT for SE. There is substantial overlap in the cost-effectiveness of non-BZD AEDs for SE, but available evidence does not support the preeminence of PHT, neither in terms of effectiveness nor in terms of cost-effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Anticonvulsivantes/economia , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Análise Custo-Benefício , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Humanos , Lacosamida/economia , Lacosamida/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/economia , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Fenobarbital/economia , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/análogos & derivados , Fenitoína/economia , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Falha de Tratamento , Ácido Valproico/economia , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
8.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 31(2): 237-241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of anti-epileptic drugs for prophylaxis of early post-traumatic seizures after traumatic brain injury has been very promising. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of phenytoin in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries and to compare the frequency of seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, with phenytoin started within 12 hours and after 12 hours of injury. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical Institute, Abbottabad from April to October, 2015. All the patients with moderate to severe head injury presenting within 48 hours of injury were included in this study in consecutive manner. Patients were started on phenytoin and observed for early post-traumatic seizures. RESULTS: A total of 163 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 24.69±10.186 years. One hundred and twenty-two (74.8%) were males and rest of 41 (25.2%) were females. A total of 26 (16%) patients had early post-traumatic seizures. 9.89% patients in whom phenytoin was started within 12 hours had seizures, while 23.11% patients in whom phenytoin was started after 12 hours of injury had seizures, the difference being statistically significant (p-value .018).. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of early post-traumatic seizures is high in patients with moderate to severe head injured patients. Anti-epileptics like phenytoin should be started within 12 hours for seizure prophylaxis.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Pós-Traumática/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
9.
Brain Dev ; 41(7): 595-599, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A targeted treatment approach is increasingly promoted in epilepsy management. AIM: To investigate if etiology (both established or initially presumed) influences antiepileptic drug choice of experts in neonatal seizures. METHODS: An invitation to participate to a web-based questionnaire was sent to Italian pediatric neurologists affiliated to the Italian Society of Pediatric Neurology (SINP). RESULTS: 19 pediatric neurologists from different centers, all consultants of third level Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs) answered. As first-line drug phenobarbital was the most common choice, it was used in 79% of cases of acute symptomatic seizures, in 63% of structural epilepsy, in 42% of genetic epilepsies. As second-line drug phenytoin was used by 58% in acute symptomatic seizures, 37% in structural epilepsy, 5% in genetic epilepsy. Pyridoxine/pyridoxalphosphate was much more used in genetic epilepsy (as first-line in 26%, as second-line in 37%) than in the other two conditions. Long-term conventional EEG monitoring was suggested as important to verify efficacy of drugs in controlling seizures by 84% of interviewed neurologists, but EEG was available around the clock in only 53% of their centers. 1 to 3-channel aEEG/EEG (commonly named CFM) was often used instead of conventional EEG monitoring. CONCLUSION: This is the first survey looking at a targeted approach in treatment of neonatal seizures by pediatric neurologists consulted by NICUs. The treatment approach is similar to previous surveys in case of acute symptomatic seizures, but in case of other etiologies the choices are different, especially for the second-line option. Larger studies should address this topic.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/terapia , Convulsões/terapia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Doenças do Recém-Nascido/etiologia , Itália , Masculino , Neurologistas , Pediatras , Fenobarbital/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Trials ; 20(1): 181, 2019 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: EcLiPSE (Emergency treatment with Levetiracetam or Phenytoin in Status Epilepticus in children) is a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the United Kingdom. Challenges to success include the need to immediately administer an intervention without informed consent and changes in staffing during trial conduct, mainly due to physician rotations. Using literature on parents' perspectives and research without prior consent (RWPC) guidance, we developed an interactive training package (including videos, simulation and question and answer sessions) and evaluated its dissemination and impact upon on practitioners' confidence in recruitment and consent. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered before and immediately after training followed by telephone interviews (mean 11 months later), focus groups (mean 14 months later) and an online questionnaire (8 months before trial closure). RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five practitioners from 26/30 (87%) participating hospitals completed a questionnaire before and after training. We conducted 10 interviews and six focus groups (comprising 36 practitioners); 199 practitioners working in all recruiting hospitals completed the online questionnaire. Before training, practitioners were concerned about recruitment and consent. Confidence increased after training for explaining (all scale 0-5, 95% CIs above 0 and p values < 0.05): the study (66% improved mean score before 3.28 and after 4.52), randomisation (47% improvement, 3.86 to 4.63), RWPC (72% improvement, 2.98 to 4.39), and addressing parents' objections to randomisation (51% improvement, 3.37 to 4.25). Practitioners rated highly the content and clarity of the training, which was successfully disseminated. Some concerns about staff availability for training and consent discussions remained. CONCLUSIONS: Training improved practitioners' confidence in recruitment and RWPC. Our findings highlight the value of using parents' perspectives to inform training and to engage practitioners in trials that are at high risk of being too challenging to conduct.


Assuntos
Emergências , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Seleção de Pacientes , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Estado Epiléptico/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(12): e14844, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the influence of phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy on the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy), folate and vitamin B12 in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: Literature retrieval was performed through PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Wanfang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Database databases as of the end of March 2018. Pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effect model. RESULTS: A total of ten eligible studies were identified. The result revealed that the serum level of homocysteine in PHT-treated patients with epilepsy was significantly higher than that in control group (WMD = 8.47, 95% CI: 6.74 to 10.20, P < .001). In addition, the serum levels of folate (WMD = -3.51, 95% CI: -4.20 to -2.83, P < .001) and vitamin B12 (WMD = -62.23, 95% CI: -83.27 to -41.19, P < .001) were decreased significantly compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis indicates that PHT monotherapy is associated with the increase in the serum homocysteine levels and decreased levels of folate and vitamin B12, and hyperhomocysteinaemia may contribute to the acceleration of the atherosclerotic process. Therefore, the patients under these medications should be monitored plasma homocysteine.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Fenitoína/farmacologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Homocisteína/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa
12.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 69(3): 442-444, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890845

RESUMO

Seizures are common in patients with brain tumours, even though prophylactic anti-seizure treatment for all patients with brain tumours is not recommended. Newer anti-epileptic drugs have shown benefits that outweigh the side effects of treatment and can also be given in combination with traditional anti-epileptic drugs. The authors have reviewed the literature on the various combinations of anti-epileptics in patients with seizures and brain tumours.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Glioma/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada , Epilepsia/etiologia , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Glioma/complicações , Humanos , Lamotrigina/uso terapêutico , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Gradação de Tumores , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Topiramato/uso terapêutico , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico , Zonisamida/uso terapêutico
13.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 44(4): 640-643, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830975

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of tacrolimus toxicity includes holding tacrolimus and supportive care. The objective is to describe considerations for pharmacologic induction of tacrolimus metabolism. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old male with a failed renal transplant on chronic haemodialysis developed tacrolimus toxicity due to a drug-drug interaction with darunavir/ritonavir. Tacrolimus concentrations were >60 ng/mL for 10 days despite holding tacrolimus and darunavir/ritonavir. Development of encephalopathy prompted initiation of phenytoin to induce tacrolimus metabolism. Tacrolimus concentration was <2 ng/mL within 4 days and mental status normalized. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: Phenytoin metabolic induction is a therapeutic option for prolonged tacrolimus toxicity.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/efeitos adversos , Darunavir/uso terapêutico , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal/métodos , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico
14.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(1): 29-35, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806253

RESUMO

Auricularia polytricha is a popular mushroom found all over the world. This article describes a study of the antiepileptic effect of A. polytricha, a mushroom that is used traditionally for treating asthma, rheumatism, tumors, cough, fever, and epilepsy, and for its antimicrobial effect. We carried out toxicity studies to identify a standard dose of A. polytricha aqueous extract; maximal electroshock (MES)- and isoniazid (INH)-induced seizures in albino mice were used to screen for the extract's antiepileptic activity. Per Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Guideline 423, up to 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract was toxic. Animals were treated with aqueous extract at doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight. Phenytoin was used as the reference anticonvulsant drug for comparison. The investigation found a significant interruption in INH-induced clonic seizure. During MES, we found a reduction in the period of hind leg extensor phase; mice exhibited a significant decrease in the duration of hind limb extension after being treated with 400 and 600 mg/kg doses of A. polytricha. Comparable results were obtained in the INH group, as the extract seemed to delay the onset of a clonic seizure. The aqueous extract of A. polytricha showed antiepileptic action against MES- and INH-induced epilepsy in the mice. This extract, however, requires additional study in order to completely explain its active ingredients and their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Eletrochoque/efeitos adversos , Isoniazida/toxicidade , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Antituberculosos/toxicidade , Produtos Biológicos/efeitos adversos , Produtos Biológicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Água
15.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 39: 98-100, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599452

RESUMO

Lesion-based investigations of psychopathology have preceded contemporary network-neuroscience initiatives. However, brain-lesions detected in routine psychiatric practice are often considered incidental and therefore ignored. Here, we illustrate a strategy to combine individual subject-level lesion information with open-source normative functional-connectomics data to make putative, neuroscience-informed symptom interpretation. Specifically, we report a patient with left precuneus granulomatous lesion and seizures followed by two distinct symptoms - kinetopsia and delusions of nihilism and guilt - which had a differential treatment response. The lesion-based brain-mapping approach could identify correlated (default-mode) and anti-correlated (temporo-parieto-occipital) networks, which enabled a neurobiological formulation of these diverse clinical manifestations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Granuloma/complicações , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/complicações , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/uso terapêutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Feminino , Fluoxetina/uso terapêutico , Granuloma/diagnóstico por imagem , Granuloma/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/psicologia , Esquizofrenia Paranoide/terapia , Convulsões/complicações , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(2): 201-207, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a rare familial periodic paralysis that typically also affects the heart and skeletal system. Ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) are profound and difficult to control, but minimally symptomatic. In this report, we describe an atypical phenotype of ATS in two related families. We also report our experience with phenytoin sodium for the control of resistant VAs in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2014 and 2018, seven siblings were diagnosed with ATS on the basis of cardiac arrhythmias and genetic evaluation. Heterozygous mutation with c.431G > C (p.G144A) in exon 2 of KCNJ2 gene was observed in all patients. Characteristic cardiac manifestations were noted in all patients but periodic paralysis or objective neurological involvement was distinctly absent. Phenytoin was considered for control of symptomatic VA in three patients. Intake of oral phenytoin (5 mg/kg/day) for 1 month completely suppressed VA (<1% in 24-h Holter monitoring) in two patients, and significantly in the third (8% per 24 h) patient. Phenytoin was well-tolerated in all three patients. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a cardiac-predominant phenotype in ATS. ATS should be suspected in patients with typical cardiac manifestations even in the absence of periodic paralysis. Our initial experience with short-term use of phenytoin for control of resistant VAs is encouraging.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Andersen/complicações , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Algoritmos , Síndrome de Andersen/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(48): e13247, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early and/or late onset in patients with brain injury (BI) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and phenytoin (PHT) is standard of care to prevent seizures. Levetiracetam (LEV), an alternative antiepileptic drug, is associated with less cognitive disruption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LEV in the prevention of brain traumatic seizures with the standard drug PHT. METHODS: Search the publications on comparison the safety and efficacy of LEV against the standard agent PHT in prevention of traumatic seizures in BI to January 2018. After rigorous reviewing on quality, the data were extracted from eligible trials. All trials analyzed the summary hazard ratios of the endpoints of interest. RESULTS: LEV was found not more effective than PHT in terms of overall seizure (odds ratio [OR] = 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-1.05; P = .09), and late seizure (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.34-1.19; P = .16) occurrence. However, there is significant difference in terms of early seizure (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40-0.99; P = .04). Moreover, there were no significant differences in terms of mortality (OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.43-1.05; P = .08), or side effects (OR = 1.31; 95% CI = 0.80-2.15; P = .29) between groups. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed that LEV prevention of seizures was associated with early seizure rates that were lower than the PHT-prolonged course of treatment. There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy and safety profile of PHT and LEV in cases of traumatic BI.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/prevenção & controle , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Lesões Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Levetiracetam/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos
18.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD003615, 2018 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30350354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the Cochrane Review previously published in 2013. This review is one in a series of Cochrane Reviews investigating pair-wise monotherapy comparisons.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, phenytoin is a commonly used antiepileptic drug. It is important to know how newer drugs, such as oxcarbazepine, compare with commonly used standard treatments. OBJECTIVES: To review the time to treatment failure, remission and first seizure with oxcarbazepine compared to phenytoin, when used as monotherapy in people with focal onset seizures or generalised tonic-clonic seizures (with or without other generalised seizure types). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases on 20 August 2018: the Cochrane Register of Studies (CRS Web), which includes the Cochrane Epilepsy Group Specialized Register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to 20 August 2018), ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We handsearched relevant journals and contacted pharmaceutical companies, original trial investigators and experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing monotherapy with either oxcarbazepine or phenytoin in children or adults with focal onset seizures or generalised onset tonic-clonic seizures. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: This was an individual participant data (IPD) review. Our primary outcome was time to treatment failure and our secondary outcomes were time to first seizure post-randomisation, time to six-month and 12-month remission, and incidence of adverse events. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to obtain trial-specific estimates of hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), using the generic inverse variance method to obtain the overall pooled HR and 95% CI. MAIN RESULTS: Individual participant data were available for 480 out of a total of 517 participants (93%), from two out of three included trials. For remission outcomes, a HR of less than one indicated an advantage for phenytoin; and for first seizure and treatment failure outcomes, a HR of less than one indicated an advantage for oxcarbazepine.The results for time to treatment failure for any reason related to treatment showed a potential advantage of oxcarbazepine over phenytoin, but this was not statistically significant (pooled HR adjusted for epilepsy type: 0.78 95% CI 0.53 to 1.14, 476 participants, two trials, moderate-quality evidence). Our analysis showed that treatment failure due to adverse events occurred later on with oxcarbazepine than phenytoin (pooled HR for all participants: 0.22 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.51, 480 participants, two trials, high-quality evidence). Our analysis of time to treatment failure due to lack of efficacy showed no clear difference between the drugs (pooled HR for all participants: 1.17 (95% CI 0.31 to 4.35), 480 participants, two trials, moderate-quality evidence).We found no clear or statistically significant differences between drugs for any of the secondary outcomes of the review: time to first seizure post-randomisation (pooled HR adjusted for epilepsy type: 0.97 95% CI 0.75 to 1.26, 468 participants, two trials, moderate-quality evidence); time to 12-month remission (pooled HR adjusted for epilepsy type 1.04 95% CI 0.77 to 1.41, 468 participants, two trials, moderate-quality evidence) and time to six-month remission (pooled HR adjusted for epilepsy type: 1.06 95% CI 0.82 to 1.36, 468 participants, two trials, moderate-quality evidence).The most common adverse events reported in more than 10% of participants on either drug were somnolence (28% of total participants, with similar rates for both drugs), headache (15% of total participants, with similar rates for both drugs), dizziness (14.5% of total participants, reported by slightly more participants on phenytoin (18%) than oxcarbazepine (11%)) and gum hyperplasia (reported by substantially more participants on phenytoin (18%) than oxcarbazepine (2%)).The results of this review are applicable mainly to individuals with focal onset seizures; 70% of included individuals experienced seizures of this type at baseline. The two studies included in IPD meta-analysis were generally of good methodological quality but the design of the studies may have biased the results for the secondary outcomes (time to first seizure post-randomisation, time to six-month and 12-month remission) as seizure recurrence data were not collected following treatment failure or withdrawal from the study. In addition, misclassification of epilepsy type may have impacted on results, particularly for individuals with generalised onset seizures. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: High-quality evidence provided by this review indicates that treatment failure due to adverse events occurs significantly later with oxcarbazepine than phenytoin. For individuals with focal onset seizures, moderate-quality evidence suggests that oxcarbazepine may be superior to phenytoin in terms of treatment failure for any reason, seizure recurrence and seizure remission. Therefore, oxcarbazepine may be a preferable alternative treatment than phenytoin, particularly for individuals with focal onset seizures. The evidence in this review which relates to individuals with generalised onset seizures is of low quality and does not inform current treatment policy.We recommend that future trials should be designed to the highest quality possible with regards to choice of population, classification of seizure type, duration of follow-up (including continued follow-up after failure or withdrawal of randomised treatment), choice of outcomes and analysis, and presentation of results.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsias Parciais/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Tônico-Clônica/tratamento farmacológico , Oxcarbazepina/uso terapêutico , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Oxcarbazepina/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Falha de Tratamento
20.
Ostomy Wound Manage ; 64(8): 30-34, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212362

RESUMO

Many recent studies have focused on the potential role of topical agents in the wound healing process. To compare the time to healing of full-thickness wounds treated with topical estrogen, phenytoin, or silver sulfadiazine (SSD), an in vivo study was conducted using 32 male Wistar rats. Animals were housed individually in standard cages in similar environmental conditions, and a single, circular (4 mm in diameter), full-thickness skin wound was created on the dorsum of each rat. Animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 8 rats each and treated with topical phenytoin, SSD, estrogen cream, or no treatment/control. Each wound was measured and examined daily until healing, defined as complete reepithelialization and closure of the wound. Group mean healing times were calculated, and Tukey's multiple comparison test was used to compare these data. Average times to healing were 11 days in estrogen group, 10 days in phenytoin group, 7.62 days in SSD group, and 11.87 days in control group. Wound healing was significantly faster in the SSD compared to control (P <.01) and the estrogen group (P <.01). No other differences were statistically significant. Further studies, especially randomized clinical trials on human beings with larger sample sizes, are recommended to elucidate if these topical agents affect wound outcomes.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Fenitoína/administração & dosagem , Sulfadiazina de Prata/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estrogênios/uso terapêutico , Irã (Geográfico) , Fenitoína/uso terapêutico , Punções/efeitos adversos , Punções/instrumentação , Punções/métodos , Ratos/lesões , Sulfadiazina de Prata/uso terapêutico
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