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1.
Food Chem ; 366: 130693, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358960

RESUMO

To explore the effects of phenolic binding on the structure and activity of lotus root polysaccharides (LRPs), five LRP-phenol complexes containing catechin (61.22 mg/g), gallic acid (9.37 mg/g), ferulic acid (29.28 mg/g), chlorogenic acid (83.80 mg/g) or caffeic acid (14.80 mg/g) were prepared via noncovalent intermolecular interaction, respectively. The interaction was confirmed by the differences among LRPs, phenols and their complexes in ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectra. The phenolic binding caused significant changes in the molecular weight (MW) distribution and aggregation behavior of LRPs, particularly their average MW (34.49 kDa) increased by 3.73-8.30 times. Compared to LRPs, the complexes all showed stronger antioxidant activities. Notably, the binding of catechin improved the macrophage-stimulating effect of LRPs, specifically promoting the NO production at normal condition and inhibiting the NO overproduction induced by lipopolysaccharide. The noncovalent interaction with phenolic compounds is a promising method for the structural and functional improvement of LRPs.


Assuntos
Fenol , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Ácido Gálico , Polissacarídeos
2.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1178: 338788, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482861

RESUMO

Phenol is a common pollutant found in wastewater, and its allowable discharge limit is 0.5 parts-per-million (ppm). Therefore, it is critical to monitor phenol in the sub-ppm range with high sensitivity and a low limit of detection. Herein, we report a quantitative method for detecting phenol in industrial wastewater through square wave voltammetry (SWV), in which phenol is oxidized to phenoxyl radicals and then became catechol and hydroquinone for detection. By using this method, phenol in the sub-ppm range can be detected reliably over a wide pH range. The sensitivity can be further improved by using a pre-concentration step for phenol before scanning. The method has a limit of detection of 0.1 ppb for phenol. Finally, three graphite electrodes were applied as working, counter and reference electrodes, respectively, in a millifluidic device for continuous detection of phenol in industrial wastewater flowing at 300 µL/min. Because of its simplicity, the sensor can be mass-produced and deployed on a large scale to monitor phenol in industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Grafite , Fenol , Eletrodos , Fenol/análise , Fenóis , Águas Residuárias
3.
Int J Pharm ; 608: 121052, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500056

RESUMO

Nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be effective in targeted drug delivery to tumor due to the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, the inhomogeneous distribution of the nanoparticles in the tumor and the slow release of the drug make the therapeutic effect unsatisfied. Here, we present reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive micelles comprising poly (ethylene glycol)-poly(propylene sulfide) (PEG-PPS) for targeted delivery and in situ release of drug. Upon the irradiation of ultrasound, the loaded sonosensitizer hypocrellin (HC) will generate ROS to trigger the disassembly of the micelles and meanwhile realize sonodynamic therapy (SDT) effect of cancer. The in vivo experiment indicates that the HC loaded PEG-PPS are biocompatible and much more efficacious than an equivalent amount of free HC in inhibiting the growth of cancer.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Neoplasias , Perileno , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Micelas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Perileno/análogos & derivados , Fenol , Quinonas , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125930, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492860

RESUMO

The pollution of heavy metals and organic compounds has received increased attention in recent years. In the current study, a novel biochar-based iron oxide composite (FeYBC) was successfully synthesized using pomelo peel and ferric chloride solution through one-step process at moderate temperature. Results clearly demonstrate that FeYBC exhibited more efficient removal of Cr(VI) and/or phenol compared with the pristine biochar, and the maximum adsorption amounts of Cr(VI) and phenol by FeYBC could reach 24.37 and 39.32 mg g-1, respectively. A series of characterization data suggests that several iron oxides such as Fe2O3, Fe0, FeOOH and Fe3O4 were formed on the FeYBC surface as well as oxygen-containing groups. Thermodynamics study indicates that Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption by FeYBC were endothermic and exothermic processes, respectively. Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order models could better explain the Cr(VI) and phenol adsorption behaviors over FeYBC. The Cr(VI) adsorption might be primarily achieved through the ion exchange and surface complexation and reduction, whereas the π-π interaction and electron donor-acceptor complex mainly contributed to phenol adsorption. The findings indicate that the biochar-based iron oxide composites material was an efficient adsorbent for the remediation of industrial effluents containing Cr(VI) and phenol.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água , Adsorção , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Compostos Férricos , Cinética , Fenol , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125966, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492878

RESUMO

Ammonia nitrogen and phenol are typical inorganic and organic pollutants in the coal chemical wastewater, respectively. In this study, the adsorption characteristics of ammonia nitrogen and phenol on lignite were investigated through experimental and molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen was carried out via ion exchange, which was significantly faster than the adsorption of phenol driven by the π-π interaction. In the binary adsorption, the surface electronegativity of lignite decreased with the adsorption of ammonia nitrogen thereby promoting the adsorption of phenol. However, the extent of ammonia nitrogen adsorption was slightly reduced in the presence of phenol. Molecular dynamics simulation results indicated that the adsorption of phenol molecules on the lignite surface was closer than that of ammonium ion. The addition of ammonium ions could enhance the adsorption of phenol molecules on the lignite surface. The simulation results were well consistent with the experimental findings. This study indicates lignite has a promising potential in coal chemical wastewater adsorption pretreatment.


Assuntos
Amônia , Carvão Mineral , Adsorção , Amônia/análise , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Nitrogênio , Fenol , Fenóis
6.
Water Res ; 204: 117601, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481286

RESUMO

The conversion of organic wastes/wastewater into medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) such as caproate has attracted much attention, while the effects of toxic compounds on the process have rarely been studied. The present study investigated the effects of phenol (0-1.5 g/L), which is a toxicant and present in various organic wastes, on the caproate production in the chain elongation (CE) process with ethanol as electron donor via two-stage batch anaerobic fermentation of glucose. The results showed phenol ≤ 1 g/L did not affect short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, while 1 g/L phenol increased caproate production by 59.9% in the following CE process. The higher selectivity of caproate and higher consumption of ethanol contributed to the higher caproate production at 1 g/L phenol. It was also shown 1 g/L phenol had more positive effect on CE of butyrate than acetate. 1.5 g/L phenol inhibited both SCFAs production and CE processes. 16S rRNA genes analysis showed phenol had slight effect on the microbial communities for SCFAs production, while it obviously changed the dominant microbes in CE process. For CE process, metagenomic analysis was further conducted and phenol mainly affected fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) pathway, but not reverse ß-oxidization (RBO) pathway. 1 g/L phenol increased the abundances of genes in FAB pathway, which could be related with the higher caproate production. Genome reconstruction identified the dominant microbial species in CE process, which were changed with different concentrations of phenol. Most of the dominant species were new microbial species potentially involved in CE. The syntrophic cooperation between Petrimonas mucosa FDU058 and Methanofollis sp. FDU007 might play important role in increased caproate production at 1 g/L phenol, and their adaption to phenol could be due to the presence of genes relating with active efflux system and refolding of proteins.


Assuntos
Etanol , Fenol , Anaerobiose , Bacteroidetes , Reatores Biológicos , Caproatos , Elétrons , Fermentação , Fenóis , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
7.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113590, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474256

RESUMO

In this work, the removal of ammonia nitrogen and phenol by pulsed discharge plasma (PDP) and modified zeolite was investigated. The Fe-zeolite and Mn-zeolite catalysts were prepared by the impregnation method. Catalysts' morphology, specific surface area, and chemical bond structure were characterized. Based on the pollutants removal experiments, Fe-zeolite (0.01) in the PDP system had better catalytic oxidation of phenol and adsorption effect of ammonia nitrogen. The removal efficiency of the pollutants increased with the increase of discharge voltage and solution conductivity, but decreased with the increase of discharge distance. During the plasma discharge process, the pH value in the solution decreased, and the solution conductivity gradually increased. After PDP/Fe-zeolite system treatment, the toxicity of the wastewater was significantly reduced. This study provided a new treatment method for inorganic and organic pollutants treated by PDP.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zeolitas , Amônia , Nitrogênio , Fenol , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9270-9286, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347467

RESUMO

The in vitro anti-inflammatory and prebiotic activity and the content and profile of bioaccessible (poly)phenols and catabolites of raw and sous-vide-cooked red cardoon (Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis DC) were investigated during gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. Raw cardoon after in vitro GI digestion had 0.7% bioaccessible (poly)phenols, which protected against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by counteracting IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 secretions in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Contrarily, GI-digested sous vide cardoon showed higher (poly)phenol bioaccessibility (59.8%) and exerted proinflammatory effects in Caco-2 cells. (Poly)phenols were highly metabolized during the first 8 h of in vitro fermentation, and nine catabolites were produced during 48 h of fermentation. Colonic-fermented raw and sous-vide-cooked cardoon did not show anti-inflammatory activity in HT-29 cells but presented potential prebiotic activity, comparable to the commercial prebiotic FOS, by stimulating health-promoting bacteria such as Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp. and by increasing the production of total SCFAs, especially acetate.


Assuntos
Cynara , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Células CACO-2 , Colo/química , Humanos , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(16): 11155-11165, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347462

RESUMO

Little is known about temporal trends of pregnant women's exposures to environmental phenols and parabens. We quantified four phenols [bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol F, bisphenol S, and triclosan), four parabens [butyl paraben, ethyl paraben (ETPB), methyl paraben (MEPB), and propyl paraben (PRPB)], and triclocarban in 760 urine samples collected during 2007-2014 from 218 California pregnant women participating in a high-familial risk autism spectrum disorder cohort. We applied multiple regression to compute least square geometric means of urinary concentrations and computed average annual percent changes. We compared our urinary concentrations with those of other study populations to examine geographic variations in pregnant women's exposure to these target compounds. Urinary concentrations of BPA, MEPB, ETPB, and PRPB in this study population decreased over the study period [percent change per year (95% confidence interval): -5.7% (-8.2%, -3.2%); -13.0% (-18.1%, -7.7%); -5.5% (-11.0%, 0.3%); and -13.3% (-18.3%, -8.1%), respectively] and were consistently lower than those in pregnant women in other U.S. regions during the same study period. In recent years, certain phenols and parabens with known adverse health effects are being regulated or replaced with alternatives, which explains decreased body burdens observed in this study population. Either the national regulations or the advocacy campaigns in California may have influenced exposures or consumer product choices.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Parabenos , Carbanilidas , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Parabenos/análise , Fenol , Fenóis , Gravidez , Gestantes
10.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443472

RESUMO

Feruloylacetone (FER) is a natural degradant of curcumin after heating, which structurally reserves some functional groups of curcumin. It is not as widely discussed as its original counterpart has been previously; and in this study, its anticancer efficacy is investigated. This study focuses on the suppressive effect of FER on colon cancer, as the efficacious effect of curcumin on this typical cancer type has been well evidenced. In addition, demethoxy-feruloylacetone (DFER) was applied to compare the effect that might be brought on by the structural differences of the methoxy group. It was revealed that both FER and DFER inhibited the proliferation of HCT116 cells, possibly via suppression of the phosphorylated mTOR/STAT3 pathway. Notably, FER could significantly repress both the STAT3 phosphorylation and protein levels. Furthermore, both samples showed capability of arresting HCT116 cells at the G2/M phase via the activation of p53/p21 and the upregulation of cyclin-B. In addition, ROS elevation and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential were revealed, as indicated by p-atm elevation. The apoptotic rate rose to 36.9 and 32.2% after being treated by FER and DFER, respectively. In summary, both compounds exhibited an anticancer effect, and FER showed a greater proapoptotic effect, possibly due to the presence of the methoxy group on the aromatic ring.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estirenos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/química , Curcumina/metabolismo , Ciclina B1/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p21/agonistas , Fase G2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Estirenos/química , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/agonistas
11.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(3): 683-696, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388127

RESUMO

Quinones and humus are ubiquitous in the biosphere and play an important role in the anaerobic biodegradation and biotransformation of organic acids, poisonous compounds as well as inorganic compounds. The impact of humic model compound, anthraquinone-2, 6-disulfonate (AQDS) on anaerobic phenol and p-cresol degradation were studied. Four methanogenic AQDS-free phenol and p-cresol enrichments and two phenol-AQDS enrichments were obtained using two sludges with potential biodegradability of phenol and cresol isomers as inoculum. 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that syntrophic aromatic compound degrading bacterium Syntrophorhabdus aromaticivorans was dominant in four AQDS-free enrichments, whereas phenol degrading Cryptanaerobacter phenolicus was dominant in two phenol-AQDS enrichments. Neither co-culture of S. aromaticivorans with Methanospirillum hungatei nor two phenol-AQDS enrichments could metabolize phenol using AQDS as the terminal electron acceptor. Further degradation experiments suggested that C. phenolicus related microbes in two phenol-AQDS enrichments were responsible for the conversion of phenol to benzoate, and benzoate was further degraded by benzoate degraders of Syntrophus aciditrophicus or Sporotomaculum syntrophicum to acetate.


Assuntos
Cresóis , Fenol , Anaerobiose , Antraquinonas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Deltaproteobacteria , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Peptococcaceae , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
12.
Water Res ; 203: 117547, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412015

RESUMO

In flow anode systems, surface-bound hydroxyl radicals (*OH) are generated at the solid-liquid interface of suspended particulate charge carriers at potentials well below that required for oxygen evolution as a result of water splitting. While these surface-bound radicals are powerful indiscriminant oxidants that often lead to complete mineralization of organic pollutants, the more selective process of direct electron transfer (DET) may also occur at the particle electrode interfaces and play a critical role in the degradation of some contaminants. In this study, we investigated DET processes in a flow anode system in which carbon black was utilized as the flow anode material and Pt, Ti, IrRu and IrTa meshes were used as the current collectors. The results indicate that the use of a carbon black flow anode enhanced the DET rate by 20 times at 1.0 V vs Ag/AgCl compared to the control experiment with no carbon black particles present. Low solution conductivity had a more obvious negative effect on the DET process (compared to *OH mediated oxidation) due to the high potential drop and inhibition of mass transfer processes at the solid-liquid interfaces of the anode particles. The DET rates were dependent on the particular anode current collector used (i.e., Ti, IrRu, IrTa or Pt mesh) with differences in rates ascribed to the electron transfer resistance of the current collectors in the flow anode system. Detailed investigation of the degradation of phenol in a flow anode system revealed that this widely studied contaminant could be degraded with an energy consumption of 3.08 kWh m-3, a value substantially lower than that required with other techniques. Results of this study provide a better understanding of the DET mechanism at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces with these insights expected to benefit the design of flow anode materials and current collectors and lead to the improvement in performance of flow anode systems.


Assuntos
Fenol , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Eletrodos , Elétrons , Oxirredução , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 499(1): 220-224, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426915

RESUMO

A reusable system for phenol determination in an aqueous medium was obtained by adsorption of extracellular oxidase from fungus Neonothopanus nambi onto modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. It was found that the enzyme strongly binds to MND and exhibits catalytic activity in the reaction of co-oxidation of phenol with 4-aminoantipyrine without the addition of hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of the MND-oxidase complex, a significantly (by an order of magnitude) higher yield of the reaction product is recorded as compared to the yield in the presence of a free enzyme; the mechanism of the revealed effect is discussed. Model experiments have demonstrated the multiple use of the MND-oxidase complex for testing phenol in aqueous samples. The immobilized enzyme exhibits functional activity during long-term (2 months) storage of the MND-oxidase complex at 4°C. The data obtained create the prerequisites for using the created system in environmental monitoring of water pollution with phenol.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota/enzimologia , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Espaço Extracelular/enzimologia , Nanodiamantes/química , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fenol/análise , Água/química , Basidiomycota/citologia , Enzimas Imobilizadas/química , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/química
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 149152, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346366

RESUMO

Iodinated disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been attracting great attention due to their potential high toxicity to human health. Understanding of formation mechanisms and transformation process of iodinated aromatic DBPs during the chlorination of iodide-containing water is crucial. Phenol was therefore chosen as a representative of phenolic compounds to investigate the generation of iodinated aromatic DBPs in a chlorine/phenol/iodide system. The presence of iodide in water could enhance the removal of phenol by chlorine due to higher second order rate constants of HOI with phenol than that of HOCl with phenol. Fourteen kinds of iodinated aromatic DBPs were identified, which were generated from oxidation and electrophilic substitution of phenol by HOCl and HOI. Iodinated phenolic DBPs were sources of iodinated quinone DBPs and chlorinated/iodinated phenolic DBPs. Alkaline condition favored the formation of iodinated phenolic DBPs, while acid condition favored the production of iodinated quinone DBPs. Neutral condition might be the most suitable pH condition to control the formation of iodinated aromatic DBPs. The relative concentration of almost all iodinated aromatic DBPs first increased and then decreased with time, indicating iodinated aromatic DBPs might be further converted into halogenated aliphatic DBPs during the chlorination. This research provides a research basis for the removal of phenol in water.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Cloro , Desinfecção , Halogenação , Humanos , Iodetos , Fenol , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361799

RESUMO

Addition of selenium or application of ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation for crop production could be an effective way of producing phytochemical-rich food. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of selenium and UVA radiation, as well as their combination on growth and phytochemical contents in broccoli microgreens. There were three treatments: Se (100 µmol/L Na2SeO3), UVA (40 µmol/m2/s) and Se + UVA (with application of Se and UVA). The control (CK) was Se spraying-free and UVA radiation-free. Although treatment with Se or/and UVA inhibited plant growth of broccoli microgreens, results showed that phytochemical contents increased. Broccoli microgreens under the Se treatment had higher contents of total soluble sugars, total phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, ascorbic acid, Fe, and organic Se and had lower Zn content. The UVA treatment increased the contents of total chlorophylls, total soluble proteins, total phenolic compounds, and FRAP. However, the Se + UVA treatment displayed the most remarkable effect on the contents of total anthocyanins, glucoraphanin, total aliphatic glucosinolates, and total glucosinolates; here, significant interactions between Se and UVA were observed. This study provides valuable insights into the combinational selenium and UVA for improving the phytochemicals of microgreens grown in an artificial lighting plant factory.


Assuntos
Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola , Compostos Fitoquímicos/biossíntese , Selênio/farmacologia , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/efeitos da radiação , Ferro/metabolismo , Fenol/metabolismo , Fenol/efeitos da radiação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/efeitos da radiação , Açúcares/metabolismo , Açúcares/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
16.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361670

RESUMO

When wine grapes are exposed to smoke, there is a risk that the resulting wines may possess smoky, ashy, or burnt aromas, a wine flaw known as smoke taint. Smoke taint occurs when the volatile phenols (VPs) largely responsible for the aroma of smoke are transformed in grape into a range of glycosides that are imperceptible by smell. The majority of VP-glycosides described to date are disaccharides possessing a reducing ß-d-glucopyranosyl moiety. Here, a two-part experiment was performed to (1) assess the stability of 11 synthesized VP-glycosides towards general acid-catalyzed hydrolysis during aging, and (2) to examine whether yeast strains differed in their capacity to produce free VPs both from these model glycosides as well as from grapes that had been deliberately exposed to smoke. When fortified into both model and real wine matrices at 200 ng/g, all VP-disaccharides were stable over 12 weeks, while (42-50 ng/g) increases in free 4-ethylphenol and p-cresol were detected when these were added to wine as their monoglucosides. Guaiacol and phenol were the most abundantly produced VPs during fermentation, whether originating from natural VP-precursors in smoked-exposed Pinot Noir must, or due to fortification with synthetic VP-glycosides. Significant yeast strain-specific differences in glycolytic activities were observed for phenyl-ß-d-glycopyranoside, with two strains (RC212 and BM45) being unable to hydrolyze this model VP, albeit both were active on the guaiacyl analogue. Thus, differences in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ß-glucosidase activity appear to be influenced by the VP moiety.


Assuntos
Fermentação , Frutas/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Fenol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzimologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Vitis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Cresóis/metabolismo , Guaiacol/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
17.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 149: 109856, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311893

RESUMO

Plants like almost all living organisms, have developed a biological clock or circadian clock (CC) capable of synchronizing and adjusting various metabolic and physiological processes at certain times of the day and in a period of 24 h. This endogenous timekeeping is able to predict the environmental changes providing adaptive advantages against stressful conditions. Therefore, the aim of this work was to analyze the possible link between metabolism of xenobiotic compounds (MXC) and the CC. Synchronized Nicotiana tabacum hairy roots (HRs) were used as a validated plant model system, and peroxidases (PODs), key enzymes of the phase I in the MCX, were evaluated after phenol treatment. Two POD genes were selected and their temporal expression profiles as well as the total POD activity were analyzed in order to find circadian oscillations either under control conditions or phenol treatment. It was demonstrated that these PODs genes showed oscillatory profiles with an ultradian period (period length shorter than the circadian period), and preserving the same phases and expression peaks still under phenol treatment. The total PODs activity showed also a marked oscillatory behavior mainly in phenol-treated HRs with the highest levels at ZT23. Untreated HRs showed decrease and increase in the intensity of some basic isoforms at light and dark phase, respectively, while in phenol- treated HRs, an increase in the intensity of almost all isoforms was observed, mainly during the dark phase, being coincident with the high PODs activity detected at ZT23. The periodic analysis determined an ultradian period either in total POD activity or in the POD activity of isoform VI, being 18.7 and 15.3 h, respectively. Curiously, in phenol treated HRs, the period length of total POD activity was longer than in untreated HRs, suggesting that phenol could induce a marked oscillatory behavior in the POD activity with better performance during the dark phase, which explain the higher phenol removal efficiencies at ZT23. These findings showed novel information about the performance of PODs, which would be rhythmically controlled at biochemical level, by phenol exposure.


Assuntos
Fenol , Tabaco , Peroxidases/genética , Fenóis , Raízes de Plantas
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298931

RESUMO

Rhus potaninii Maxim is an economically and medicinally important tree species in China. It produces galls (induced by aphids) with a high abundance of tannins. Here, we discuss the histology, cellular structures and their distribution, and the macromolecular components of secretive glandular trichomes on the leaves of R. potaninii. A variation in the density of glandular trichomes and tomenta was found between the adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf in different regions and stages of the leaf. The glandular trichomes on R. potaninii trees comprise a stalk with no cellular structure and a head with 8-15 cells. Based on staining, we found that the secretion of glandular trichomes has many polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and acidic lipids but very few neutral lipids. The dense glandular trichomes provide mechanical protection for young tissues; additionally, their secretion protects the young tissues from pathogens by a special chemical component. According to transcriptome analysis, we found enhanced biosynthetic and metabolism pathways of glycan, lipids, toxic amino acids, and phenylpropanoids. This shows a similar tendency to the staining. The numbers of differentially expressed genes were large or small; the averaged range of upregulated genes was greater than that of the downregulated genes in most subpathways. Some selectively expressed genes were found in glandular trichomes, responsible for the chitinase activity and pathogenesis-related proteins, which all have antibacterial activity and serve for plant defense. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the components of the secretion from glandular trichomes on the leaf surface of R. potaninii.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Expressão Gênica/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Rhus/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Tricomas/genética , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lipídeos/genética , Fenol/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Tricomas/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/genética
19.
Talanta ; 233: 122593, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215082

RESUMO

The latent fingerprints (LFPs) at the crime scene are unique and stable, which are considered as an important clue in criminal justice and forensic identification. Herein, a butterfly-shaped molecule DPTS with solid fluorescence plus excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) properties was used to develop for enhancing the visualization of the LFPs. Considering the solid fluorescence of DPTS, the color and efficiency of DPTS with a large Stokes shift (216 nm) can be tuned by changing the morphology of its aggregates, and gradually red-shifted (green-yellow-red) with increasing water content. Furthermore, its effectiveness for the detection of LFPs was demonstrated on various different substrates including paper box, tinfoil and weighting paper. The emissive fingerprint of DPTS obtained gave good fluorescence images with high contrast and resolution such as the core, delta, bifurcation, ridge termination, independent ridge and pores. Caging of the phenol donor of DPTS with a sensitive biomarker group provided DPTS-ONOO-, which had high sensitive with detection limit of 5 nM and the quantification limit of 21 nM toward ONOO-. Modularly derived DPTS-ONOO- was synthesized and demonstrated specific fluorescence imaging of exogenous and endogenous peroxynitrite (ONOO-) in living macrophage cells.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes , Prótons , Ácido Peroxinitroso , Fenol , Fenóis
20.
Water Sci Technol ; 84(1): 135-143, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280160

RESUMO

High-performance sulfonated polysulfone (SPSf) mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) were fabricated via a nonsolvent-induced phase separation (NIPS) method using zeolitic imidazolate frameworks-67 (ZIF-67) as a crosslinker. Acid-base crosslinking occurred between the sulfonic acid groups of SPSf and the tertiary amine groups of the embedded ZIF-67, which improved the dispersion of ZIF-67 and simultaneously improved the membrane strzcture and permselectivity. The dispersion of ZIF-67 in the MMMs and the acid-base crosslinking reaction were verified by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The pore structure analysis of MMMs indicated that filling ZIF-67 into SPSf enhanced the average surface pore sizes, surface porosities and more micropore in cross-sections. The crossflow filtrations showed the MMMs have higher pure water fluxes (57 to 111 L m-2 h-1) than the SPSf membrane (55 L m-2 h-1) but also higher bovine serum albumin (BSA) rejection rate of 93.9-95.8%, a model protein foulant. The MMMs showed a higher water contact angle than the SPSf membrane due to the addition of hydrophobic ZIF-67 and acid-base crosslinking, and also maintained high thermal stability evidenced by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results. At the optimal ZIF-67 concentration of 0.3 wt%, the water flux of the SPSf-Z67-0.3 membrane was 82 L m-2 h-1 with a high BSA rejection rate of 95.3% at 0.1 MPa and better antifouling performance (FRR = 70%).


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Água , Adsorção , Fenol , Fenóis
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