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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900394, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618522

RESUMO

We aimed in the present study to investigate the chemical composition, the antioxidant capacities as well as the in vitro fermentation properties of Salvia officinalis leaves aqueous extract (SOLAE) grown in four regions of northwestern Tunisia. Our data firstly indicated a spatial variation (P<0.05) in condensed tannins, total lipids, polyphenols and flavonoids contents. The HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS-LC/HR-ESI-MS technique allowed to the identification of 13 phenolic compounds and showed that protocatechuic acid is the major constituent of the plant leaves grown in Tabarka, Ain Draham and Testour. The SOLAE of the plant grown in Tabarka presents the most potent scavenging activity against DPPH radical and had the highest percentage of inhibition. More importantly, we found in the present study that the digestibility of dry matter and in vitro fermentation showed a significant variation between the regions and the animal species. Also, we showed a very positive correlation between antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds contents. In conclusion, we suggest that SOLAE had potential beneficial effects owing in part to its antioxidant and ROS scavenging activities. Therefore, S. officinalis can be proposed as an additive food for animals' nutrition and health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Fermentação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Salvia officinalis/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Compostos de Bifenilo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Cabras , Hidroxibenzoatos/análise , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenol/análise , Fenol/metabolismo , Fenol/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Picratos/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Salvia officinalis/química , Salvia officinalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos , Tunísia
2.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125382, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775099

RESUMO

As a highly toxic pollutant, phenol is typically present in some high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. In this study, a synthetic coking wastewater with 400 mg L-1 ammonia-nitrogen and 50-250 mg L-1 phenol was treated. Results showed that simultaneous carbon oxidation, partial nitritation, denitritation and anammox (SCONDA) was successfully achieved by step-wise phenol addition. At 200 mg L-1 phenol, 99.8% phenol, 97.5% COD and 89.8% nitrogen could be together removed. However, further increase in phenol concentration caused significant deterioration of the short-terms nitrogen removal efficiency. High-throughput sequencing revealed remarkable evolution in microbial biodiversity, community composition, especially functional species at different phenol concentrations. When the phenol addition was increased from 200 to 250 mg L-1, the relative abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia as predominant anammox species decreased by 87.1%, while phenol-degrading bacteria was increasingly abundant. Furthermore, the removal mechanism of phenol and nitrogen was elucidated by the collaboration among different key functional microbial consortia.


Assuntos
Consórcios Microbianos , Nitrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Fenol/farmacologia , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Purificação da Água/métodos , Amônia/química , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Carbono/química , Coque , Nitrogênio/química , Oxirredução
3.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 150-162, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872313

RESUMO

The botanical source of Brazilian green propolis (BGP) is Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, which interacts not only with Apis mellifera, but also with galling insects. In the last decade, because of green propolis´ important biologic activities, the international demand for BGP overcame the production capacity, consequently, new approaches are required to increase this production. Hence, the understanding of the chemical ecology interactions of B. dracunculifolia with galls and bees in field conditions may provide insights to increase BGP's production. A "bee pasture" experiment aiming to better understand this plant-insect interaction was therefore performed. For that, 48 B. dracunculifolia individuals, being 24 females and 24 males, were cultivated and investigated for the following parameters: (1) phenolic and volatile compounds in both B. dracunculifolia leaves and green propolis, (2) environmental variables, (3) visiting rate by bees, (4) time of resin collection, and (5) number of galls. Regression analyses by independent linear mixed-effect models were run to correlate phenolic and volatile compounds concentration with the environmental and field variables. Significant differences in chemical profile and field variables were observed between male and female plants. Male plants showed higher infestation by galling insects while female plants showed higher number of visiting bees, time of resin collection and terpenes concentration, contributing to the differences observed in the field. The obtained results suggest that increasing the percentage of female B. dracunculifolia plants in the field may attract more bees and therefore enhance propolis production.


Assuntos
Baccharis/química , Abelhas/fisiologia , Própole/química , Animais , Baccharis/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenol/análise , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Tumores de Planta/parasitologia , Própole/análise , Própole/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
4.
Mar Drugs ; 17(11)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653083

RESUMO

Three new prenylated phenol derivatives, terreprenphenols A-C (1-3), along with four known related compounds (4-7), were isolated from Aspergillus terreus EN-539, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were established by extensive analysis of 1D/2D NMR data, mass spectrometric data, and optical rotation (OR). The corresponding relationship between absolute configuration and optical rotation for known compounds anodendroic acid (4) and asperterreusine C (5) was ambiguous in literature, and their absolute configurations were therefore discussed and confirmed for the first time by time-dependent density functional (TDDFT) ECD and OR calculations. Compounds 1-7 inhibited some common aquatic bacteria with MIC values ranging from 2 to 64 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/química , Fenol/química , Fenóis/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Laurencia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Fenol/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9165648, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240229

RESUMO

Inflammation is a consequence of an array of biological reactions that occur in response to pain sensation, local injury, and cell damage. A large number of studies have demonstrated that quercetin and other flavonoids show anti-inflammatory effects; thus, in the present work, we evaluated a triazine-phenol derivative (TP derivative) compound as a possible drug candidate with anti-inflammatory activity. This compound was studied as a possible anti-inflammatory drug using synthesis and characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass spectrometry (MS). The derivative of melamine was evaluated for its antioxidant activity and exhibited good DPPH and FRAP antioxidant activity. Additionally, we evaluated the putative effect of the molecule on the COX-2 enzyme through molecular dynamic simulation (MDS), and the result suggested that the TP derivative is a potential anti-inflammatory agent that can interact with the COX-2 enzyme because of the high number of protein-ligand interactions observed with MDS. Finally, the study of theoretical physicochemical properties, the observation of low toxicity (hemolysis assay), and the evaluation of oral bioavailability of the TP derivative showed that it is a possible anti-inflammatory drug candidate.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Triazinas/análise , Triazinas/química , Compostos de Bifenilo , Simulação por Computador , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Eritrócitos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Hemólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Inflamação , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fenol/farmacologia , Picratos , Quercetina/farmacologia
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 146, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries to substitute synthetic chemicals with naturally occurring compounds possessing bioactive properties. Plants are valuable sources of bioactive compounds. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities of ethanolic extracts (EEs) and essential oils (EOs) from two species in the Lamiaceae family, Ocimum basilicum L. and Thymus algeriensis Boiss. & Reut., cultivated in the Algerian Saharan Atlas. METHODS: The total flavonoid contents of the plants' ethanolic extracts were determined by the aluminium chloride method, while the total phenols were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of the plants and were analysed by GC-MS. The free radical-scavenging ability and antioxidant potential of the plants' EEs and EOs were probed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging, ABTS radical-scavenging, ferric-reducing power and phosphomolybdenum assays. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against several pathogens characteristic of gram-negative bacteria (three species), gram-positive bacteria (three species) and fungi (two species). The microdilution method was used to estimate the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The oils' anticancer potential against several cancer types was also studied using the MTT assay and reported as the toxic doses that resulted in a 50% reduction in cancer cell growth (LD50). RESULTS: Phenolic compounds in the EEs from both plants were analysed by HPLC and demonstrated a rich flavonoid content. Chemical analysis of the essential oil from Ocimum basilicum revealed 26 unique compounds, with linalool (52.1%) and linalyl acetate (19.1%) as the major compounds. A total of 29 compounds were identified in the essential oil from Thymus algeriensis, with α-terpinyl acetate (47.4%), neryl acetate (9.6%), and α-pinene (6.8%) as the major compounds. The ethanolic extracts and essential oils from both plants exhibited moderate antioxidant activities and moderate to weak antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, anticancer activities against the examined human cancer cell lines were associated with only the EOs from both plants, with LD50 values ranging between 300 and 1000 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the bioactive compounds found in the ethanolic extracts and essential oils from Ocimum basilicum and Thymus algeriensis, with diverse antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities, may have beneficial applications in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical technologies.


Assuntos
Ocimum basilicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Argélia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096694

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated antioxidant, antihyperuricemic, and herbicidal activities of essential oils (EOs) from Piper cubeba Bojer and Piper nigrum L.; two pepper species widely distributed in tropics, and examined their chemical compositions. Dried berries of P. cubeba and P. nigrum were hydro-distilled to yield essential oil (EO) of 1.23 and 1.11% dry weight, respectively. In the antioxidant assay, the radical scavenging capacities of P. cubeba EO against DPPH and ABTS free radicals were 28.69 and 24.13% greater than P. nigrum, respectively. In the antihyperuricemic activity, P. cubeba EO also exhibited stronger inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (IC50 = 54.87 µg/mL) than P. nigrum EO (IC50 = 77.11 µg/mL). In the herbicidal activity, P. cubeba EO showed greater inhibition on germination and growth of Bidens pilosa and Echinochloa crus-galli than P. nigrum EO. Besides, P. cubeba EO decreased 15.98-73.00% of photosynthesis pigments of B. pilosa and E. crus-galli, while electrolyte leakages, lipid peroxidations, prolines, phenolics, and flavonoids contents were increased 10.82-80.82% at 1.93 mg/mL dose. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analyses revealed that P. nigrum and P. cubeba EOs principally possessed complex mixtures of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Terpinen-4-ol (42.41%), α-copaene (20.04%), and γ-elemene (17.68%) were the major components of P. cubeba EO, whereas ß-caryophyllene (51.12%) and ß-thujene (20.58%) were the dominant components of P. nigrum EO. Findings of this study suggest both P. cubeba and P. nigrum EOs were potential to treat antioxidative stress and antihyperuricemic related diseases. In addition, the EOs of the two plants may be useful to control B. pilosa and E. crus-galli, the two invasive and problematic weeds in agriculture practice.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Piper nigrum/química , Piper/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prolina/química , Prolina/farmacologia , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Xantina Oxidase/química
8.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 42(7): 1105-1114, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911818

RESUMO

Nitrate and phenol often co-occur in wastewater because of the complex industrial and agricultural processes, while the impacts of phenol on autotrophic denitrification remain unclear. Here, a sulfur and hydrogen-oxidizing autotrophic denitrification reactor was established, and the effects of different concentrations of phenol on the nitrate removal performance, kinetics, microbial communities, and functional genes were investigated. Increasing concentrations of phenol significantly decreased the denitrification efficiency in the reactor. The kinetic data indicate the limitation of nitrate diffusion may be one of reasons. Increasing phenol concentrations declined the activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases and induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), suggesting potential toxicity to the denitrifying consortium. Denitrifying gene nirK was most sensitive to phenol stresses in the reactor. In addition, Thauera was the predominant genus in system with and without phenol, Bacillus was enriched under high phenol concentrations.


Assuntos
Processos Autotróficos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desnitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/farmacologia , Thauera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reatores Biológicos , Cinética , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
9.
Molecules ; 24(5)2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845642

RESUMO

Endopleura uchi (Huber) Cuatrec (Humiriaceae), known as uxi or uxi-amarelo in Brazil, is an endemic tree of the Amazon forest. In traditional medicine, its stem bark is used to treat a variety of health disorders, including cancer, diabetes, arthritis, uterine inflammation, and gynecological infections. According to HPLC analysis, the main constituent of the bark extract is the polyphenol bergenin. In the current study, we demonstrate by in vitro and in vivo experiments the antioxidant potential of a water extract from the stem bark of E. uchi. When tested in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the extract enhanced stress resistance via the DAF-16/FOXO pathway. Additionally, the extract promoted an increase in the lifespan of the worms independent from caloric restriction. It also attenuated the age-related muscle function decline and formation of polyQ40 plaques, as a model for Huntington's disease. Thus, these data support anti-aging and anti-oxidant properties of E. uchi, which has not yet been described. More studies are needed to assess the real benefits of E. uchi bark for human health and its toxicological profile.


Assuntos
Benzopiranos/farmacologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Feófitas/química , Casca de Planta/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais
10.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 10(3): 1506-1516, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565916

RESUMO

Microtubules play a crucial role in maintenance of structure, function, axonal extensions, cargo transport, and polarity of neurons. During neurodegenerative diseases, microtubule structure and function get severely damaged due to destabilization of its major structural proteins. Therefore, design and development of molecules that stabilize these microtubule networks have always been an important strategy for development of potential neurotherapeutic candidates. Toward this venture, we designed and developed a tyrosine rich trisubstituted triazine molecule (TY3) that stabilizes microtubules through close interaction with the taxol binding site. Detailed structural investigations revealed that the phenolic protons are the key interacting partners of tubulin. Interestingly, we found that this molecule is noncytotoxic in PC12 derived neurons, stabilizes microtubules against nocodazole induced depolymerization, and increases expression of acetylated tubulin (Ac-K40), an important marker of tubulin stability. Further, results show that TY3 significantly induces neurite sprouting as compared to the untreated control as well as the two other analogues (TS3 and TF3). It also possesses anti-Aß fibrillation properties as confirmed by ThT assay, which leads to its neuroprotective effect against amyloidogenic induced toxicity caused through nerve growth factor (NGF) deprivation in PC12 derived neurons. Remarkably, our results reveal that it reduces the expression of TrkA (pY490) associated with NGF deprived amyloidogenesis, which further proves that it is a potent amyloid ß inhibitor. Moreover, it promoted the health of the rat primary cortical neurons through higher expression of key neuronal markers such as MAP2 and Tuj1. Finally, we observed that it has good serum stability and has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Overall, our work indicates the importance of phenolic -OH in promoting neuroprotection and its importance could be implemented in the development of future neurotherapeutics.


Assuntos
Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Tirosina/metabolismo , Tirosina/farmacologia , Animais , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Feminino , Microtúbulos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Gravidez , Estabilidade Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
Clin Anat ; 32(2): 224-230, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281854

RESUMO

The adverse effects formaldehyde fixation has on tissues both gross anatomically and histologically are well documented. Consequently, researchers are seeking alternative embalming techniques that better preserve in vivo characteristics of tissues. Phenol-based embalming is one method that has shown promise in its ability to adequately preserve the in vivo qualities of tissues through preliminary explorations at the gross anatomical level. The literature on phenol-based embalming is currently scarce, especially with regard to its effects on tissues at the microscopic level. For the current study we aimed to document the histologic effects of a formaldehyde-free phenol-based embalming solution on neural tissue, with the hope of providing novel insight into the effects of soft-embalming on tissues at the microscopic level. Cerebral and cerebellar tissue obtained from porcine brains was fixed in phenol- and formaldehyde-based fixatives; the latter served as a control. Fixed samples were processed for histological analysis. The phenol-based embalming solution provided excellent preservation of the cerebral and cerebellar tissue morphology. Of note was the decrease in separation artifact seen in both tissue types relative to the control tissue, as well as anomalous circular artifacts in the white matter. The results of this study indicate that the phenol-based embalming solution preserves neural tissue at the histological level, perhaps superiorly in many aspects when compared to the formaldehyde-fixed samples. Further investigations of both gross anatomy and histology are recommended on the basis of these promising new findings to determine its potential utilities within research and education. Clin. Anat. 32:224-230, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Fixadores/farmacologia , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/farmacologia , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Animais , Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Fixadores/efeitos adversos , Formaldeído/efeitos adversos , Suínos
12.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 17782, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542141

RESUMO

Aloe vera (AV) is popular and has been commercialized as a beauty product, laxative, herbal medicine, the antimicrobial activity of AV is proven. The antiviral activity of AV however, has not been well documented except for a handful reports. Till date extraction of AV compounds is popularized using organic solvents, since the active components are effectively extracted in methanol. In the current work, we have employed a 5 min ultrasound based extraction for the effective extraction of aloin and aloe-emodin compounds from AV in water. This rapid, one-pot extraction process resulted in enhanced extraction of flavonoids and phenolics and enrichment of the aloin and aloe-emodin moieties in the ulrasonicated water extracts. The extracts were tested for their anti-influenza activity and, the results showed that the ultrasound extraction enabled the water extracts to show excellent anti influenza activity comparable to that seen in the methanolic extracts. Compared to the methanolic extracts which showed high cytotoxicity, the water extracts showed zero cytotoxicity. Spectrophotometric scans of the extracts confirmed the enrichment of the aloin and aloe emodin peaks in the ultrasonicated extracts of AV, suggesting their handiwork behind the anti-influenza activity. The demonstrated technique if appropriately implicated, would lead to promising solutions in the pharmaceutical pursuit against influenza virus.


Assuntos
Aloe/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antraquinonas/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Linhagem Celular , Cães , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Emodina/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Fenol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Solventes/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas
13.
Pol J Microbiol ; 67(3): 321-331, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451449

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), an antimicrobial agent, are in common use and can be often detected in the environment. The constructed wetland systems (CWs) are one of the technologies to remove them from the aquatic environment. The final effect of the treatment processes depends on many factors, including the interaction between plants and the plant-associated microorganisms present in the system. Bacteria living inside the plant as endophytes are exposed to secondary metabolites in the tissues. Therefore, they can possess the potential to degrade aromatic structures, including residues of pharmaceuticals. The endophytic strain MG7 identified as Microbacterium sp., obtained from root tissues of Phalaris arundinacea exposed to DCF and SMX was tested for the ability to remove 2 mg/l of SMX and DCF in monosubstrate cultures and in the presence of phenol as an additional carbon source. The MG7 strain was able to remove approximately 15% of DCF and 9% of SMX after 20 days of monosubstrate culture. However, a decrease in the optical density of the MG7 strain cultures was observed, caused by an insufficient carbon source for bacterial growth and proliferation. The adsorption of pharmaceuticals onto autoclaved cells was negligible, which confirmed that the tested strain was directly involved in the removal of DCF and SMX. In the presence of phenol as the additional carbon source, the MG7 strain was able to remove approximately 35% of DCF and 61% of SMX, while an increase in the optical density of the cultures was noted. The higher removal efficiency can be explained by adaptive mechanisms in microorganisms exposed to phenol (i.e. changes in the composition of membrane lipids) and by a co-metabolic mechanism, where non-growth substrates can be transformed by non-specific enzymes. The presence of both DCF and SMX and the influence of the supply frequency of CWs with the contaminated wastewater on the diversity of whole endophytic bacterial communities were demonstrated. The results of this study suggest the capability of the MG7 strain to degrade DCF and SMX. This finding deserves further investigations to improve wastewater treatment in CWs with the possible use of pharmaceuticals-degrading endophytes.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Phalaris/microbiologia , Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono/metabolismo , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fenol/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Chemosphere ; 213: 498-506, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245226

RESUMO

Coke-oven wastewater discharged from the steel-manufacturing process is phenol and thiocyanate (SCN)-rich wastewater, which inhibits microbial activities in biological wastewater treatment processes. In the present study, synergistic inhibition of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) activity by phenol and SCN was examined by batch incubation and continuous operation of an anammox reactor. The comparison of anammox activities determined in the batch incubation, in which the anammox biomass was anoxically incubated with 10-250 mg L-1 of i) phenol, ii) SCN, or iii) both phenol and SCN, showed that synergistic inhibition by phenol and SCN was greater than the inhibitions by phenol or SCN alone. The synergistic inhibition by phenol and SCN was further investigated by operating an up-flow column anammox reactor for 262 d. The removal efficiencies of NH4+ and NO2- deteriorated when phenol and SCN concentrations in the influent increased to 16 and 32 mg L-1, respectively, and the inhibition of anammox activity was further investigated by a15NO2- tracer experiment. Addition of phenol and SCN resulted in a population shift of anammox bacteria, and the dominant species changed from "Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis" to "Ca. Brocadia sinica". The relative abundance of Azoarcus and Thiobacillus 16S rRNA gene reads increased during the operation, suggesting that they were responsible for the anaerobic phenol and SCN degradation. The present study is the first to document the synergistic inhibition of anammox activity by phenol and SCN and the microbial consortia involved in the nitrogen removal as well as the phenol and SCN degradations.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fenol/farmacologia , Tiocianatos/farmacologia , Águas Residuárias , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Desnitrificação , Consórcios Microbianos , Oxirredução , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia
15.
Molecules ; 23(9)2018 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189606

RESUMO

This study is focused on the comparison and classification of parsley, lovage, basil, and thyme essential oils (EOs) based on their chemical composition, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities by using appropriate chemometric methods: Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results showed that parsley, lovage, and thyme EOs are rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons, but basil EO is rich in oxygenated monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids, and that both PCA and HCA separated essential oils into two main groups of which one contains two sub-groups. ß-Phellandrene was the major component identified in parsley and lovage EOs, estragole was the major component in basil EO, and p-cymene was the major component in thyme EO. Thyme EO showed the highest level of total phenolics, the highest antioxidant capacity, and exhibited the stronger antibacterial activity, results that were emphasized by both chemometric methods used. Among tested essential oils, the one of parsley was distinguished by a low total TPC, weak antioxidant activity, and weak antibacterial activity against S. enteritidis (ATCC 13076); lovage EO by low TPC, weak antioxidant activity, but moderate antibacterial activity; and basil EO by low TPC, moderate antioxidant activity, and weak antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114).


Assuntos
Apiaceae/química , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia
16.
Microb Pathog ; 118: 126-132, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29550502

RESUMO

The desideratum aim of the present context was to isolate a promising antagonist probiotic bacterium from fermented food item as biocontrol agent against uropathogens. Among diversified isolates evaluated for antagonistic trait, Staphylococcus succinus strain AAS2 was found to be an auspicious candidate against urinary tract infection (UTI) causing bacterial pathogens, being the most active against Staphylococcus aureus with substantial activity of 352.5 ±â€¯5.4 AU/mL. Further, the in vitro probiotic attributes of strain AAS2 were assessed using systematic methodology. The isolate exhibited tolerance to acidic condition (up to pH 3.0) and simulated gastric juice (at pH 3.0) with fairly high survival logarithmic cell counts of 5.3 ±â€¯0.15 and 5.23 ±â€¯0.02 log cfu/mL, respectively. Additionally, strain AAS2 showed capability to resist 0.5% w/v bile salt too. It also revealed significant values of auto-aggregation (32.5 ±â€¯1.3-56.5 ±â€¯1.4%) and cell surface hydrophobicity (38.35 ±â€¯1.4%) properties. The isolate showed resistivity towards phenol (6.8 ±â€¯0.08 log cfu/mL) and lysozyme (58.6 ±â€¯1.6%). Further, the susceptibility trait of strain AAS2 to conventional antibiotics made this isolate a promising probiotic bacterium. Most importantly, the isolate depicted DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities in a concentration dependent manner, thereby exhibiting its propitious antioxidative properties. In a nutshell, the outcomes of this investigation divulge the plausible use of S. succinus strain AAS2 as biocontrol agent against uropathogens, and recommended further applications in pharmaceutics due to its pronounced probiotic traits.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Probióticos/farmacologia , Staphylococcus/fisiologia , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Suco Gástrico , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Radical Hidroxila/farmacologia , Índia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Muramidase/farmacologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Picratos/farmacologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade
17.
Water Sci Technol ; 77(3-4): 1079-1088, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29488971

RESUMO

Mixed microbial culture collected from the wastewater treatment plant of Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG) was further grown in anaerobic condition in presence of sulfate where lactate was added as a carbon source. Sulfate addition was increased stepwise up to 1,000 mg l-1 before phenol was added at increasing concentrations from 10 mg l-1 to 300 mg l-1. Kinetics of sulfate, phenol and chemical oxygen demand reduction were studied and experimental findings were analyzed using various bio-models to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients. This is the first detailed report on kinetics and bio-kinetic studies of sulfate reduction in presence of phenol. Experimental results showed that there was no inhibition of sulfate reduction and microbial growth up to 100 mg l-1 phenol addition. However, inhibition to different degrees was observed at higher phenol addition. The experimental data of microbial growth and substrate consumption in presence of phenol fitted well to the Edward model (R2 = 0.85, root mean square error = 0.001011) with maximum specific growth rate = 0.052 h-1, substrate inhibition constant = 88.05 mg l-1 and half saturation constant = 58.22 mg l-1. The characteristics of the cultured microbes were determined through a series of analysis and microbial tests.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/farmacologia , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cinética , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo
18.
Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment ; 17(1): 91-100, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29514428

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of un-extruded (UCP) and extruded cranberry pomace (ECP) on fecal fat excretion, liver index, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and inhibition of oxidative stress due to a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats were studied. METHODS: The Wistar rats for 8 weeks received one of the four diets: (1) control (modified the American Institute of Nutrition: AIN based diet containing 7% fat), (2) HFD (AIN based diet containing 30% fat), (3) HFD with 3% un-extruded (UCP) and (4) HFD with 3% (ECP). RESULTS: Both UCP and ECP significantly improved the plasma antioxidant capacity and decreased lipid per- oxidation in rats fed a HFD. However, only the addition of 3% UCP into the HFD significantly increased the fecal lipid excretion and considerably decreased serum triglycerides level in rats. CONCLUSIONS: Further investigation is needed to determine the role of an individual components present in UCP and ECP in the improvement of metabolic conditions observed in the current study.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Flavonóis/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
19.
Food Funct ; 9(4): 2032-2042, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29541715

RESUMO

Geranium molle L., commonly known as Dove's-foot Crane's-bill or Dovesfoot Geranium, is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Geraniaceae family. Contrary to many other Geranium species, the bioactivity and the phytochemical composition of G. molle seem not to have attracted attention until a recent study from our group regarding the bioactivity of several aqueous and organic extracts of the plant. In particular, we assessed the cytotoxic activity of these extracts against several human tumor cell lines (breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas) and a non-tumor porcine liver primary cell line, inspired by an ethnopharmacological report describing the traditional use of this medicinal plant in some regions of Northeast Portugal for the treatment of cancer. Following this preliminary evaluation, the most active extracts (acetone and methanol) were fractionated by column chromatography and the resulting fractions were evaluated for their antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity against the same cell lines. The bio-guided fractionation of the extracts resulted in several fractions exhibiting improved bioactivity in comparison with the corresponding crude extracts. The fractions obtained from the acetone extract consistently displayed the lowest EC50 and GI50 values and presented the highest content of total phenolic compounds. The phytochemical composition of the most bioactive fractions of the acetone and methanol extracts was also determined and about thirty compounds, mainly flavonoids and phenolic acids, could be identified for the first time in G. molle.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Descoberta de Drogas , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Geranium/química , Fenol/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Acetona/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Etnofarmacologia , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Geranium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metanol/química , Estrutura Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração Osmolar , Fenol/efeitos adversos , Fenol/química , Fenol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Portugal , Solventes/química , Sus scrofa
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 66(5): 427-433, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478286

RESUMO

In honeys, several molecules have been known for their antibacterial or wound healing properties. Corsican honeys just began to be tested for their antimicrobial activity with promising results on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. So, identification of active molecules and their mode of action was determined. Hydrogen peroxide concentrations were evaluated and, in parallel, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) values were performed with and without catalase. More, the quantity of phenolic compounds and ORAC assay were measured. Observation of antibacterial action was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) followed by plasmidic DNA extraction. MIC values of chestnut grove and honeydew maquis honeys vary between 7 and 8%, showing a strong antimicrobial capacity, associated with a plasmidic DNA degradation. When catalase is added, MIC values significatively increase (25%) without damaging DNA, proving the importance of H2 O2 . This hypothesis is confirmed by SEM micrographies which did not show any morphological damages but a depletion in bacterial population. Although, such low concentrations of H2 O2 (between 23 µmol l-1 and 54 µmol l-1 ) cannot explain antimicrobial activity and might be correlated with phenolic compounds concentration. Thus, Corsican honeys seem to induce DNA damage when H2 O2 and phenolic compounds act in synergy by a putative pro-oxidant effect. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: We started to determine the antibacterial efficiency of Corsican chestnut grove and honeydew maquis honeys on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. No morphological alteration of the bacterial surface was observed. Antimicrobial action seems to be related to the synergy between hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds. The exerted pro-oxidant activity leads to a degradation of P. aeruginosa plasmidic DNA. This is the first study that investigate the primary antibacterial mechanism of Corsican honeys.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Mel/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Fenol/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/química
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