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1.
Minerva Med ; 111(2): 115-119, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tachycardia prior to endoscopic procedures is commonly encountered which reflect patient anxiety status. Despite this frequent occurrence, it is unclear if in a patient with tachycardia sedation dose should be modified. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of pre-endoscopic tachycardia on sedation dose. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent upper endoscopy and colonoscopy at EMMS Nazareth hospital were performed. We excluded patients with diseases and medications affecting the heart rate. RESULTS: A total of 2855 patients were included in the study. Two-hundred and thirty-seven patients had tachycardia before endoscopy (8.3%, group A) as compared to 2618 (group B) patients who had heart rate ≤100 beats per minute. The mean dosage of propofol in group A was significantly higher (62.6±33.2 mg vs. 57.4±29.9 mg) than in group B (P=0.01). There was no difference in the cecal intubation rate among the two groups (P=0.9). Notably, the adenoma detection rate was significantly lower among group A patients as compared to group B (13.6% vs. 22.8%, P=0.02) patients. There were no sedation related complications. CONCLUSIONS: Tachycardia prior to endoscopic procedures was associated with higher sedative dosage and lower adenoma detection rate, however no major complications were recorded. These data should be taken into consideration to optimize procedure quality.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/psicologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Taquicardia/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colonoscopia/psicologia , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Gastroscopia/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Propofol/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taquicardia/epidemiologia
2.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 993-996, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926534

RESUMO

Seven anesthesia events were performed over 6 wk on a 1.5-yr-old female okapi (Okapia johnstoni) being managed for a fetlock injury. A combination of butorphanol (B) (median; range) (0.045; 0.031-0.046 mg/kg), medetomidine (M) (0.037; 0.031-0.037 mg/kg), ketamine (K) (0.553; 0.536-1.071 mg/kg), and thiafentanil (T) (0.0045; 0.0040-0.0046 mg/kg) was administered in a padded stall. One dart containing all drugs was used for the first two anesthesias. Subsequently, BM was administered 10 min prior to KT using two darts. Time (median; range) from initial injection to first effects (6; 3-7 min) and recumbency (14; 4-20 min) were recorded. Induction quality with the one-dart protocol was poor or fair and was good or excellent with the two-dart protocol. Following recumbency, the okapi was intubated and ventilated, and physiological parameters were recorded. Anesthesia was consistently achieved with BMKT, but induction was smoother with the staged two-dart approach. Neither resedation nor renarcotization was observed post-reversal.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Butorfanol/farmacologia , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anestesia/veterinária , Animais , Butorfanol/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Medetomidina/administração & dosagem
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 320: 109-112, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2016 an increase has been observed in the availability of new synthetic opioids (NSO) in Europe. Cyclopropylfentanyl is a very potent and selective µ-opioid agonist, which was reported for the first time in August 2017 in Europe. METHODS: The case was included in a prospective observational study of patients treated in emergency departments after the intake of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Clinical features were acquired using a structured questionnaire for physicians. Serum and/or urine samples of ED patients were analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) screening methods for NPS. CASE REPORT: Within 10 min after intranasal intake of fentanyl, a 25-year-old male developed nausea, profuse sweating and dyspnoe. Because soon afterwards coma and respiratory insufficiency was noticed, the patient was admitted to hospital. After administration of naloxone (0.8 mg) breathing stabilized. However, the patient displayed recurrent decreases of oxygen saturation for 12 h. The intake of cyclopropylfentanyl was analytically confirmed. CONCLUSION: The constantly growing diversity of NSO still poses a high risk for drug users and can be a challenging task for clinicians and forensic toxicologists. Clinicians treating opioid overdoses should be aware of the potentially long lasting respiratory depression induced by fentanyl analogs.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/diagnóstico , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Administração Intranasal , Adulto , Aerossóis , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/fisiopatologia , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/envenenamento , Humanos , Masculino , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Am J Vet Res ; 81(1): 58-64, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) and fentanyl-lidocaine-ketamine (FLK) combinations administered as constant rate infusions (CRIs) during and after veterinary procedures on postprocedure rectal temperature in dogs. ANIMALS: 32 clinically normal client-owned dogs undergoing nonemergent procedures. PROCEDURES: Dogs were randomly assigned to receive an MLK or FLK combination (16 dogs/group). During the procedure, each dog received 2% lidocaine hydrochloride (1 mg/kg/h; both groups), ketamine hydrochloride (0.6 mg/kg/h; both groups), and morphine (0.36 mg/kg/h; MLK group) or fentanyl (4 µg/kg/h; FLK group) via CRI for analgesia; esophageal temperature was maintained at 37° to 39°C. At extubation, each drug dose in each assigned combination was halved and administered (via CRI) for 12 additional hours for postprocedure analgesia. Rectal temperature and other data were recorded at baseline (prior to administration of premedicants), extubation (0 hours), and 0.5, 1.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours thereafter. RESULTS: Mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at each postextubation time point for the MLK group, compared with corresponding values for the FLK group. Compared with the baseline value, mean postprocedure rectal temperature was significantly lower at 0, 0.5, 1.5, and 3 hours for the FLK group and at all postprocedure time points for the MLK group. Hypothermia (rectal temperature < 37°C) was detected at ≥ 1 postprocedure time point more often in dogs in the MLK group (9/16) than in the FLK group (1/16). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Dogs that received an MLK combination for analgesia during and after a veterinary procedure developed hypothermia more commonly than did dogs that received an FLK combination under similar conditions.


Assuntos
Analgesia/veterinária , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Analgesia/normas , Animais , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
5.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 62(12): 1528-1532, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Performing colonoscopies is an integral component of colorectal surgery residency training. There exists a paucity of literature regarding colonoscopy quality metrics with colorectal trainee involvement. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of colorectal surgery resident participation on quality metrics in screening colonoscopy. DESIGN: Screening colonoscopies performed between August 1, 2016, and July 31, 2018, were queried from a prospectively maintained institutional database. Data were cross-checked with resident case logs to verify colonoscopies with resident participation. SETTING: This study was conducted by the colorectal surgery department at a tertiary level hospital in the United States. PATIENTS: Consecutive, asymptomatic patients aged ≥45 years, undergoing screening colonoscopy, were selected. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The quality parameters measured included overall, male, and female adenoma detection rates; total examination time; withdrawal time; cecal intubation rate; quality of bowel preparation; complications; and medication dosage. RESULTS: A total of 4594 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 60.5 ± 8.4 years (range, 45-91); 51.7% were women. Overall, 4186 of the colonoscopies were performed without resident participation, and 408 were performed with resident participation. Scope insertion, withdrawal, and total examination times were longer in the resident group. Cecal intubation rate, polypectomy rate, sex-specific and overall adenoma detection rates, and complication rates were similar between the groups. In the multivariate model, trainee involvement had no significant impact on adenoma detection rate. In addition, the trainee group utilized a higher mean dose of fentanyl. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of the data with possible coding errors of the database and the inability to quantify the amount of resident participation and to clarify the degree of attending surgeon assistance and oversight were limitations of the study. CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal surgery resident participation in screening colonoscopy takes longer and appears safe, while achieving all national quality metrics without compromising adenoma detection rates. Changes in colonoscopy scheduling in regard to length of time may prove beneficial when there is resident participation. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B43. PARTICIPACIÓN DE LOS RESIDENTES DE CIRUGÍA COLORRECTAL EN COLONOSCOPIAS DE CRIBADO: ¿CÓMO AFECTA LA CALIDAD?: La realización de colonoscopias es un componente integral del entrenamiento de residencia en cirugía colorrectal. Existe una escasez de literatura con respecto a las medidas de calidad de la colonoscopia con la participación de los aprendices colorrectales.Investigar el efecto de la participación de residentes de cirugía colorrectal en las medidas de calidad en la colonoscopia de cribado.Las colonoscopias de cribado realizadas entre el 1 de agosto de 2016 y el 31 de julio de 2018 se consultaron desde una base de datos institucional mantenida prospectivamente. Los datos se cotejaron con registros de casos de residentes para verificar las colonoscopias con participación de residentes.Departamento de cirugía colorrectal en un hospital de tercer nivel de los Estados Unidos.Pacientes consecutivos, asintomáticos, edad ≥45 años, sometidos a colonoscopia de detección.Parámetros de calidad que incluyen tasas generales de detección de adenoma en hombres y mujeres, tiempo total de examen, tiempo de retiro, tasa de intubación cecal, calidad de la preparación intestinal, complicaciones y dosis de medicamentos.Se incluyeron un total de 4.594 pacientes en el estudio con una edad media de 60,5 ± 8,4 años (rango, 45-91) y 51,7% mujeres. En total 4,186 de las colonoscopias se realizaron sin participación de los residentes y 408 se realizaron con la participación de los residentes. Los tiempos de inserción, retiro y examen total del alcance fueron más largos en el grupo residentes. La tasa de intubación cecal, la tasa de polipectomía, las tasas de detección de adenoma específicos de género y generales, y las tasas de complicaciones fueron similares entre los grupos. En el modelo multivariado, la participación de los aprendices no tuvo un impacto significativo en la tasa de detección de adenoma. Además, el grupo de aprendices utilizó una dosis media más alta de fentanilo.Carácter retrospectivo de los datos con posibles errores de codificación de la base de datos. Incapacidad para cuantificar la cantidad de participación de los residentes y para aclarar el grado de asistencia y supervisión del cirujano.La participación de los residentes de cirugía colorrectal en la colonoscopia de cribado lleva más tiempo y parece segura, mientras se logran todas las medidas de calidad nacionales sin comprometer las tasas de detección de adenoma. Los cambios en la programación de la colonoscopia con respecto al período de tiempo pueden ser beneficiosos cuando hay participación de residentes. Vea el resumen del video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B43.


Assuntos
Doenças do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/normas , Cirurgia Colorretal/educação , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(5): 836e-840e, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many ambulatory surgery centers use body mass index as a screening tool to make admissions decisions because of complication risks associated with high-body mass index patients. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate perioperative complications in a cohort of high-body mass index patients undergoing hand and elbow surgery at an ambulatory surgery center. The authors' hypothesis was that anesthesia-related complications for this cohort would be similar to those of a normal-body mass index group. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed data from all hand and elbow procedures performed on patients with a high body mass index (>40 kg/m). One hundred eighty-nine high-body mass index patients and 189 normal-body mass index patients were included in the analysis. RESULTS: The average weight-based dosage of propofol was similar in both groups but was lower in the high-body mass index group for midazolam and fentanyl. Two high-body mass index patients had oxygen desaturations in the postanesthesia care unit. No patients developed complications related to anesthesia. In the high-body mass index group, one patient developed hypotension in the postanesthesia care unit, was admitted to the emergency room for monitoring, but was discharged the following morning. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient hand surgical care of high-body mass index patients can be performed safely. Body mass index alone should not be considered as an absolute contraindication for surgery. Careful patient selection, evaluation of comorbidities, and close involvement of the anesthesia and medical teams are critical. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Articulação do Cotovelo/cirurgia , Mãos/cirurgia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios/efeitos adversos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiopatologia , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Mãos/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
7.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 42(10): 1674-1678, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582655

RESUMO

Pain control becomes poor in some cases after opioid switching from oxycodone tablet (OXC) to fentanyl patch (FP). However, fewer studies on risk factors have been reported. In this study, we surveyed the states of pain control (PC) and opioid administration, patient background, laboratory test values, and concomitant drugs retrospectively in 86 patients switching from OXC to FP between June 2010 and April 2018 in Mazda Hospital and Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the median number of days to the initial dose increase after switching to FP. Between the early (<7.5 d) and late (≥7.5 d) increase groups, a significant difference was noted in the presence or absence of liver metastasis (LM), concomitant drugs with a high protein binding rate (CDHPBR), and the state of PC before and after switching to FP (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed the presence of CDHPBR, absence of LM, and poor PC after switching were risk factors for early dose increase (presence of CDHPBR: odds ratios (OR), 3.30, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-9.98; presence of LM: OR, 0.31, 95% CI, 0.10-0.93; good PC: OR, 0.23, 95% CI, 0.07-0.79, respectively). The initial dose increase after switching to FP was earlier in patients with CDHPBR and/or without LM than those without CDHPBR and with LM (p < 0.05, log-rank test). It was suggested that the analgesic effect of FP after switching from OXC is likely to be insufficient in patients treated with CDHPBR and patients without LM.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Dor do Câncer/tratamento farmacológico , Substituição de Medicamentos , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Oxicodona/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Risco , Comprimidos , Adesivo Transdérmico
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4493, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582737

RESUMO

Negative symptoms, such as amotivation and anhedonia, are a major cause of functional impairment in schizophrenia. There are currently no licensed treatments for negative symptoms, highlighting the need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying them. Mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in the striatum play a key role in hedonic processing and reward function and are reduced post-mortem in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if mu-opioid receptor availability is altered in-vivo or related to negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Using [11 C]-carfentanil positron emission tomography (PET) scans in 19 schizophrenia patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls, here we show a significantly lower MOR availability in patients with schizophrenia in the striatum (Cohen's d = 0.7), and the hedonic network. In addition, we report a marked global increase in inter-regional covariance of MOR availability in schizophrenia, largely due to increased cortical-subcortical covariance.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Receptores Opioides mu/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioisótopos de Carbono , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Traçadores Radioativos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1155-1158, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657314

RESUMO

The utility of opioid-sparing multimodal analgesia protocols (OSMMAPs) in opioid-tolerant (OT) patients is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of a standardized OSMMAP in OT versus opioid-naïve (ON) patients after major colorectal surgery. Consecutive patients undergoing surgery before (January 2015-March 2017) and after OSMMAP implementation (April 2017-March 2018) were identified from a single-institution prospective colorectal surgery registry. OT was defined by the presence of an opioid on the preadmission medication record. Opioid use (measured in oral morphine equivalents (OMEs)) and surgical outcomes were compared between OT and ON patients pre- and post-OSMMAP. The study cohort of 201 patients included 59 OT patients (25 pre- and 34 post-OSMMAP) and 142 ON controls (34 pre- and 108 post-OSMMAP). The median age was 47.5 years (IQR 32), and 50% were male. 185 patients (92%) had a laparoscopic/robotic resection and 16 (8%) open. There were statistically significant reductions in OME required post-OSMMAP on each postoperative day (days 1 to 4) and cumulative OME for both OT and ON patients. The reduction in opioid requirements was significantly larger in OT than ON patients. We present the first study highlighting a larger opioid usage reduction in OT than in ON patients after OSMMAP implementation.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Protocolos Clínicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfina/administração & dosagem , Medicação Pré-Anestésica/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 31(9): 265-271, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this secondary analysis of the PACIFY randomized trial, we assessed whether dose and timing of fentanyl have implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ticagrelor loading during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: Among 212 patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary angiography, a total of 70 required PCI and received 180 mg oral ticagrelor. Of these, thirty-two patients received no fentanyl and 38 received fentanyl (with variability in the timing of administration and cumulative dose among those randomized to fentanyl, given that both were provided at the interventional cardiologist's discretion). A time-weighted cumulative fentanyl exposure variable was calculated based on total dose of fentanyl and proximity in time of fentanyl administrations to the ticagrelor load. Patients were stratified based on receiving above or below the median time-weighted cumulative dose. Outcomes included ticagrelor concentrations by mass spectrometry (24-hour area under the curve) and platelet function measured using both VerifyNow platelet reactivity units (PRU) and light-transmission aggregometry (LTA). RESULTS: Unadjusted ticagrelor 24-hour area under the curve was significantly lower across the categories of increasing fentanyl exposure (P=.02). In adjusted regression models, this difference only remained when comparing the no-fentanyl group with the time-weighted cumulative dose above the median group (P=.04). Similarly, with the no-fentanyl group as the reference, adjusted models testing 2-hour PRU and LTA values demonstrated significant differences (with less platelet inhibition for both tests) only among those with time-weighted cumulative fentanyl exposures above the median value (5.1 µg/min). CONCLUSIONS: We have previously shown that fentanyl slows absorption of oral ticagrelor, attenuating its effect on platelet inhibition. We now demonstrate this mechanism appears to be dose- and time-dependent.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Ticagrelor/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Período Intraoperatório , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacocinética , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Ticagrelor/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4373, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31558719

RESUMO

MR-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an emerging technology that can accurately and transiently permeabilize the blood-brain barrier (BBB) for targeted drug delivery to the central nervous system. We conducted a single-arm, first-in-human trial to investigate the safety and feasibility of MRgFUS-induced BBB opening in eloquent primary motor cortex in four volunteers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, we show successful BBB opening using MRgFUS as demonstrated by gadolinium leakage at the target site immediately after sonication in all subjects, which normalized 24 hours later. The procedure was well-tolerated with no serious clinical, radiologic or electroencephalographic adverse events. This study demonstrates that non-invasive BBB permeabilization over the motor cortex using MRgFUS is safe, feasible, and reversible in ALS subjects. In future, MRgFUS can be coupled with promising therapeutics providing a targeted delivery platform in ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico por imagem , Barreira Hematoencefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Barreira Hematoencefálica/fisiologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
12.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 127-135, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539569

RESUMO

Carfentanil (CRF) is an extremely potent opioid capable of inducing fatal respiratory depression. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) are opioid antagonists for which the efficacy against CRF remains largely unexplored. In this study, the effects of aerosolized CRF on respiratory function were investigated using adult male CD-1 mice. Mice were exposed to 0.4 mg/m3 of CRF for 15 min using custom whole-body plethysmograph units. Minute volume (MV), respiratory frequency (f), duty cycle (DC), and tidal volume (TV) were monitored and compared to control animals exposed to aerosolized H2O. CRF exposure induced respiratory depression, characterized by a marked decrease in MV, which was sustained throughout 24 h post-exposure. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with intramuscular (i.m.) NX marginally improved MV, with slight dose-dependent effects. Analogous treatment with i.m. NTX returned MV to baseline levels, with all doses and intervention times performing similarly. Despite improvements in MV, treatment administration did not reverse changes in DC, a measure of respiratory timing. Overall, NX and NTX administration alleviated volumetric aspects of opioid-induced respiratory toxicity, while changes in respiratory timing remained unresolved throughout post-exposure observation. These sustained changes and differences in recovery between two aspects of respiratory dynamics may provide insights for further exploration into the underlying mechanism of action of opioids and opioid antagonists.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/toxicidade , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Naloxona/administração & dosagem , Naltrexona/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Analgésicos Opioides/farmacocinética , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/farmacocinética , Fentanila/toxicidade , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Pletismografia Total , Insuficiência Respiratória/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco
13.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(4): 396-402, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patient self-rating based scales such as Numerical Rating Scale, Visual Analog Scale that is used for postoperative pain assessment may be problematic in geriatric or critically ill patients with communication problems. A method capable of the assessment of pain in objective manner has been searched for years. Analgesia nociception index, which is based on electrocardiographic data reflecting parasympathetic activity, has been proposed for this. In this study we aimed to investigate the effectiveness of analgesia nociception index as a tool for acute postoperative pain assessment. Our hypothesis was that analgesia nociception index may have good correlation with Numerical Rating Scale values. METHODS: A total of 120 patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II undergoing any surgical procedure under halogenated-based anesthesia with fentanyl or remifentanil were enrolled for the study. At the 15th minute of arrival to the Postoperative Care Unit the patients' pain was rated on a 0-10 point Numerical Rating Scale. The patients' heart rate, blood pressure, and analgesia nociception index scores were simultaneously measured at that time. The correlation between analgesia nociception index, heart rate, blood pressure and Numerical Rating Scale was examined. RESULTS: The study was completed with 107 patients, of which 46 were males (43%). Mean (SD) analgesia nociception index values were significantly higher in patients with initial Numerical Rating Scale ≤ 3, compared with Numerical Rating Scale> 3 (69.1 [13.4] vs. 58.1 [12.9] respectively, p <0.001). A significant negative linear relationship (r2=-0.312, p=0.001) was observed between analgesia nociception index and Numerical Rating Scale. CONCLUSION: Analgesia nociception index measurements at postoperative period after volatile agent and opioid-based anesthesia correlate well with subjective Numerical Rating Scale scores.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/diagnóstico , Analgesia/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Dor Aguda/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): 784-791, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of labor epidural analgesia (LEA) on successful breastfeeding has been evaluated in several studies with divergent results. We hypothesized that LEA would not influence breastfeeding status 6 weeks postpartum in women who intended to breastfeed in an environment that encourages breastfeeding. METHODS: In this prospective observational cohort study, a total of 1204 women intending to breastfeed, delivering vaginally with or without LEA, were included; breastfeeding was recorded at 3 days and 6 weeks postpartum. Primary outcome was breastfeeding at 6 weeks, and the χ test was used for comparisons between women delivering with and without LEA, according to parity status and previous breastfeeding experience. Total epidural fentanyl dose and oxytocin use (yes/no) were recorded. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess factors affecting breastfeeding at 6 weeks. RESULTS: The overall breastfeeding rate at 6 weeks was 76.9%; it was significantly lower among women delivering with LEA (74.0%) compared with women delivering without LEA (83.4%; P < .001). Among 398 nulliparous women, 84.9% delivered with LEA, compared with 61.8% of multiparous women (P < .001). Multiparous women (N = 806) were more likely to breastfeed at 6 weeks (80.0% vs 70.6% nullipara; P < .001). Using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for 14 covariates including parity, and an interaction term between parity and LEA use, LEA was significantly associated with reduced breastfeeding at 6 weeks (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.90; P = .015). In a modified multivariable logistic regression where parity was replaced with previous breastfeeding experience, both as a covariate and in the interaction term, only previous breastfeeding experience was associated with increased breastfeeding at 6 weeks (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.72-5.80; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: In our mixed-parity cohort, delivering with LEA was associated with reduced likelihood of breastfeeding at 6 weeks. However, integrating women's previous breastfeeding experience, the breastfeeding rate was not different between women delivering with and without LEA among the subset of multiparous women with previous breastfeeding experience. Therefore, our findings suggest that offering lactation support to the subset of women with no previous breastfeeding experience may be a simple approach to improve breastfeeding success. This concept subscribes to the notion that women at risk for an undesired outcome be offered tailored interventions with a personalized approach.


Assuntos
Analgesia Epidural/tendências , Aleitamento Materno/tendências , Trabalho de Parto/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Analgesia Epidural/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(4): 369-376, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362883

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: One of the disadvantages of unilateral spinal anesthesia is the short duration of post-operative analgesia, which can be addressed by adding adjuvants to local anesthetics. The aim of current study was to compare the effects of adding dexmedetomidine, fentanyl, or saline to bupivacaine on the properties of unilateral spinal anesthesia in patients undergoing calf surgery. METHODS: In this double-blind clinical trial, 90 patients who underwent elective calf surgery were randomly divided into three groups. The spinal anesthetic rate in each of the three groups was 1mL bupivacaine 0.5% (5mg). In groups BD, BF and BS, 5µg of dexmedetomidine, 25µg of fentanyl and 0.5mL saline were added, respectively. The duration of the motor and sensory blocks in both limbs and the rate of pain during 24h after surgery were calculated. Hemodynamic changes were also measured during anesthesia for up to 90min. RESULTS: The duration of both of motor and sensory block was significantly longer in dependent limb in the BF (96 and 169min) and BD (92 and 166min) groups than the BS (84 and 157min) group. Visual Analog Scale was significantly lower in the two groups of BF (1.4) and BD (1.3), within 24h after surgery, than the BS (1.6) group. CONCLUSIONS: The addition of fentanyl and dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine in unilateral spinal anesthesia can increase the duration of the motor and sensory block in dependent limb and prolong the duration of postoperative pain. However, fentanyl is more effective than dexmedetomidine.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/métodos , Bupivacaína/administração & dosagem , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 302: 109896, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interpretation of postmortem fentanyl concentrations after transdermal application remains a challenge. There are indications that fentanyl shows relevant postmortem redistribution. The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of these changes and to develop recommendations for toxicological case work. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Blood specimens were collected from palliative care patients who were treated with fentanyl transdermal patches. Antemortem reference samples (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and serum specimens) were collected at stable dose rates. Postmortem femoral venous blood specimens were collected at four postmortem time-points: 2hpm (hours postmortem), 6-8hpm, 11-16hpm and approximately 24hpm. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was applied to quantify fentanyl and norfentanyl. RESULTS: Ten patients were included in the study (8 men, 2 women). Fentanyl patches with delivery rates of 12-150µg/h were applied. Antemortem fentanyl levels in EDTA samples varied between 0.19 and 4.64µg/L. At 6 to 8hpm, blood concentrations of fentanyl were already significantly (p=0.05) higher in postmortem samples compared to the paired antemortem reference. On average, the antemortem concentration (range: 0.19-4.64µg/L) increased 3-fold within 6-8hpm (range: 0.4-14.9µg/L), and 5.5-fold within 24hpm (range: 0.39-21.88µg/L). Norfentanyl concentrations increased significantly (p=0.01) within 6-8hpm, too. In half of the patients, norfentanyl concentrations were below fentanyl concentrations, antemortem as well as postmortem. CONCLUSION: Postmortem fentanyl concentrations increased quickly. As early as 6-8h after death, postmortem concentrations differ significantly from antemortem ones. Our results strongly indicate that postmortem blood concentrations of fentanyl after transdermal application should be interpreted carefully.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/sangue , Fentanila/sangue , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Adesivo Transdérmico , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácido Edético , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/análogos & derivados , Toxicologia Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(5): 446-454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433347

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: As a sole agent, ketamine acutely compromises driving ability; however, performance after coadministration with the adjuvant sedating agents dexmedetomidine or fentanyl is unclear. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Using a randomized within-subject design, 39 participants (mean ± SD age, 28.4 ± 5.8 years) received 0.3 mg/kg bolus followed by 0.15 mg kg h infusion of ketamine (3-hour duration), in addition to either (i) 0.7 µg kg h infusion of dexmedetomidine for 1.5 hours (n = 19; KET/DEX) or (ii) three 25 µg fentanyl injections for 1.5 hours (n = 20; KET/FENT). Whole blood drug concentrations were determined during ketamine only, at coadministration (KET/DEX or KET/FENT) and at 2 hours after treatment. Subjective effects were determined using a standardized visual analog scale. Driving performance was assessed at baseline and at posttreatment using a validated computerized driving simulator. Primary outcomes included SD of lateral position (SDLP) and steering variability (SV). FINDINGS/RESULTS: Administration of ketamine with dexmedetomidine but not fentanyl significantly increased SDLP (F1,18 = 22.60, P < 0.001) and reduced SV (F1,18 = 164.42, P < 0.001) 2 hours after treatment. These deficits were comparatively greater for the KET/DEX group than for the KET/FENT group (t37 = -5.21 [P < 0.001] and t37 = 5.22 [P < 0.001], (respectively). For the KET/DEX group, vehicle control (SV) and self-rated performance (visual analog scale), but not SDLP, was inversely associated with ketamine and norketamine blood concentrations (in nanograms per milliliter). Greater subjective effects were moderately associated with driving deficits. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: Driving simulator performance is significantly compromised after coadministration of analgesic range doses of ketamine with dexmedetomidine but not fentanyl. An extended period of supervised driver abstinence is recommended after treatment, with completion of additional assessments to evaluate home readiness.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Dexmedetomidina/administração & dosagem , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Simulação por Computador , Dexmedetomidina/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fentanila/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Ketamina/análogos & derivados , Ketamina/farmacocinética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27957, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of local analgesics for lumbar punctures (LPs) in pediatric oncology patients has not been specifically studied. AIM: To compare the efficacy of eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream to 1% lidocaine injection for LPs. METHOD: This was a retrospective observational study of all patients receiving either EMLA cream (EMLA group) or 1% lidocaine subcutaneous injection (lidocaine group) in addition to fentanyl and propofol for LPs over 18 months. Demographics, vital parameters, procedural and recovery times, propofol and fentanyl doses, and adverse events were studied. RESULTS: Two hundred ninety LPs in 49 children were studied: 148 in the EMLA group and 142 in the lidocaine group. There was no difference in demographics or preprocedural parameters between the two groups. LPs in the EMLA group were completed in a shorter time (7.5 minutes [CI 7.0-8.1] vs 9.4 minutes [CI 8.9-9.9]) with a faster recovery time (38.7 minutes [CI 36.9-40.9] vs 43.9 minutes. [CI 41.9-45.9]) as compared with the lidocaine group (P < 0.001). The EMLA group required less maintenance doses (0.54 mg/kg [CI 0.47-0.62] vs 1.14 mg/kg [CI 1.06-1.21]) and total doses (2.58 mg/kg [CI 2.42-2.75] vs 3.12 mg/kg [CI 2.95-3.29]) of propofol as compared with the lidocaine group (P < 0.0001). Adverse events in the EMLA group were less (19% vs 41%) as compared with the lidocaine group (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The addition of EMLA cream for procedural sedation for LPs in pediatric oncology patients significantly improves pain management in comparison with 1% lidocaine injection.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Combinação Lidocaína e Prilocaína/administração & dosagem , Dor Processual/prevenção & controle , Punção Espinal/efeitos adversos , Administração Cutânea , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Injeções Intravenosas , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Pomadas , Dor Processual/etiologia , Propofol/administração & dosagem
19.
Rev Bras Anestesiol ; 69(4): 342-349, 2019.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting risk is the cornerstone for deciding prophylaxis. Apfel's score does not define how long a person must be abstinent from smoking to be considered a non-smoker, and the use of intraoperative spinal opioids as a risk factor for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting is also not addressed. The aim of this study was to quantify predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting risk by an ordinal smoking status and the use of intraoperative opioids (systemic or neuraxial), and to develop a new predictive model. METHODS: Patients scheduled for cancer surgery were prospectively evaluated for predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 24h after surgery. RESULTS: Of 2014 initially included patients, 185 participants were excluded. Smoking status classification was associated with predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting incidence rates of 14.1%, 18.1%, 24.7%, 29.4% and 33.9% for smokers, patients who stopped smoking up to 1 month prior to surgery, one to 6 months prior, more than 6 months prior or patients who never smoked, respectively, which was significant in the multiple comparisons analysis (adjusted p=0.015). The multiple comparisons-adjusted hypothesis tests for association with predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting for sex, age, previous predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting, chemotherapy-induced nausea, and ordinal smoking status had p-values of <0.001. The type of surgery (p=0.04), total fentanyl consumption (p=0.04), both intraoperative and postoperative, were significant predictors. A new model was developed and showed higher discriminative power than Apfel's score (AUC 67.9% vs. 63.7%, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Smoking status showed a significant and linear impact on predicting postoperative nausea and vomiting incidence, and we developed a new model that uses unambiguous smoking and opioid predictors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Modelos Teóricos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Náusea e Vômito Pós-Operatórios/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia
20.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 58(4): 536-540, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anesthesia for assisted reproductive technology is very important to provide less stressful and painful environment for patients, with minimal side effects on oocytes. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate hemodynamic parameters, recovery time and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcome among patients underwent anesthesia with fentanyl, remifentanil or alfentanil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This randomized double-blinded clinical trial was conducted in patients undergoing anesthesia for transvaginal ultrasound guided oocyte retrieval (TUGOR). Patients were randomly allocated to alfentanil (A; 15 µg/kg), fentanyl (F; 1.5 µg/kg) or remifentanil (R; 1.5 µg/kg) groups. RESULTS: Three hundred forty patients were assessed for eligibility and randomized for transvaginal oocyte retrieval following general anesthesia and 105 were lost to follow up. No statistically significant differences were noted among groups regarding basic characteristics. Although, time to respond to verbal command was significantly different among groups (A: 1.99 ± 1.64, F: 2.56 ± 1.72, R: 1.78 ± 1.34, P = 0.014). There were no significant differences among groups with respect to the first and second postoperative pain intensity, patient satisfaction, pre-induction and post-induction systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP). Terminal systolic (A: 101.61 ± 9.15, F: 105.29 ± 12.61, R: 102 ± 12.91, P = 0.01) and diastolic (A: 59.97 ± 9, F: 65.63 ± 9.13, R: 63.69 ± 11.01, P = 0.003) BP was significantly different among groups. The fertilization rate was significantly different among groups (A: 51.6%, F: 54.4%, R: 62.2%, P = 0.018). Implantation rate, biochemical and clinical pregnancy rate was similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study demonstrated that all three opioids have the same efficiency, in regards to patient satisfaction and pregnancy outcome. However, Anesthesia with alfentanil compared with fentanyl and remifentanil, seems to be inferior for TUGOR due to higher effect on fertilization rate and less hemodynamic stability. REGISTRATION NUMBER: IRCT201410258677N4.


Assuntos
Alfentanil/administração & dosagem , Anestesia Geral/métodos , Fentanila/administração & dosagem , Recuperação de Oócitos/métodos , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/métodos , Período de Recuperação da Anestesia , Anestesia Geral/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Endossonografia/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Vagina , Adulto Jovem
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