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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374768

RESUMO

To evaluate the prevalence of bloodborne infections (BBIs) and assess the incidence and selected risk factors for sharps injuries (SIs), a cross-sectional serosurvey was performed between December 2018 and October 2019 among 286 paramedics (76.5% males; mean age, 37 years) from 17 randomly selected ambulance stations in the West Pomeranian region of Poland. An ELISA system was used to detect anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV. HBV vaccination uptake was 95.6%; 7.3% (95% CI: 4.6-11.0%) paramedics were anti-HBc positive, and anti-HCV/anti-HIV seropositivity was not reported. Almost one-fourth of paramedics reported having had ≥1 SI during the preceding year (Me = 6.0, range 1-100). Most recent exposures primarily took place during an emergency procedure (76.7%), in an ambulance (45.2%), caused by hollow-bore needles (73.8%), and were not reported (50.0%). Additionally, 52.2% of paramedics reported needle recapping, and 52.6% did not use safety engineered devices (SEDs) at work. Mean knowledge score was low (2.6 ± 1.7); 3.4% had never participated in infection-control (IC) training, and those not trained were more likely to suffer a SI (odds ratio (OR) 4.64; p = 0.03). Due to frequent SIs, of which half are unreported, paramedics remain at risk of acquiring occupational BBIs. SI risk could be reduced by providing training on IC procedures, ensuring better compliance with safe work practices, and supplying more SEDs.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Ambulâncias , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia
2.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 44(4): 343-345, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762211

RESUMO

The paper introduces the background and feasibility of transforming the international standard ISO 23908:2011 Sharps injury protection-Requirements and test methods-Sharps protection features for single-use hypodermic needles, introduces catheters and needles used for blood sampling and gives a rough interpretation of the main content. Based on these analyses, the paper provides some suggestions for this product on standardization.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Humanos , Agulhas
3.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629572

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence rate of insulin injection-related needlestick injuries, links causing such injuries, and reporting of occupational exposure among nurses in the wards of general hospitals in Hunan, China. Methods: From January 2017 to March 2019, stratified cluster sampling was performed to select 4368 nurses as respondents from 54 hospitals at different levels in 14 prefectures and cities of Hunan. The current status of insulin injection-related needlestick injuries was investigated, including the high-risk links causing insulin injection-related needlestick injuries during the use of insulin syringe (pen) , time and number of needlestick injuries, infection after needlestick injuries, and reporting of needlestick injuries, and a statistical analysis was performed. Continuous data were described as mean±standard deviation, and categorical data were described by percentage (%) . Results: Among the 3697 nurses who were investigated, 1419 (38.4%) once had needlestick injuries related to insulin injection, among whom 413 (29.1%) had needlestick injuries in the past 1 year. The mean number of insulin injection-related needle stick injuries was 1.92±1.80, with a mean number of 0.57±1.18 caused by insulin syringe, 1.30±1.15 caused by the anterior segment of insulin pen, and 0.32±0.81 caused by the posterior end of insulin pen. Among the 1419 nurses with a history of needlestick injuries, 90 (6.3%) had related infection, mainly HBV infection, and after the occurrence of needlestick injuries, 26.0% (369/1419) of these nurses reported it every time and 15.2% (215/1419) never reported it. "Fear of trouble" was the main reason for no reporting (69.1%, 980/1419) , followed by "the thought of no risk" (43.2%, 613/1419) and "no related policy in hospital" (10.9%, 154/1419) ". Among these 1419 nurses, 49.8% (706/1419) were treated according to the standard process for needlestick injuries in hospital every time, and 3.6% (51/1419) did not know such process or there was no such standard process. Conclusion: The current situation of insulin injection-related needlestick injuries is not optimistic among clinical nurses in Hunan, and the incidence rate of needlestick injuries cannot be ignored.


Assuntos
Insulina/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32536071

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the occupational exposure with blood-borne pathogens of medical staff, and explore the protective strategy. Methods: Using cluster sampling method, 603 medical staff with occupational exposure with blood-borne pathogens were analyzed, from July 2014 to July 2018 in a tertiary hospital. Results: In total of 603 occupational exposure incidents, 70.98% (428/603) were freshmen younger than 30 years old. 48.92% (295/603) nurses. The most cases of occupational exposure were in surgery (35.16%, 212/603) . Sharp injury was the major contact manner (86.90%, 524/603) . Hands were the main contact parts (90.38%, 545/603) . Ward (53.57%, 323/603) and the operating room (22.72%, 137/603) were the high-risk place. The most dangerous actions were needle injection (34.83%, 210/603) , surgery (20.89%, 126/603) and finishing/cleaning items (19.73%, 119/603) . The main items lead to injuries were scalp needles (34.73%, 182/524) . The most exposure source was hepatitis B virus (HBV) which occupied 39.30% (237/603) . Exposure source mainly comes from medical devices containing blood (81.92%, 494/603) . To compared the groups (χ(2)=19.940, P<0.01) and titer (t=-8.592, P<0.01) of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) before and after used prophylactics, the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Comprehensive strategies of occupational exposure protection education, operation norms and monitoring management were effective methods to reduce the occupational exposure in the medical staff with blood-borne pathogens.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Corpo Clínico , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Exposição Ocupacional , Adulto , Mãos , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555636

RESUMO

Increasing intensification in swine production has led to new and specialized technologies, but the occupational health and safety impacts are rarely quantified in the business plans for adoption. Needle-less injection has potential to increase productivity and eliminate needle stick injury in workers, but it is not clear whether these benefits offset high capital investment and potential increases in musculoskeletal loads. This economic evaluation employed probabilistic scenario analysis using injury, cost, and production data gathered from interviews with swine producers in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. After adoption of needle-less injection, rates of needle-stick injury went down with no measureable effect on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, resulting in lower health and safety costs for needle-less injectors. Needle-less injection duration was 40% faster once workers acclimatized, but large start-up costs mean economic benefits are realized only after the first year. The incremental benefit cost ratio promoted adoption of needle-less injectors over conventional needles for the base case of a 1200 sow barn; the conventional method is beneficial for barns with 600 sows or less. Findings indicate that well-designed technologies have the potential to achieve the dual ergonomics goals of enhancing human wellbeing and system performance. We anticipate that the economic and decision models developed in this study can be applied to other new technologies in agriculture and animal production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Injeções a Jato/veterinária , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Injeções a Jato/economia , Manitoba , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Saskatchewan , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia
6.
J Surg Res ; 255: 66-70, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood-borne pathogen exposures (BBPEs) pose a risk to health care workers (HCWs). Needlestick injuries (NSIs) have declined overall, but not for surgical HCWs. There are limited data regarding BBPEs among medical students (MSs) in their clinical years. We aimed to quantify this risk for third- and fourth-year MSs. METHODS: A literature review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. The PUBMED database was searched to identify studies of third- and fourth-year MSs using the terms BBPE, NSI, and MS. Studies of other HCWs were excluded if MS data were not extractable. Additional studies were identified from references. Descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: Seven of 171 articles published from 2002 to 2018 met study criteria. All used self-reported data from surveys/questionnaires. One-third of MSs reported BBPEs (n = 194/600, 32.3%) with a mean of 1 in 3.09 and a median of 1 in 3.53 (range: 1 in 1.9-8.3 students). Most events were NSIs (144/194, 74%) with a mean of 1 NSI per 4.05 MSs and median of 1 in 4.625 (range: 1 in 2.47-10.71). The remaining BBPEs reported included blood and bodily fluid splashes (n = 37, 19%), other mucocutaneous exposures (n = 7, 3.6%), and uncategorized injuries (n = 2, 1%). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of senior MSs reported BBPEs during clinical rotations. Most BBPEs were NSIs. Quantifying this risk allows for anticipatory education and protocol development to protect students and other new HCWs. Educational efforts focused on NSI prevention before and during clinical rotations may help reduce BBPEs.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/microbiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Precauções Universais
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 451, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rivers State is among the states with high HIV prevalence in Nigeria. Occupational exposure to HIV through blood or body fluids of HIV/AIDS patients is a recognised risk factor of HIV infections among healthcare workers. We identified the determinants of occupational exposures to HIV among healthcare workers in Prevention of Maternal to Child Transmission (PMTCT) sites within Port Harcourt metropolis in Rivers State. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted and multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 341 healthcare providers from 22 public and 22 private health facilities in PMTCT sites in Port Harcourt metropolis. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression models (p-value = 0.05). RESULTS: Respondents' mean age was 35.9 ± SD8.4 years, 270 (80.1%) and 171(50.7%) were females, and from public health facilities respectively. Prevalence of occupational exposure of healthcare workers to HIV in the past 12 months was 153 (45.0%), and 96 (63.3%) experienced such exposure more than once. Contacts with potentially infectious body fluid accounted for the largest proportion 51 (33.3%); followed by needle stick prick 49 (32.6%). About 189 (56.1%) had safety information at their disposal and this serves as a reminder on safety precautions. The likelihood of occupational exposure was significantly higher among doctors (AOR = 2.22, 95% C.I = 1.16-4.25,) but lower among environmental health workers (AOR = 0.10, 95% C.I = 0.02-0.46,) than nurses/midwives when other factors were included in the model. CONCLUSION: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids remains a frequent occurrence among healthcare workers; highest among doctors in PMTCT sites in the study area. Provision of protective safety materials, training and enforcement of adherence to universal precaution strategies are highly recommended.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Líquidos Corporais/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/virologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Precauções Universais
8.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 32(2): 238-239, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275014

RESUMO

The infection of blood-borne diseases in medical workers mainly caused by ampule bottles, injection needles, infusion needles, surgical blades and all kinds of medical sharp instruments. Standardize the usage of sharp collection box can effectively prevent sharp injury. However, it has been found some shortcomings in practice and the varieties are few and specifications are unitary. Therefore, the medical workers of general surgery department of Subei People's Hospital in Jiangsu Province designed a new type of sharp collection box, which is convenient to collect sharps and prevent stabs. It is safe and reliable. The product is a hard container, which composes of box body, funnel input port and collection box. The box body is used to hold sharps, and its upper part is a funnel-shaped sharps input port. In order to reduce the possibility of stab and recycle the dropped sharps, we designed a flanging around the funnel input port, which can prevent the sharps from falling. In addition, a transparent observation port is arranged at 3/4 of the sharps box volume, which can facilitate the timely disposure of sharps. Compared with the traditional sharps box, the new funnel sharps collection box can safely collect various medical sharps and reduce the stab probability and occupational exposure risk of medical personnel.


Assuntos
Agulhas , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Eliminação de Resíduos
9.
Work ; 65(3): 635-645, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick injuries among healthcare professionals continue to be an occupational hazard, frequently and incorrectly regarded as low-risk, and exacerbated by underreporting. We aimed to investigate rates of needlestick injury, reasons for underreporting, and how explicit announcements that patients are "high-risk" (i.e., human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis, or intravenous drug abuse history) might affect the actions of those at risk of sustaining an injury. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered to medical students (MS), nursing students (NS), and residents. RESULTS: 30/224 (13%) of MS, 6/65 (9%) of NS, and 67/126 (53%) of residents experienced needlestick injuries. 37% of MS, 33% of NS, and 46% of residents attributed "lack of concentration" as cause of injury. Residents had the lowest percentage of underreporting (33%), with rates of 40% and 83% among MS and NS, respectively. Top reasons for non-reporting included the injury being perceived as "trivial" (22%) and patient being "low-risk" (18%). A majority stated pre-operative "high-risk" announcements should be required (91%), and would promote "culture of safety" (82%), reporting of injuries (85%), and increased concentration during procedures (70%). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend routine announcements during pre-operative time-out and nursing/resident hand-offs that state a patient is "high-risk" if applicable. We hypothesize such policy will promote a "culture of safety," situational awareness, and incident reporting.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Estudos Transversais , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite , Humanos , Incidência , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 20(1): e54-e62, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190370

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the proportion of needle stick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) among healthcare workers at King Hussein Medical Center (KHMC), Amman, Jordan. Methods: All NSSI reports referred from departments at KHMC to the Preventive Medicine Department between 2013-2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Proportion of NSSIs were calculated and stratified according to age, gender, job title, place and site of injury and the procedure/task during which the injury occurred. Results: There were a total of 393 NSSIs. A significant association was found between the proportion of NSSIs and all tested variables (P <0.001). The reported proportion of NSSIs was highest among nurses (39.7%) followed by cleaners (36.3%), physicians (10.4%), other workers (7.4%) and lab technicians (5.9%) during the study's six-year period. Hospital wards were the most common locations (46.1%) where injuries took place. Injuries also occurred most frequently during medical waste collection (38.2%). Conclusion: The proportion of NSSIs was highest among nurses and cleaners. Safety policies and training among high-risk groups should be reviewed to reduce the risk of NSSIs. Multicentre studies at a national level should be conducted to examine whether this study's findings reflect national trends.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/etiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) experienced by physicians have been identified as a major occupational hazard. Blood-borne pathogens resulting from the NSIs experienced by physicians pose severe physical and psychological threats to them, as well as people who are around them. However, there is little research focusing on physicians' behaviours to prevent NSIs. In the present study, we investigated the roles of safety climate, job demands experienced by physicians, and physicians' self-efficacy in affecting physicians' behaviours to prevent NSIs. METHODS: 401 physicians from four teaching hospitals in Northern Taiwan were recruited to participate in an anonymous survey. Among them, 189 physicians returned the completed survey with a response rate of 47.1%. RESULTS: Overall, respondents reported frequently engaging in NSI prevention behaviours. As expected, safety climate in hospitals and physicians' self-efficacy to prevent NSIs were significantly related to their behaviours to prevent NSIs (r = 0.22 and r = 0.33, respectively). The moderating analysis also revealed that physicians with high self-efficacy tended to engage in NSI prevention behaviours regardless of levels of job demand they experienced. In contrast to our expectation, however, physicians with low self-efficacy engaged in more NSI prevention behaviours when job demands were high than when the demands were low. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the important roles safety climate, job demands and self-efficacy play in shaping physicians' NSI prevention behaviours. Hospitals may consider improving safety climate via strengthening management commitments to NSIs prevention, reducing job demands by training physicians to proactively redesign their own jobs, and increasing physicians' self-efficacy via well-designed skill-based training.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Médicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(2): 715-727, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022211

RESUMO

This was a cross-sectional study to start a cohort in two University Hospitals of two countries - Brazil and Colombia - for assessing the prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSI), the level of compliance with standard precautions (SPs), and knowledge on blood borne pathogens and associated factors among health students and professionals, within the framework of the implementation of the NR-32 standard. We created compliance scales based on 12 and 10 questions, for assessing knowledge. We used the Multinomial Poisson-Tweedie Regression to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and compliance with SPs within NSI. We evaluated 965 individuals (348 students and 614 professionals). The mean score points for level of knowledge was 10.98, with a median of 11 (10; 12) and α-Cr of 0,625. Compliance with SP had a mean of 30.74 and median of 31 (28; 34), with a α-Cr coefficient of 0.745, associated with country, group (student) and risk perception. Among the factors associated with the report of NSI, we singled out knowledge and compliance, country of origin, and full vaccination scheme against the Hepatitis B virus. We concluded that the level of knowledge and compliance were adequate among participants, but better among Brazilian participants, and it was associated with NSI reporting.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062892

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status of blood-borne occupational exposure and protection among health care workers (HCWs) in dental practice, and provide evidence for making effective prevention. Methods: From April 1 to 15, 2019, a stratified random sampling method was conducted to investigate the data of blood-borne occupational exposure among 221 dental HCWs in 2018, and Chi-squared Test was used to evaluate the differences of status on occupational exposure and protection among different professionals, such as nurses, doctors and trainees, and among different-grade hospitals. Results: A total of 166 HCWs were exposed to occupational exposure 269 times, with the annual incidence of 75.11% (166/221) , and 37.55% (101/269) of exposures were reported. However, all source patients of exposures had failed to be traced. 89.59% (241/269) of exposures were sharp injuries. The top three instruments caused injuries were syringe/bilan needles, suture needles and vehicle needles, accounting for 35.68% (86/241) 、16.60% (40/241) and 16.18% (39/241) , respectively; and the top three exposure operations were removal/disposal of needles or instruments, suture/assisting suture and injection of anesthetic, accounting for 37.17% (100/269) 、22.30% (60/269) and 17.84% (48/269) , respectively. There were statistically significant differences among different professionals in occupational exposure frequency, reporting rate, the types of instruments caused injuries, exposure operations and hepatitis B vaccinated time (P<0.01) . The compliance rate of standard precautions, safe operation, post-exposure reporting and prevention, and training on occupational protection were generally poor among HCWs, with significant differences in different-grade hospitals (P<0.01) . Conclusion: There is a high incidence, low reporting rate and poor self-protection of blood-borne occupational exposure among dental HCWs. Strongly suggesting that standard precautions, safe use and disposal of oral instruments, active post-exposure report and prevention must be improved for everyone.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional
15.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(2): 715-727, Feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055837

RESUMO

Resumo Fizemos estudo transversal para iniciar coorte em dois Hospitais Universitários de dois países - Brasil e Colômbia - para avaliar a prevalência de acidentes com material biológico (AT-MB), o nível de adesão às Precauções Padrão (PP) e o conhecimento sobre patógenos transmissíveis pelo sangue e fatores associados entre trabalhadores e estudantes da saúde, no marco da implementação da norma NR-32. Criamos escalas para estimar conhecimento e adesão baseadas em 12 e 11 perguntas respectivamente. Utilizamos Regressão de Poisson-Tweedie para avaliar a associação do conhecimento e da adesão às PP com sofrer AT-MB. Avaliamos 965 indivíduos (348 estudantes e 617 profissionais). O conhecimento teve média de 10,98 com mediana de 11 (10, 12) e α-Cr de 0,625. A média de adesão foi de 30,74 com mediana de 31 (28, 34) e α-Cr de 0,745, associando-se a País, grupo (estudantes) e percepção de risco. Entre os fatores associadas ao relato de AT-MB encontraram-se o conhecimento, a adesão às PP, País de origem e ter tomado o esquema completo de vacinação contra Hepatites B. Concluímos que o nível de conhecimento e adesão foram adequados, ainda melhores entre os participantes do Brasil e associaram-se ao relato AT-MB.


Abstract This was a cross-sectional study to start a cohort in two University Hospitals of two countries - Brazil and Colombia - for assessing the prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSI), the level of compliance with standard precautions (SPs), and knowledge on blood borne pathogens and associated factors among health students and professionals, within the framework of the implementation of the NR-32 standard. We created compliance scales based on 12 and 10 questions, for assessing knowledge. We used the Multinomial Poisson-Tweedie Regression to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and compliance with SPs within NSI. We evaluated 965 individuals (348 students and 614 professionals). The mean score points for level of knowledge was 10.98, with a median of 11 (10; 12) and α-Cr of 0,625. Compliance with SP had a mean of 30.74 and median of 31 (28; 34), with a α-Cr coefficient of 0.745, associated with country, group (student) and risk perception. Among the factors associated with the report of NSI, we singled out knowledge and compliance, country of origin, and full vaccination scheme against the Hepatitis B virus. We concluded that the level of knowledge and compliance were adequate among participants, but better among Brazilian participants, and it was associated with NSI reporting.


Resumen Hicimos estudio transversal como punto de partida de estudio de cohorte en dos Hospitales Universitarios en dos países - Brasil y Colombia - para evaluar la prevalencia de accidentes con material biológico (AT-MB), el nivel de adhesión a las Precauciones Estándares (PUs) y el conocimiento sobre patógenos transmisibles y factores asociados entre trabajadores y estudiantes de la Salud en el marco de la implementación de la norma NR-32. Creamos escalas para evaluar el conocimiento y la adhesión con base en 12 e 11 preguntas respectivamente. Utilizamos Regresión de Poisson-Tweedie para evaluar asociación entre el conocimiento y la adhesión a las PUs con sufrir AT-MB. Evaluamos 965 individuos (348 estudiantes e 617 profesionales). El puntaje medio de conocimiento fue 10,98 con mediana de 11 (10, 12) y α-Cr de 0,625. La media de adhesión fue de 30,74 con mediana de 31 (28, 34) e α-Cr de 0,745, asociándose a país, grupo (estudiantes) e percepción de riesgo. Entre los factores asociados al relato de AT-MB encontramos conocimiento, adhesión a las PUs, país de origen y tener el esquema completo de vacunación contra Virus da Hepatitis B. Concluimos que el nivel de conocimiento y adhesión fueron adecuados, aunque mejores entre los participantes del Brasil y se asociaron a los AT-MB.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Estudos de Coortes , Colômbia , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais Universitários , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(1): 67-78, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950206

RESUMO

Injuries of healthcare workers with sharp instruments are considered among the most frequent occupational accidents in hospitals. In at least half of the cases, the instruments are contaminated with blood and therefore bear an infection risk with bloodborne pathogens, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Needlestick injuries require besides immediate medical intervention, such as rinsing and disinfection of the wound or skin contamination, a prompt clarification of the immune status and if necessary a postexposure prophylaxis. Furthermore, follow-up examinations are required for up to 6 months after the accident. Information about the infectious state of the index person considerably facilitates the procedure. All healthcare workers should know the management of needlestick injuries. Preventive measures refer to the reduction of the number of needlestick injuries by improving work organization and usage of needle devices with safety features as well as to the reduction of infection risk by hepatitis B vaccination and wearing safety gloves.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha , Exposição Ocupacional , Acidentes de Trabalho , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite C/prevenção & controle , Hepatite C/transmissão , Humanos
17.
J Educ Eval Health Prof ; 17: 1, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Senior nursing and medical interns' lack of familiarity and confidence with respect to practicing universal precaution for the prevention of occupational needle stick (NSI)/sharp (SI) injuries may harm themselves. Trainees' self-reported NSI/SI rate was known to be especially high during the first two months of internship in Taiwan. This prospective cohort study aimed to know the effect of new developed (virtual reality (VR) game, which uses the Gangne's learning model to improved universal precaution for NSI/SI prevention and decrease the rates of needle stick/sharp injuries in new-coming medical and nursing interns in Taiwan. . METHODS: From 2017 to 2019, the VR system was developed and applied in training of 59 new-coming nursing and 50 medical interns. Occupational NSI/SI prevention was sought to be achieved through a game of right and wrong choices for safe or unsafe universal precaution behaviors. RESULTS: In comparison with medical interns, a higher proportion of nursing interns have had the past experiences of deep occupational NSI/SI. Before VR training, the familiarity and confidence for NSI/SI prevention were higher among nursing interns than medical interns. Trainees with past experiences of deep NSI/SI exhibited better performance on the accuracy rate and time need for complete 20 decisions than those without past experiences in VR practice. The performances of all trainees were improved after VR training. A high proportion of trainees reported that the VR-based training significantly decreased their anxiety about NSI/SI prevention. CONCLUSION: This self-developed VR game system using Gangne's flow improved universal precaution for NSI/SI prevention and reduced the NSI/SI rates in the first two months of nursing and medical internship.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Internato e Residência/métodos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Realidade Virtual , Educação em Enfermagem/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina , Estudantes de Enfermagem
18.
Australas Emerg Care ; 23(1): 23-28, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of a range of safety policies and sharps equipment designed to protect healthcare workers, rates of percutaneous injuries from occupational exposure to sharps remains high. This study examined the availability and use of various types of sharps devices in a tertiary hospital emergency department, to understand clinician choice between non-safety and safety devices; and to document their safe and unsafe use of sharps. METHODS: This mixed methods study consisted of areview of stock levels, a survey of staff usage, and a content analysis of semi-structured interview data to explore factors which impact on staff preferences for different sharps devices. RESULTS: Staff identified a range of sharps risks, as well as barriers and enablers to the use of safety devices. Availability of, and preference for, familiar devices influenced choice of devices used in clinical practice, despite awareness of associated risks. CONCLUSIONS: This understanding of equipment use and the factors that motivate such use have informed the first stage of the knowledge-to-action cycle. Knowledge translation, should include the development of policies to help reduce the risk of sharps injury. Culture change and ongoing skills development might help to overcome entrenched procedures and increase voluntary engagement with safer sharps.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Queensland/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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