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1.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233599, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555636

RESUMO

Increasing intensification in swine production has led to new and specialized technologies, but the occupational health and safety impacts are rarely quantified in the business plans for adoption. Needle-less injection has potential to increase productivity and eliminate needle stick injury in workers, but it is not clear whether these benefits offset high capital investment and potential increases in musculoskeletal loads. This economic evaluation employed probabilistic scenario analysis using injury, cost, and production data gathered from interviews with swine producers in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. After adoption of needle-less injection, rates of needle-stick injury went down with no measureable effect on upper limb musculoskeletal disorders, resulting in lower health and safety costs for needle-less injectors. Needle-less injection duration was 40% faster once workers acclimatized, but large start-up costs mean economic benefits are realized only after the first year. The incremental benefit cost ratio promoted adoption of needle-less injectors over conventional needles for the base case of a 1200 sow barn; the conventional method is beneficial for barns with 600 sows or less. Findings indicate that well-designed technologies have the potential to achieve the dual ergonomics goals of enhancing human wellbeing and system performance. We anticipate that the economic and decision models developed in this study can be applied to other new technologies in agriculture and animal production.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Injeções a Jato/veterinária , Saúde do Trabalhador/economia , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Eficiência Organizacional , Humanos , Injeções a Jato/economia , Manitoba , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/economia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Saskatchewan , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/economia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229853, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) experienced by physicians have been identified as a major occupational hazard. Blood-borne pathogens resulting from the NSIs experienced by physicians pose severe physical and psychological threats to them, as well as people who are around them. However, there is little research focusing on physicians' behaviours to prevent NSIs. In the present study, we investigated the roles of safety climate, job demands experienced by physicians, and physicians' self-efficacy in affecting physicians' behaviours to prevent NSIs. METHODS: 401 physicians from four teaching hospitals in Northern Taiwan were recruited to participate in an anonymous survey. Among them, 189 physicians returned the completed survey with a response rate of 47.1%. RESULTS: Overall, respondents reported frequently engaging in NSI prevention behaviours. As expected, safety climate in hospitals and physicians' self-efficacy to prevent NSIs were significantly related to their behaviours to prevent NSIs (r = 0.22 and r = 0.33, respectively). The moderating analysis also revealed that physicians with high self-efficacy tended to engage in NSI prevention behaviours regardless of levels of job demand they experienced. In contrast to our expectation, however, physicians with low self-efficacy engaged in more NSI prevention behaviours when job demands were high than when the demands were low. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the important roles safety climate, job demands and self-efficacy play in shaping physicians' NSI prevention behaviours. Hospitals may consider improving safety climate via strengthening management commitments to NSIs prevention, reducing job demands by training physicians to proactively redesign their own jobs, and increasing physicians' self-efficacy via well-designed skill-based training.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Médicos/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan/epidemiologia
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062892

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the status of blood-borne occupational exposure and protection among health care workers (HCWs) in dental practice, and provide evidence for making effective prevention. Methods: From April 1 to 15, 2019, a stratified random sampling method was conducted to investigate the data of blood-borne occupational exposure among 221 dental HCWs in 2018, and Chi-squared Test was used to evaluate the differences of status on occupational exposure and protection among different professionals, such as nurses, doctors and trainees, and among different-grade hospitals. Results: A total of 166 HCWs were exposed to occupational exposure 269 times, with the annual incidence of 75.11% (166/221) , and 37.55% (101/269) of exposures were reported. However, all source patients of exposures had failed to be traced. 89.59% (241/269) of exposures were sharp injuries. The top three instruments caused injuries were syringe/bilan needles, suture needles and vehicle needles, accounting for 35.68% (86/241) 、16.60% (40/241) and 16.18% (39/241) , respectively; and the top three exposure operations were removal/disposal of needles or instruments, suture/assisting suture and injection of anesthetic, accounting for 37.17% (100/269) 、22.30% (60/269) and 17.84% (48/269) , respectively. There were statistically significant differences among different professionals in occupational exposure frequency, reporting rate, the types of instruments caused injuries, exposure operations and hepatitis B vaccinated time (P<0.01) . The compliance rate of standard precautions, safe operation, post-exposure reporting and prevention, and training on occupational protection were generally poor among HCWs, with significant differences in different-grade hospitals (P<0.01) . Conclusion: There is a high incidence, low reporting rate and poor self-protection of blood-borne occupational exposure among dental HCWs. Strongly suggesting that standard precautions, safe use and disposal of oral instruments, active post-exposure report and prevention must be improved for everyone.


Assuntos
Recursos Humanos em Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Odontólogos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional
5.
Australas Emerg Care ; 23(1): 23-28, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of a range of safety policies and sharps equipment designed to protect healthcare workers, rates of percutaneous injuries from occupational exposure to sharps remains high. This study examined the availability and use of various types of sharps devices in a tertiary hospital emergency department, to understand clinician choice between non-safety and safety devices; and to document their safe and unsafe use of sharps. METHODS: This mixed methods study consisted of areview of stock levels, a survey of staff usage, and a content analysis of semi-structured interview data to explore factors which impact on staff preferences for different sharps devices. RESULTS: Staff identified a range of sharps risks, as well as barriers and enablers to the use of safety devices. Availability of, and preference for, familiar devices influenced choice of devices used in clinical practice, despite awareness of associated risks. CONCLUSIONS: This understanding of equipment use and the factors that motivate such use have informed the first stage of the knowledge-to-action cycle. Knowledge translation, should include the development of policies to help reduce the risk of sharps injury. Culture change and ongoing skills development might help to overcome entrenched procedures and increase voluntary engagement with safer sharps.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Vidro , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agulhas/efeitos adversos , Agulhas/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Queensland/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224142, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick injury (NSI) is one of the most burdensome professional hazards in any medical setting; it can lead to transmission of fatal infectious diseases, such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus. In the United States, the annual cost burden was estimated as somewhere between $118 million to $591 million; in the United Kingdom it is approximated to be £500,000 (US$919,117.65) per the National Health Service. METHOD: This is the first published paper on the national cost burden of NSIs in Japan. A systematic literature review was conducted to review previous study design in global studies and to extract parameter values from Japanese studies. We conducted abstract searches through PubMed and the Japan Medical Abstracts Society (Ichushi), together with grey literature and snowball searches. A simple economic model was developed to calculate cost burden of NSIs from a societal perspective over a one-year time horizon. We assumed all NSIs are reported and perfect adherence in post NSI management that presented in the labour compensation scheme. Local guidelines were also referenced to extract resource utilization. Lastly, a deterministic sensitivity analysis was conducted and a scenario analysis which considered a payer perspective was also included. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: The national cost burden of in-hospital NSIs is estimated as ¥33.4 billion (US$302 million) annually, based on an average cost per NSI of ¥63,711 (US$577) and number of NSIs at 525,000/year. 70% of the cost is due to initial laboratory tests, followed by productivity loss, estimated at 20% of the total cost. Cost of contaminated NSIs remains at 5% of the total cost. Change in number of NSIs significantly influences outcomes. Variation in post-exposure management practices suggests a need for NSI specific National guidelines and holistic labour compensation scheme development in Japan.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/métodos , Medicina Estatal/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , HIV/patogenicidade , Hepacivirus/patogenicidade , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/virologia
7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 654, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Accidental occupational injuries to health care workers (HCWs) continue to have a significant problem in the healthcare system. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess prevalence of needle sticks and sharp injury and associated factors among health care workers working in Central Zone Tigray northern Ethiopia. RESULT: The prevalence of needle stick and sharp injury in the past 12 months preceding the study and entire job were 25.9% and 38.5% respectively. Nearly one-third (31%) of the injuries occurred in emergency unit and 122 (71.3%) of the materials caused injury were used on patients. Practice of needle recap, ever used cigarette in last 12 months, training, work hours > 40 per week, job dissatisfaction and work experience less than 5 years were found factors significantly associated with needle stick and sharp injury for health care workers. The magnitude of Needle stick and sharp injury is high in the study area. Policy makers should formulate strategies to improve the working condition for healthcare workers and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 60, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental personnel are subject to exposure to a number of occupational factors including needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs). Our study aims to address knowledge gaps on prevalence and associated factors for needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) for the first time in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 450 dental assistants recruited from 40 randomly selected private clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Data on demographic characteristics, history of NSIs, nature of work, compliance with infection control protocols, and knowledge of infection control procedures and disease transmission were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess factors associated with NSIs; unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. RESULTS: About three in ten dental assistants experienced at least one NSI (29.8%, 95% CI 25.6-34.2%) in private dental clinics. Lack of adequate knowledge of infection control procedures and disease transmission, non-compliance with infection control protocol of vaccination against hepatitis B virus, and attending 12 or less number of patients daily were significantly associated with increased risk of NSIs (p ≤ 0.05); adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.87 (1.18-2.97), 1.89 (1.05-3.41), and 1.63 (1.03-2.56), respectively. In addition, dental assistants working in 45.8% of dental clinics that had no infection control unit were positively associated with higher NSI risk (aOR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.45-3.57). CONCLUSION: Our study reported the prevalent nature of NSIs among dental assistants in Saudi Arabia and identified key factors that could be targeted to mitigate this preventable condition. Dental assistants would benefit from proper training on infection control protocols and procedures.


Assuntos
Assistentes de Odontologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 563, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Workplace health and safety is vital in every organization particularly in the healthcare settings. The aim was to assess the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practices of the healthcare professionals towards safety at Gondar University referral hospital. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June 2018. Proportional random sampling technique was used to include 282 study participants and data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 20. RESULTS: Among 282 study participants, 230 (81.6%), 181 (64.2%), and 162 (57.4%) had adequate knowledge, favorable attitude, and adequate practice scores, respectively. More than half (55.3%) of the study participants were untrained. There was a high (26.6%) prevalence of needlestick injury; however, the use of post-exposure prophylaxis after potential exposures was very limited. Generally, the levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores among the study participants were low. Therefore, there should be adequate and consistent supply of personal protective devices and other materials used for infection prevention and control. In addition, there should be awareness raising mechanism, including the provision of job aids and periodic training. Further, comprehensive studies should be conducted by including different types and levels of health facilities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários , Infecções/diagnóstico , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/diagnóstico , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(10): 739-745, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers, in the course of their professional activity, are potentially exposed to chemical, physical and above all biological risks. The aims of our study were to investigate the extent and distribution of needle-stick and sharp injuries (NSIs) in healthcare students, the behaviours and circumstances most frequently associated with NSIs, the frequency of NSI reporting and the adherence to the post-exposure protocols. METHODS: This study involved, through an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, undergraduate and postgraduate students attending postgraduate medical schools and healthcare professional schools who underwent occupational health visits between January 2015 and July 2018. RESULTS: Of the 642 students that participated in the study, 95 (14.8%) sustained an NSI during the traineeship and, of these, 59 (62.1%) reported the NSI to the occupational health service. NSIs were significantly more frequent in older subjects (χ²=9.853, p=0.020) and, among medical residents, in surgical residents (χ²=31.260, p<0.0001); moreover, occurrence of NSIs increased with increasing duration of traineeship (t=-2.051, p=0.041). Reporting of NSIs significantly increased with increasing age (χ²=12.543, p=0.006), with medical residents significantly under-reporting NSIs compared with undergraduate healthcare professional students (χ²=10.718, p=0.001) and among medical residents, those attending critical care units had the highest under-reporting (χ²=7.323, p=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed remarkable under-reporting, as well as a lack of preparedness of students for NSI preventive and post-exposure effective measures. Our findings underline that healthcare student education should be reinforced to ensure that safe practices are carried out when needles and sharps are involved, as well as stressing the importance of NSI reporting and adherence to post-exposure prophylaxis protocols.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 52, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health facilities can provide diagnostic, curative, and prognostic services for the community. While providing services, healthcare workers can be exposed to needlestick injuries that can transmit pathogenic organisms through body fluids. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to establish the pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers in Ethiopia. METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were searched from Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus databases using a combination of keywords and Boolean functions. All the searched articles were imported into the EndNote X9 software, and then, duplicate data files were removed. Article screening and data extraction were done independently by two authors. Data manipulation and analyses were done using STATA version 15.1 software. RESULTS: The analysis of 23 full-text articles showed that the prevalence of the 12-month and lifetime needlestick injuries among the primary studies ranged from 13.2 to 55.1% and 18.6 to 63.6%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among the Ethiopian healthcare workers was 28.8% (95% CI 23.0-34.5) and 43.6% (95% CI 35.3-52.0) for the 12 months and lifetime, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled prevalence of needlestick injuries among Ethiopian healthcare workers was high. Therefore, efforts should be implemented to reduce the occurrence of injuries. Adequate protective equipment and safety-engineered devices should be supplied for the healthcare workers. It could be more effective to reduce the factors contributing to increased exposures through the allocation of adequate numbers of the healthcare workforce and implementing in-service training.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 874, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aims to identify the association between psychosocial working conditions, global stress perception, and needle-stick injury among Chinese healthcare workers. It also endeavors to detect the mediating effects of global stress perception. METHODS: A total of 1956 valid samples were collected from eight teaching hospitals in Shanghai, China. A self-reported questionnaire was administered to participants after obtaining their written consent. Structural equation model was used to analyze the relationship between study variables. RESULTS: Most of the correlation coefficients between psychosocial conditions at work, stress perception, and needle-stick injury are of statistical significance ranging from 0.004 to 0.869. Results of the internal consistency test shows that Cronbach's α is between 0.770 and 0.925. All three models for effect analysis demonstrated satisfactory global goodness and acceptable path loadings. Psychosocial working conditions and stress perception were directly associated with events of needle-stick injury, as 0.39 (95%CI: 0.32 to 0.48) and 0.32 (95%CI: 0.22 to 0.39), respectively. Furthermore, stress perception had been proved to have a mediating effect (0.25, 95%CI: 0.19 to 0.31) between psychosocial working condition and needle-stick injury, which occupied over one-third of the total effect. CONCLUSIONS: Both stressful psychosocial working conditions and negative stress perception could increase the risk of needle-stick injury that occurs among healthcare workers. Management of stress perception could reduce health risk brought by stressful psychosocial working conditions.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Occup Med (Lond) ; 69(6): 436-440, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick injuries (NSIs) are common healthcare-related injuries and possible consequences include blood-borne infections. Despite that, a large proportion of NSIs are not reported. AIMS: To estimate the prevalence of under-reporting of NSIs and to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards NSIs among junior doctors in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. METHODS: An explanatory sequential mixed-methods design was employed. Quantitative data were collected through questionnaires completed by 99 junior doctors. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed to evaluate socio-demographic characteristics, NSI history and NSI reporting practices. Qualitative data were collected through 12 in-depth interviews. Participants were purposively recruited, and semi-structured topic guides were developed. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. RESULTS: Fifty-two per cent of respondents had history of NSI. Of those with history of NSI, 31% did not report injury. NSI reporters were 1.52 times as likely to be aware of how to report injury (P < 0.05), and 1.63 times as likely to feel that reporting benefits their health (P < 0.01) compared with non-reporters. NSI reporters were 83% more likely to report a clean NSI (P = 0.05). For non-reporters, the main reasons for not reporting were perceived low risk of transmission (41%) and lack of time to report (35%). Themes identified in the qualitative data include perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived threats, cues to action and organizational culture. CONCLUSION: Under-reporting of NSIs may have significant implications for patients and healthcare workers. Addressing identified factors and instituting targeted interventions will help to improve reporting rates.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Singapura/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ann Glob Health ; 85(1)2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While all healthcare workers are exposed to occupational hazards, workers in sub-Saharan Africa have higher rates of occupational exposure to infectious diseases than workers in developed countries. Identifying prevalence and context of exposure to blood and bloodborne pathogens may help guide policies for prevention. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review examined occupational exposure rates to blood and bloodborne pathogen among healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: In November 2017, a comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies reporting exposure of health workers in African coutnries to blood and bodily fluids. Title, abstract and full text screening were used to narrow our search. Studies more than 10 years old, or published in non-English languages were excluded. FINDINGS: Fifteen studies reported a variety of exposures. The lifetime prevalence of needlestick injury ranged from 22-95%, and one-year prevalence ranged from 39-91%. Studies included a range of descriptive statistics of knowledge, attitudes, practice and access factors related to exposures. Two studies reported 21-32% of respondents linked poor knowledge or training with prevention of needlestick injuries. Rates of recapping needles ranged from 12-57% in four studies. Attitudes were generally positive toward occupational safety procedures while access was poor. CONCLUSIONS: The high burden of blood and bloodborne pathogen exposures demonstrated here indicates a high risk for contracting bloodborne illnesses. Although the data are sparse, implementation of preventative policies based on current knowledge remains critical to minimize risk and reduce exposure. There remains a pressing need for high quality data on occupational hazards to identify the burden of exposures and inform preventive policies in Sub-Saharan Africa. Additional studies are needed to determine whether differential exposures exist between professions and the associations with knowledge, attitudes, practices, and access factors to create targeted strategies to diminish occupational hazards.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , África , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Líquidos Corporais/microbiologia , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
15.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 97: 78-83, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and incidence of needlestick injuries associated with insulin injection among nurses working in hospitals in China and to quantify the direct healthcare costs associated with insulin injection-related needlestick injuries. METHODS: We conducted a large online survey among hospital nurses from 31 provinces, municipal cities, and autonomous regions in China from October 2016 to February 2017. The survey covered a wide range of questions, including geographical location, years of experience, insulin injection practice, number of insulin injection-related needlestick injuries in the past 12 months, interventions for needlestick injuries, and treatment costs. We developed a cost estimate model and categorized costs into two major components: infection prevention and treatment of infections. RESULTS: We received a total of 10,447 questionnaires, of which 9873 were complete and validated. 39.1% of the nurses reported at least one needlestick injury while administering diabetic injections at some point in the past. The incidence of needlestick injuries involving injection pens was 139.5 per 1000 nurses per year and, with adjustment for exposure, 10.2 needlestick injuries per 100,000 injections. Among the respondents, 3.2% reported of having hepatitis B virus infection and 0.9% having hepatitis C virus infection as a result of needlestick injuries. The total costs of one insulin injection-related needlestick injury was estimated to range from ¥1,884 - ¥2,389. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin injection-related needlestick injuries were common in nurses working in hospitals in China and imposed a significant economic burden. More resources should be allocated for preventive efforts for needlestick injuries, including adoption of injection devices with advanced safety features.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/economia , Prevalência
16.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 27-31, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187636

RESUMO

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are exposed to biological hazards on a daily basis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risks of infection after occupational exposure to blood or body fluids among HCWs operating in the period 2013-2014, in a university hospital of Southern Italy. The frequency of accidents during the 2-year period was always lower than 5%. In 2013, 103 cases occurred; in 2014, the number of injuries had significantly decreased (n = 60). In 2013, an anti-hepatitis B surface antigen protective titer was only found in 70% of cases; in 2014, the subjects with a positive titer rose to 82%. No HCWs showed seroconversion to the main blood-borne pathogens. The implementation of strict prevention measures after the accidents reported in 2013 allowed the significant reduction of the number of injuries in 2014.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 634, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Needlestick and sharp injuries (NSIs) are an important element of public health and should be closely monitored. On the other hand there are no precise Polish data on a number of the occupational NSIs. The aim of the study was to assess the failure to report injuries and then to estimate the actual number of NSIs among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Poland based on the collected data. METHODS: Analysis of injury registers on the basis of 252 hospitals in Poland. Conducting 487 surveys among doctors, nurses and paramedics. Calculation of rates of injuries per 1000 workers per year (with 95% confidence intervals (CI)). The level of statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: In the study period, 9775 NSIs were registered in the hospitals. Majority of the NSIs were recorded among nurses (72.6%,p < 0.01). The needle was the tool responsible for the greatest number of the NSIs in all professional groups (79.5%, p < 0.01). The average annual NSIs rates based on hospital registers were: 16.0/1000 doctors, 20.5/1000 nurses, 16.8/1000 paramedics. Every second NSIs was not reported (45.2%). We estimated that there are probably 13,567 NSIs every year among hospital care workers in Poland. CONCLUSIONS: NSIs are a significant health problem for HCWs and should be subject to epidemiological surveillance. The purpose of the training of medical personnel should be to increase the number of injuries reported. The implementation of the epidemiological surveillance system will allow for the unification of the obtained data, which would be more comparable on the national scale as well as between different countries.


Assuntos
Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 146, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Medical waste is a total waste stream which is generated from the healthcare facilities during the healthcare delivery process. It can contain potentially hazardous substances for the human being and the environment. Waste handlers play a significant role for its proper management and they need to have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practices. The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of waste handlers regarding medical waste management in Debre Markos town healthcare facilities, northwest Ethiopia. RESULTS: A total of 55 medical waste handlers were studied from 12 healthcare facilities. Among this, 25 (45.4%) were diploma and certificate holders. The majority (69.1%) of the study participants were not provided with proper training. There was a lack of personal protective devices and waste management equipment supply. Regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices, 25 (45.5%), 43 (78.2%), and 44 (80%) of the study participants had adequate knowledge, favorable attitude, and adequate practice scores, respectively. There was high (30.9%) prevalence of needlestick and sharps injuries. Healthcare facilities should provide periodic training and adequate supplies for the waste handlers. Further study should be conducted on a large scale by including different levels of health facilities and regions of the country.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde/prevenção & controle , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Adulto , Lista de Checagem , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 18, 2019 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids (BBFs) is a serious concern for health care workers (HCWs) and presents a major risk factor for transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus, and human immune deficiency virus. The main objective of this study was to assess the magnitudes of occupational exposure of blood and body fluids and associated factors among health workers at the University of Gondar Hospital. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 February to 31 May 2017 at the University of Gondar Hospital. A total of 282 health care workers were selected by simple random sampling technique. Descriptive data was presented as absolute number with percentage, and multivariate analysis was used to assess the statistical association between associated factors and occupational exposure to BBFs. A P value of < 0.05 was considered as statistical significant. RESULT: A total of 282 HCWs participated with the mean (±SD) age of 30.51 ± 5.86 year. Of the total, 58.5% (165) and 42.2% (119) of the study participants had been exposed to BBFs splash and needlestick injury (NSI) in their lifetime, respectively. However, 39.0% (110) and 20.6% (58) of the HCWs were exposed to splash and NSI in the past 1 year, respectively. Not wearing eye goggle, lack of training on infection prevention, taking of HBV vaccination, and recapping of used needle were risk factors associated with BBFs splash exposure, whereas taking HBV vaccination and recapping of used needle were associated risk factors with NSI exposure. CONCLUSION: This study showed a high percentage of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among health care workers. Not wearing eye goggle, HBV vaccine status, and recapping needles were found to be independent predictors of occupational exposure to BBFs among HCWs. Therefore, relevant stakeholders need to formulate strategies to create a favorable working environment and increase their adherence to universal precautions.


Assuntos
Líquidos Corporais , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Infez Med ; 27(1): 40-45, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882377

RESUMO

Worldwide the needlestick injuries of health care workers (HCWs) still represent a major health problem. The authors aimed to evaluate the risk of HCW needlestick injuries in a tertiary university hospital in southern Italy in relation to some HCW characteristics (age, sex, professional profile, work department) and the source of infection. All HCWs of the University Hospital "Federico II" in Naples, Italy, attending the Infectious Diseases Unit after potential accidental contact to blood-borne viruses through needlestick injuries were enrolled during a 22-year period. HCWs underwent clinical analysis and were administered a specific questionnaire to collect (in anonymous fashion) data about age, sex, professional profile and work department. From 1995 to 2016 1,477 needlestick injuries in the same number of people (one accident per person) were recorded by our service. The HCWs were predominately males (n = 806, 55%) and the mean age was 39.4 years (±10.1 SD). The job categories most involved were: physicians (41%), followed by nurses (33%) and healthcare assistants (HCAs, 10%). The incidence proportion was calculated for these highest-risk categories in three defined time points (at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the study period): 104/2149 (4.86%) in 1995, 41/2498 (1.64%) in 2005 and 25/2057 (1.22%) in 2015. Most injuries occurred in General Surgery (14.21%), Gynecology and Obstetrics (9%) and Pediatrics (6.49%). In about 34% the HCWs had been exposed to HCV infected fluids. Over time, a significant decrease in accidental exposure was recorded for physicians (p= 0.019), nurses (p< 0.0001) and HCAs (p< 0.0001). Our results confirm that some profiles, namely physicians, nurses and healthcare assistants, are still at risk of needlestick injuries, especially in surgical areas, including obstetric wards. Further primary and secondary prevention strategies are needed to decrease the incidence of new cases of needlestick injuries.


Assuntos
Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos Penetrantes Produzidos por Agulha/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Masculino , Pessoal de Laboratório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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