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1.
Estima (Online) ; 18(1): e0920, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1102131

RESUMO

Objetivos: Caracterizar a produção científica sobre a aplicação da teoria do autocuidado no âmbito das feridas. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura com os artigos disponíveis na íntegra que evidenciem a temática. Foram utilizados os seguintes recursos informacionais: BVS, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed e SciELO. Foram elencados os seguintes descritores: Autocuidado, Teoria de enfermagem, Ferida e Úlcera, em suas versões em inglês e português. A amostra final constou de 10 publicações. Os dados foram coletados utilizando um instrumento validado. A avaliação e a síntese dos dados foram produzidas através de descrição e avaliações estatísticas simples. Resultados: Os estudos analisados foram desenvolvidos em quatro países, o idioma inglês predominou e as publicações tiveram início em 2004. A teoria foi aplicada na sistematização da assistência de enfermagem como estratégia de ensino para o autocuidado e como referencial teórico. Os artigos relacionaram a teoria com pé diabético, úlcera venosa, úlceras de perna/ membros inferiores (sem especificar o tipo), queimaduras e lesão por pressão. Conclusão: A teoria de Orem foi aplicada a uma diversidade de sujeitos e contextos, sua aplicabilidade no âmbito das feridas é algo concreto, independentemente do tipo de lesão.


Assuntos
Autocuidado , Ferimentos e Lesões , Teoria de Enfermagem , Úlcera da Perna
2.
Estima (Online) ; 18(1): e1520, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1119360

RESUMO

Objetivo: Produzir e validar um manual sobre cuidados com a ferida pós-pleurostomia aberta para profissionais de saúde. Métodos:Trata-se de um relato de experiência. Inicialmente, foram selecionados artigos em português, espanhol e inglês no período de 2010 a 2018 nas bases de dados bibliográficos e sites de busca da Cochrane, SciELO, LILACS, PubMed e Google Acadêmico para o desenvolvimento do material. Foram utilizados os descritores: "toracotomia", toracostomias", "cavidade torácica", "pleura", "cavidade pleural", "ferimentos e lesões". Após consulta, o texto foi elaborado, seguido das ilustrações e a diagramação. O manuscrito concluído foi encaminhado aos especialistas para validação. O índice de validade de conteúdo (IVC) foi utilizado para validar o manual. Resultados: O manual desenvolvido possui trinta e seis páginas e sete capítulos com os seguintes temas: introdução, cuidados com a ferida pós-pleurostomia aberta, limpeza da ferida/debridamento, coberturas, registro dos cuidados, considerações finais e bibliografia. Conclusão: Foi possível desenvolver e validar um manual de cuidados com a ferida pós-pleurostomia aberta para a consulta de profissionais de saúde.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões , Toracostomia , Toracotomia , Cavidade Torácica , Cavidade Pleural
3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 56(10)2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019514

RESUMO

Background and objectives: the emergency department (ED) is frequently identified by patients as a possible solution for all healthcare problems, leading to a high rate of misuse of the ED, possibly causing overcrowding. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in China; it then spread throughout Italy, with the first cases confirmed in Lombardy, Italy, in February 2020. This has totally changed the type of patients referred to EDs. The aim of this study was to analyze the reduction of ED admissions at a Second level urban teaching (Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: in this retrospective observational cross-sectional study, we reviewed and compared clinical records of all the patients consecutively admitted to our ED over a 40-day period (21 February -31 March) in the last three years (2018-2019-2020). Mean age, sex, triage urgency level, day/night admission, main presentation symptom, and final diagnosis, according to different medical specialties, hospitalization, and discharge rate, were analyzed. Results: we analyzed 16,281 patient clinical records. The overall reduction in ED admissions in 2020 was 37.6% compared to 2019. In 2020, we observed an increase in triage urgency levels for ED admissions (the main presentation symptom was a fever). We noticed a significant drop in admissions for cardio-thoracic, gastroenterological, urological, otolaryngologic/ophthalmologic, and traumatological diseases. Acute neurological conditions registered only a slight, but significant, reduction. Oncology admissions were stable. Admissions for infectious diseases were 30% in 2020, compared to 5% and 6% in 2018 and 2019, respectively. In 2020, the hospitalization rate increased to 42.9% compared to 27.7%, and 26.4% in previous years. Conclusions: the drastic reduction of ED admissions during the pandemic may be associated with fear of the virus, suggesting that patients with serious illnesses did not go to the emergency room. Moreover, there was possible misuse of the ED in the previous year. In particular, worrisome data emerged regarding a drop in cardiology and neurology admissions. Those patients postponed medical attention, possibly with fatal consequences, just for fear of exposure to COVID-19, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Otorrinolaringopatias/epidemiologia , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças Torácicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Urológicas/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (9): 51-58, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-scar treatment with Contractubex gel in children and adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of researchers based on clinical hospitals and university medical clinics carry out the multicenter study to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-scar treatment with Contractubex gel containing cepalin, allantoin and heparin, with its early appointment in groups of children from 12 to 18 years old and adults from 21 to 35 years old. The study included data from 216 patients. Patients of both age groups were initially divided into two: the main and control ones with an equal distribution according to the type of surgical intervention (hernia repair and appendectomy), age, gender, and anamnestic data. The dynamic observation was carried out using two rating scales - filled out by a doctor (Vancouver scale) and a patient (author's rating scale in the Scar Diary mobile application). RESULTS: Based on the results of the analysis of the data obtained, a high efficiency of the use of Contractubex gel at the early stages of scar formation among patients of the main group in comparison with the control was revealed. By 90 days, the treatment result according to the Vancouver scale was 0,16±0,1 points in the main group and 0,39±0,2 points in the control group. At the same time, with a dynamic scale for assessing the cicatricial process, there was a significant (p<0.05) improvement in the main group (0,2±0,06 points) compared with the control group (0,6±0,17 points). In addition, was noticed the strong commitment to anti-scar treatment in pediatric patients. CONCLUSIONS: The work confirms the undoubted need for anti-scar treatment in the early stages of scar formation after surgical interventions, which accelerates the psychophysical rehabilitation of patients after surgery and improves the quality of life.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Apendicectomia , Criança , Cicatriz , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto Jovem
5.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E418-E421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009901

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) hosted a workshop in May of 2020 with a goal of critically evaluating Trauma Team Training courses. The workshop was held virtually because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Twenty-three participants attended from 8 countries: Canada, Guyana, Kenya, Nigeria, Switzerland, Tanzania, Uganda and the United States. More participants were able to attend the virtual meeting than the traditional in-person meetings. Web-based videoconference software was used, participants presented prerecorded PowerPoint videos, and questions were raised using a written chat. The review proved successful, with discussions and recommendations for improvements surrounding course quality, lecture content, skills sessions, curriculum variations and clinical practical scenarios. The CNIS's successful experience conducting an online curriculum review involving international participants may prove useful to others proceeding with collaborative projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Congressos como Assunto/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Cooperação Internacional , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Canadá/epidemiologia , Congressos como Assunto/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cirurgia Geral/métodos , Guiana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Controle de Infecções/normas , Quênia/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Suíça/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Comunicação por Videoconferência/organização & administração , Comunicação por Videoconferência/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
7.
Orv Hetil ; 161(37): 1599-1605, 2020 09.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894740

RESUMO

Major trauma is a frequent cause of death, and is the leading cause of death in the younger agegroups. Severe bleeding is often responsible for early mortality. The background of the latter is the trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC), which - often very early - develops after the onset of bleeding. The high amount of blood products, i.e., massive transfusion administered during the management of traumatic bleeding can result in severe, even fatal complications. Modern, aggressive management of masssive traumatic bleeding is effective in reducing exsanguination and mortality or late complications. This method also fits into the concept of Patient Blood Management. This review deals with the up-to-date, goal-directed, preventive management of traumatic bleeding and coagulopathy, with emphasis on theoretical grounds. The aim is to present the essence of this management method also to those who are not directly involved in this activity. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(37): 1599-1605.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , Hemorragia , Ferimentos e Lesões , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/terapia , Transfusão de Sangue , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
8.
Soins ; 65(845): 20-22, 2020 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862958

RESUMO

Over 40 patients benefited from remote iconographic follow-up of wounds in an oncology centre. This system is piloted by three expert nurses. They carry out an initial analysis of the photographs received, seek medical expertise if necessary and liaise with the city's professionals. This system makes it possible to expertly accompany professionals and patients while avoiding unnecessary travel. The satisfaction survey conducted in 2018 established full satisfaction of patients and professionals (> 95%) and a guarantee in terms of the safety and quality of care of the wounds.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Institutos de Câncer , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Consulta Remota/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Enfermagem Oncológica , Fotografação , Projetos Piloto
9.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 228, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867855

RESUMO

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the European Reference Network on Rare Bone Diseases (ERN BOND) coordination team and Italian rare bone diseases healthcare professionals created the "COVID-19 Helpline for Rare Bone Diseases" in an attempt to provide high-quality information and expertise on rare bone diseases remotely to patients and healthcare professionals. The present position statement describes the key characteristics of the Helpline initiative, along with the main aspects and topics that recurrently emerged as central for rare bone diseases patients and professionals. The main topics highlighted are general recommendations, pulmonary complications, drug treatment, trauma, pregnancy, children and elderly people, and patient associations role. The successful experience of the "COVID-19 Helpline for Rare Bone Diseases" launched in Italy could serve as a primer of gold-standard remote care for rare bone diseases for the other European countries and globally. Furthermore, similar COVID-19 helplines could be considered and applied for other rare diseases in order to implement remote patients' care.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Ósseas/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Doenças Raras/complicações , Consulta Remota/normas , Idoso , Algoritmos , Doenças Ósseas/terapia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gravidez , Doenças Raras/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões
10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 541, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness and indications of open-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (OCCPR) have been still debatable. Although current guidelines state that the presence of signs of life (SOL) is an indication for OCCPR, scientific evidence corroborating this recommendation has been scarce. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of OCCPR to closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CCCPR) in severe trauma patients with SOL upon arrival at the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study analyzing data from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database, a nationwide trauma registry in the USA, between 2010 and 2016 was conducted. Severe trauma patients who had SOL upon arrival at the hospital and received cardiopulmonary resuscitation within the first 6 h of ED admission were identified. Survival to hospital discharge was evaluated using logistic regression analysis, instrumental variable analysis, and propensity score matching analysis adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 2682 patients (OCCPR 1032; CCCPR 1650) were evaluated; of those 157 patients (15.2%) in the OCCPR group and 193 patients (11.7%) in the CCCPR group survived. OCCPR was significantly associated with higher survival to hospital discharge in both the logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.99 [1.42-2.79], p <  0.001) and the instrumental variable analysis (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.16 [1.02-1.31], p = 0.021). In the propensity score matching analysis, 531 matched pairs were generated, and the OCCPR group still showed significantly higher survival at hospital discharge (89 patients [16.8%] in the OCCPR group vs 58 patients [10.9%] in the CCCPR group; odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.66 [1.13-2.42], p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to CCCPR, OCCPR was associated with significantly higher survival at hospital discharge in severe trauma patients with SOL upon ED arrival. Further studies to confirm these results and to assess long-term neurologic outcomes are needed.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Sinais Vitais , Adulto Jovem
11.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 17-22, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical treatment of post-burn defects of face and cranial vault. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 65 patients with post-burn defects of face and cranial vault. Mean age of patients was 38.5 years (min 17 years, max 67 years). Soft tissue reconstruction was performed by using of local tissues, combined plasty, balloon dermotension aand free flaps on microvascular anastomoses. Osteoectomy and sequestrectomy were carried out if it was necessary. Implants were used to eliminate through skull defects. RESULTS: Balloon dermotension with expanders and plasty with local tissues ensure skull reconstruction in the vast majority of patients. Through bone defects required reconstruction of the cranial vault with various implants. CONCLUSION: The proposed surgical approach ensures correction of severe functional and cosmetic disorders caused by post-burn skull defects, elimination of bone damage, restoration of normal skin of the face and cranial vault.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/cirurgia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/cirurgia , Face/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Crânio/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Queimaduras/complicações , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Traumatismos Faciais/cirurgia , Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Humanos , Microcirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Implantação de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Crânio/lesões , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Expansão de Tecido , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
12.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 910-915, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With COVID-19 having spread across the globe, it has become standard to implement infection control strategies (colloquially known as lockdown) with the intention of reducing the magnitude and delaying the peak of the epidemiological curve. Personal infection mitigation strategies coupled with lockdown have caused a change in healthcare-seeking behaviour, with individuals not attending to their ill health as they previously did. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether admissions for urgent and emergency surgical pathologies have declined during the COVID-19 lockdown period, and the magnitude of the decline. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted, comparing pre-lockdown (3 February - 26 March 2020) and lockdown (27 March - 30 April 2020) admission incidences for surgical pathologies at a tertiary healthcare complex in North West Province, South Africa. Poisson regression models were created to determine admission incidence rate ratios (IRRs). RESULTS: Of 769 surgical admissions included in the analysis, 49.7% were male and 67.2% were unemployed. There was a 44% reduction in the incidence of non-trauma admissions during lockdown (IRR 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 - 0.68; p<0.001) and a 53% reduction in the incidence of trauma-related admissions (IRR 0.47; 95% CI 0.34 - 0.66; p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Even when the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was minimal, COVID-19 lockdown in North West was associated with a significant reduction in surgical admissions. In order to ensure an overall benefit to public health, a balance between maintaining the integrity of COVID-19 control mechanisms and access to healthcare services is essential.


Assuntos
Apendicite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Emergências , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto Jovem
14.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 667-670, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880345

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma in pregnancy poses a unique challenge to clinicians. Literature on this topic is limited in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To review our institution's experience with the management of trauma in pregnancy in a developing-world setting. METHODS: This study was based at Grey's Hospital, Pietermaritzburg, SA. All pregnant patients who were admitted to our institution following trauma between December 2012 and December 2018 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry (HEMR). RESULTS: During the 6-year study period, 2 990 female patients were admitted by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS), of whom 89 were pregnant. The mean age of these patients was 25.64 (range 17 - 43) years. The mechanism of injury was road traffic crash (RTC) in 39, stab wounds (SW) in 19, assault other than SW or gunshot wounds (GSW) in 19, GSW in 8, snake bite in 5, impalement in 1, dog bite in 1, hanging in 1, sexual assault in 1 and a single case of a patient being hit by a falling object. A subset of patients sustained >1 mechanism of injury. Thirty patients were managed operatively. The mean time of gestation was 19.16 (5 - 36) weeks. Three patients died, and there were 16 fetal deaths (including 3 lost after the mother's death). Forty-five fetuses were recorded as surviving at discharge, while 25 fetal outcomes were not specifically recorded. There were 2 threatened miscarriages and/or patients with vaginal bleeding, 1 positive pregnancy test with no recorded outcome and no premature births as a result of trauma. CONCLUSIONS: Trauma in pregnancy is relatively uncommon and mostly due to a RTC or deliberately inflicted trauma. Fetal outcome is largely dependent on the severity of the maternal injury, with injuries requiring laparotomy leading to a high fetal mortality rate.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/cirurgia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 795-805, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981618

RESUMO

Successful emergency transfusions require early recognition and activation of resources to minimize treatment delays. The initial goals should focus on replacement of blood in a balanced fashion. There is an ongoing debate regarding the best approach to transfusions, with some advocating for resuscitation with a fixed ratio of blood products and others preferring to use viscoelastic assays to guide transfusions. Whole-blood transfusion also is a debated strategy. Despite these different approaches, it generally is accepted that transfusions should be started early and crystalloid infusions limited. As hemodynamic stability is restored, endpoints of resuscitation should be used to guide the resuscitation.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Tipagem e Reações Cruzadas Sanguíneas , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Protocolos Clínicos , Estado Terminal , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Hipotensão , Infusões Intraósseas , Infusões Intravenosas , Ressuscitação , Tromboelastografia , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
16.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 819-839, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981620

RESUMO

Pediatric cardiac arrest is a relatively rare but devastating presentation in infants and children. In contrast to adult patients, in whom a primary cardiac dysrhythmia is the most likely cause of cardiac arrest, pediatric patients experience cardiovascular collapse most frequently after an initial respiratory arrest. Aggressive treatment in the precardiac arrest state should be initiated to prevent deterioration and should focus on support of oxygenation, ventilation, and hemodynamics, regardless of the presumed cause. Unfortunately, outcomes for pediatric cardiac arrest, whether in hospital or out of hospital, continue to be poor.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Glicemia/análise , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Eletroencefalografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Epinefrina/uso terapêutico , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotermia/complicações , Hipotermia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Pneumopatias/terapia , Pais , Exame Físico , Envenenamento/terapia , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Valores de Referência , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Taxa Respiratória , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Sepse/terapia , Choque/etiologia , Choque/terapia , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
17.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 857-869, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981622

RESUMO

The obesity pandemic now affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. As obesity rates continue to increase, emergency physicians are called on with increasing frequency to resuscitate obese patients. This article discusses important anatomic, physiologic, and practical challenges imposed by obesity on resuscitative care. Impacts on hemodynamic monitoring, airway and ventilator management, and pharmacologic therapy are discussed. Finally, several important clinical scenarios (trauma, cardiac arrest, and sepsis), in which alterations to standard treatments may benefit obese patients, are highlighted.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Ressuscitação/métodos , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas/métodos , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Composição Corporal , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Consumo de Oxigênio , Farmacocinética , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
18.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(4): 891-901, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981624

RESUMO

Evaluating and treating traumatic cardiac arrest remains a challenge to the emergency medicine provider. Guidelines have established criteria for patients who can benefit from treatment and resuscitation versus those who will likely not survive. Patient factors that predict survival are penetrating injury, signs of life with emergency medical services or on arrival to the Emergency Department, short length of prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac motion on ultrasound, pediatric patients, and those with reversible causes including pericardial tamponade and tension pneumothorax. Newer technologies such as resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta, selective aortic arch perfusion, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may improve outcomes, but remain primarily investigational.


Assuntos
Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta , Oclusão com Balão , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ressuscitação , Ordens quanto à Conduta (Ética Médica) , Toracotomia , Ultrassonografia
19.
Updates Surg ; 72(3): 565-572, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876884

RESUMO

Medical services in WWI had to face enormous new problems: masses of wounded, most with devastating wounds from artillery splinters, often involving body cavities, and always contaminated. Tetanus, gas gangrene, wound infections were common and often fatal. Abdominal wounds were especially a problem: upon entering the war the commanders of all medical services ordered to avoid surgery, based on dismal experiences of previous wars. Surgical community divided into non-operative and operative treatment supporters. The problem seemed mainly organizational, as the wounded were rescued after many hours and treated by non-specialist doctors, in inadequate frontline settings or evacuated back with further delay of treatment. During initial neutrality, Italian Academics closely followed the debate, with different positions. Many courses and publications on war surgery flourished. Among the interventionists, Baldo Rossi, to provide a setting adequate to major operations close to the frontline, with trained surgeons and adequate instruments, realized for the Milano Red Cross three fully equipped, mobile surgical hospitals mounted on trucks, with an operating cabin-tent, with warming, illumination and sterilizing devices, post-operative tents and a radiological unit. Chiefs of the army approved the project and implemented seven similar units, called army surgical ambulances, each run by a distinguished surgeon. Epic history and challenges of the mobile units at the frontline, brilliant results achieved on war wounds and epidemics are described. After the war they were considered among the most significant novelties of military medical services. Parallels with present scenarios in war and peace are outlined.


Assuntos
Unidades Móveis de Saúde/história , Centro Cirúrgico Hospitalar/história , I Guerra Mundial , Ferimentos e Lesões , Surtos de Doenças , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália
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