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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 412e-420e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The muscle-sparing descending branch latissimus dorsi muscle (MSLD) flap is a versatile flap with numerous benefits. It is an often overlooked but useful option when considering free flap donors. In this article, the authors present the largest experience with the MSLD flap, with focus on its use in lower extremity reconstruction. METHODS: Patients undergoing lower extremity reconstruction with the MSLD flap at a single institution from 2012 to 2017 were identified. Patient and wound characteristics, surgical details, complications, and outcomes were examined. Outcomes were compared to a cohort who underwent lower extremity reconstruction with other free muscle flaps during the same period. RESULTS: Thirty-six consecutive patients who underwent MSLD flap surgery were identified. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months. Mean body mass index was 29.2 kg/m and 56 percent were smokers. The most common wound causes were motor vehicle collision (46 percent) and fall (22 percent). The most common anatomical location was the distal third of the tibia (33 percent). Mean operative time was 380 minutes. Complications included three total losses (8 percent) and one partial loss (3 percent). No donor-site seromas were reported. Four patients required subsequent amputation for orthopedic issues (nonunion/pain). Patients receiving MSLD and other flaps had similar rates of amputation, donor- and recipient-site complications, and ambulation status (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The MSLD flap is a useful and reliable option for free flap reconstruction of the lower extremity. Advantages include an easily contourable flap, low revision rate, low complication rate, and the ability to harvest in supine position. In addition, the MSLD flap preserves donor function useful for rehabilitation and minimizes seroma risk. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Assuntos
Extremidade Inferior , Músculo Esquelético/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Transplante de Pele/métodos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 102(1): 36-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660752

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The temporal patterns and unit-based distributions of trauma patients requiring surgical intervention are poorly described in the UK. We describe the distribution of trauma patients in the UK and assess whether changes in working patterns could provide greater exposure for operative trauma training. METHODS: We searched the Trauma Audit and Research Network database to identify all patients between 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016. Operative cases were defined as all patients who underwent laparotomy, thoracotomy or open vascular intervention. We assessed time of arrival, correlations between mechanism of injury and surgery, and the effect of changing shift patterns on exposure to trauma patients by reference to a standard 10-hour shift assuming a dedicated trauma rotation or fellowship. RESULTS: There were 159,719 patients from 194 hospitals submitted to the Network between 2014 and 2016. The busiest 20 centres accounted for 57,568 (36.0%) of cases in total. Of these 2147/57,568 patients (3.7%) required a general surgical operation; 43% of penetrating admissions (925 cases) and 2.2% of blunt admissions (1222 cases). The number of operations correlated more closely with the number of penetrating rather than blunt admissions (r = 0.89 vs r = 0.51). A diurnal pattern in trauma admissions enabled significant increases in trauma exposure with later start times. CONCLUSIONS: Centres with high volume and high penetrating rates are likely to require more general surgical input and should be identified as locations for operative trauma training. It is possible to improve the number of trauma patients seen in a shift by optimising shift start time.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatologia/educação , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Hospitais com Alto Volume de Atendimentos , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
3.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 961-964, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638507

RESUMO

Enmeshment of emergency trauma providers (ETPs) into the United States health-care fabric resulted in the establishment of a formalized surgical critical care fellowship and certification for emergency medicine trainees. The aim of this study was to compare trauma outcomes for surgery-trained providers (STPs) and ETPs at our institution, hypothesizing patient outcome equivalency. We performed an institutional review board-exempt institutional registry review (January 1, 2004 to August 1, 2018), comparing 74 STPs and 6 ETPs. Comparator variables included all-cause mortality, all-cause morbidity, CT imaging studies per provider, time in ED (min), hospital/ICU lengths of stay, ICU admissions, and functional outcomes on discharge. Statistical comparisons included chi-square test for categorical data and analysis of covariance for continuous data (adjustments made for patient age, Injury Severity Score, and trauma mechanism; all P < 0.20). Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05, with an equivalence study design. A total of 33,577 trauma resuscitations were reviewed (32,299 STP-led and 1,278 ETP-led). Except for patient age (STP 50.2 ± 25.9 vs ETP 54.9 ± 25.3 years), Injury Severity Score (8.47 ± 8.14 vs 9.22 ± 8.40), and ICU admissions (16.1% vs 18.8%), we noted no significant intergroup differences. ETPs' performance was equivalent to that of STPs for all primary comparator variables (mortality, morbidity, CT utilization, time in the ED, lengths of stay, and functional outcomes). Incorporation of ETPs into our trauma center resulted in outcome parity between ETPs and STPs, while simultaneously expanding the expertise and experiential diversity within our multidisciplinary team. This study provides support for further incorporation of ETPs as equal partners across the growing network of United States regional trauma centers.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Medicina de Emergência/normas , Cirurgia Geral/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Cuidados Críticos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Duração da Cirurgia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Pennsylvania , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos
4.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 973-977, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638509

RESUMO

Failure to rescue (FTR), defined as death after a major complication in surgical patients, is being used to measure outcomes for quality improvement. Major complications frequently occur in patients undergoing damage control laparotomy (DCL). No previous FTR studies have looked specifically into DCL patients. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors of FTR and identify potential areas for targeted quality improvement in DCL patients. A 10-year retrospective review of all consecutive adult trauma patients who underwent DCL at a Level I trauma center was performed. Demographic and clinical variables were examined for association with FTR. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of FTR in DCL patients. A total of 199 DCL patients were analyzed. Overall DCL mortality observed was 11.1 per cent (n = 22/199) and overall FTR for the cohort was n = 16/199. FTR represented 72 per cent (n = 16/22) of the total mortality. The significantly increased risk of FTR was associated with older age (P = 0.027), lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (P = 0.037), more units of packed red blood cells (P = 0.028), and respiratory complications (P = 0.035). Renal and infectious complications did not significantly increase the risk of FTR in this population. FTR is an important benchmark of quality for trauma patients. This study elucidates potential initial characteristics and complications related to FTR in DCL patients. Efforts in achieving zero death from FTR can potentially improve overall mortality in this subset of patients. Future quality interventions to help minimize FTR should target these specific areas.


Assuntos
Falha da Terapia de Resgate , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Transfusão de Eritrócitos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Transtornos Respiratórios , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Estados Unidos
5.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 29(10): 1357-1361, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539304

RESUMO

Introduction: In pediatric population, the two most common indications for splenectomy include traumatic rupture and hematological diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell disease, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Traditionally, splenectomy has been an open procedure; however, since the first laparoscopic splenectomy was reported in 1991, the minimally invasive laparoscopic approach has become increasingly popular. In most public hospitals in Brazil, where vessel sealing devices are not available, most surgeons seem to prefer open splenectomy to guarantee intraoperative safety and improved outcomes. Objectives: To compare outcomes between open and laparoscopic splenectomy in children in a public hospital in Brazil. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study conducted between January 2010 and June 2018. Patients from 0 to 14 years old who underwent open or laparoscopic splenectomy at the University Hospital of Federal University of Paraná were included. Clinical, laboratory, imaging, and surgical data were collected. Results: For 8 years, 35 patients underwent splenectomy. Mean age was 4 years old and 54% were female. Of the 35 subjects, 69% had sickle cell anemia and 23% spherocytosis. The most common indication for surgery was a previous episode of splenic sequestration. The 13 laparoscopic surgeries were performed without harmonic scalpel or other vessel sealing devices. During the laparoscopic procedure, 2 patients experienced intraoperative complications: bleeding and prolonged surgical time due to technical problems with the equipment. Mean operative time was higher in laparoscopy group than in open group (186 minutes versus 66 minutes). Oral feeds began earlier on the laparoscopic group. Postoperatively, there were more complications on the open group, and no reoperations. There was only one fatality, likely secondary to fulminant sepsis, which occurred 34 days after the surgery in a patient who was undergoing prophylactic oral antibiotics therapy. Discussion: Performing laparoscopic splenectomy without harmonic scalpel or other vessel sealing devices is feasible, but it implicates in a significantly higher surgical time. Laparoscopic splenectomy had earlier oral feeds and fewer complications than open surgery.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia , Esplenectomia/métodos , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/cirurgia , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Duração da Cirurgia , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Baço/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
6.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 6864-6871, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of vacuum sealing drainage combined with Ilizarov bone transport technique in the treatment of tibial traumatic osteomyelitis and risk factors for postoperative pin infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 78 patients with tibial traumatic osteomyelitis admitted at the First People's Hospital of Kashgar from January 2015 to September 2017 and treated with vacuum sealing drainage combined with Ilizarov bone transport technique. RESULTS After combined treatment, SAS and SDS scores decreased significantly, while SF-36 scores increased significantly. Comparisons showed that there were significant differences in the scores of patients after treatment (P<0.05). Univariate analysis showed that there were no significant differences in gender, BMI, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, COPD, smoking index, alcohol abuse history, or residence (P>0.05). There were significant differences in age, fracture type, fixation type, pin loosening, and indwelling time between the 2 groups (P<0.05). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that age, fracture type, fixation type, pin loosening, and indwelling time were independent risk factors for pin infection. Age, fracture type, fixation type, pin loosening, and indwelling time are independent risk factors for pin infection in patients with tibial traumatic osteomyelitis. CONCLUSIONS Combination of vacuum sealing drainage with Ilizarov bone transport technique can effectively improve the condition of tibial traumatic osteomyelitis, improve the quality of life of patients, and reduce the occurrence of adverse emotions of patients. Age, fracture type, fixation type, pin loosening, and indwelling time are independent risk factors for pin infection in patients with tibial traumatic osteomyelitis.


Assuntos
Drenagem , Técnica de Ilizarov , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Tíbia/cirurgia , Vácuo , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Agulhas , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 136, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The pectoralis major flap has been considered the workhorse flap for chest and sternoclavicular defect reconstruction. There have been many configurations of the pectoralis major flap reported in the literature for use in reconstruction sternoclavicular defects either involving bone, soft tissue elements, or both. This study reviews the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction and provides the first ever classification for these techniques. We also provide an algorithm for the selection of these flap variants for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction. METHODS: EMBASE, Cochrane library, Ovid medicine and PubMed databases were searched from its inception to August of 2019. We included all studies describing surgical management of sternoclavicular defects. The studies were reviewed, and the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap used for sternoclavicular defect reconstruction were cataloged. We then proposed a new classification system for these procedures. RESULTS: The study included 6 articles published in the English language that provided a descriptive procedure for the use of pectoralis major flap in the reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects. The procedures were classified into three broad categories. In Type 1, the whole pectoris muscle is used. In Type 2, the pectoralis muscle is split and either advanced medially (type 2a) or rotated (type 2b) to fill the defect. In type 3, the clavicular portion of the pectoralis is islandized on a pedicle, either the thoracoacromial artery (type 3a) or the deltoid branch of the thoracoacromial artery (type 3b). CONCLUSION: There are multiple configurations of the pectoralis flap reported in the English language literature for the reconstruction of sternoclavicular defects. Our classification system, the Opoku Classification will help surgeons select the appropriate configuration of the pectoralis major flap for sternoclavicular joint defect reconstruction based on size of defect, the status of the vascular anatomy, and acceptability of upper extremity disability. It will also help facilitate communication when describing the different configurations of the pectoralis major flap for reconstruction of sternoclavicular joint defects.


Assuntos
Músculos Peitorais/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Algoritmos , Clavícula/cirurgia , Humanos , Osteomielite/cirurgia , Músculos Peitorais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/classificação , Esterno/cirurgia , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/irrigação sanguínea , Parede Torácica/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
8.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 423-427, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047173

RESUMO

Introdução: Lesões que acometem as mãos com importante perda cutânea frequentemente requerem retalhos para cobertura precoce, visto que permitem melhor reabilitação. Dentre as opções, o retalho interósseo posterior reverso do antebraço é o mais utilizado para defeitos no dorso da mão e punho, com baixas taxas de complicações. Normalmente, esse retalho não é utilizado para a reconstrução de defeitos em região palmar, já que geralmente não alcança esse local. Relato de caso: Apresentamos o caso de um paciente com queimadura elétrica de terceiro grau, em palma da mão direita, cuja reconstrução foi realizada com o uso do retalho interósseo posterior reverso do antebraço, após debridamentos conservadores, no 14o dia após a queimadura. O paciente apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória, sem complicações ou sequelas funcionais a longo prazo. Conclusão: O retalho interósseo posterior reverso do antebraço permite cobertura adequada de lesões em palma da mão, preservando sua funcionalidade.


Introduction: Lesions affecting the hands with significant skin loss often require flaps for early coverage, as these permit faster healing. Among the various options, the reverse posterior interosseous flap of the forearm is most commonly used for defects involving the back of the hand and wrist due to low complication rates. Normally, this flap is not used for the reconstruction of defects in the palmar region since its distal reach is insufficient. Case report: We present the case of a male patient with third-degree electrical burns on his right palm, whose reconstruction was performed on the 14th day postinjury using the reverse posterior interosseous flap of the forearm after conservative debridement. The patient presented good postoperative evolution, without long-term complications or functional sequelae. Conclusion: The reverse posterior interosseous flap of the forearm permits adequate coverage of palm injuries, preserving its functionality.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , História do Século XXI , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Queimaduras , Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Antebraço , Traumatismos do Antebraço , Mãos , Traumatismos da Mão , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/reabilitação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/reabilitação , Retalhos Cirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/reabilitação , Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica/cirurgia , Queimaduras por Corrente Elétrica/complicações , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos/reabilitação , Antebraço/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Antebraço/cirurgia , Traumatismos do Antebraço/complicações , Traumatismos do Antebraço/reabilitação , Mãos/cirurgia , Traumatismos da Mão/cirurgia
9.
Rev. bras. cir. plást ; 34(3): 391-398, jul.-sep. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047162

RESUMO

Introdução: Queloides surgem de resposta excessiva à lesão da derme, resultando em proliferação de fibroblastos, produção exagerada de colágeno e comprometimento da pele sadia adjacente. O diagnóstico é clínico e muitos métodos conservadores e cirúrgicos já foram utilizados para tratamento. Porém, dados da eficácia desses tratamentos são limitados e não há consenso na literatura quanto a melhor técnica a ser empregada, permanecendo uma lacuna que necessita ser preenchida, a fim de que seus usos sejam indicados com maior confiabilidade, em um modelo de medicina baseada em evidências. Métodos: Revisão não sistemática da literatura sobre "queloides" nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, MEDLINE, UptoDate e livros-texto das áreas de Dermatologia e Cirurgia Dermatológica. Revisão de Literatura: Foram enumeradas e abordadas as principais informações sobre técnicas cirúrgicas e adjuvantes empregadas para essas lesões, que são: excisão, injeções intralesionais, crioterapia, laserterapia, revestimento com gel de silicone, radioterapia e pressoterapia. Torna-se relevante o levantamento dessas informações, tendo em vista que, além de poder causar dor, prurido e restrição de movimento, o principal motivo da procura de assistência médica para queloide é devido ao aspecto cosmético/estético, e as taxas de reincidência e falha terapêutica ainda são altas, sendo necessário conscientizar o paciente sobre o procedimento e seus efeitos. Conclusão: São muitos os tratamentos disponíveis para o queloide, sejam cirúrgicos ou não, todavia não há consenso sobre uma abordagem universalmente aceita. São necessários mais estudos, com a finalidade de definir a melhor conduta e atingir melhores resultados, visto a qualidade mediana das evidências apresentadas nos estudos.


Introduction: Keloids are characterized by an abnormal response to dermal trauma, resulting in fibroblast proliferation, excessive collagen production, and impairment of adjacent healthy tissue. The diagnosis is clinical, and many conservative and surgical methods can be used as treatments. However, data on the efficacy of these treatments are limited, and there is no consensus regarding the best treatment option. This gap needs to be filled by developing comprehensive evidence-based therapies. Methods: A non-systematic literature review of keloid scars was carried out using PubMed, Scielo, MEDLINE, UptoDate, and dermatology and dermatological surgery textbooks. Literature review: The search retrieved relevant information on surgical and adjuvant therapies used for keloids, including excision, intralesional injections, cryotherapy, laser therapy, silicone gel sheeting, radiation therapy, and pressure therapy. These data are crucial because, in addition to complaints of pain, itching, and restriction of movement, the main reason for seeking treatment for keloids is for cosmetic and aesthetic improvement, and the rates of recurrence and treatment failure are high, emphasizing the importance of creating awareness regarding the available procedures and their effectiveness. Conclusion: Many surgical and adjuvant therapies for keloids are available. Nonetheless, there is no consensus on a universally accepted treatment. Therefore, additional high-quality studies are needed to identify the most effective therapeutic approaches to achieve better results.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XXI , Recidiva , Cirurgia Plástica , Terapêutica , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Fibroblastos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos , Queloide , Cirurgia Plástica/efeitos adversos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Terapêutica/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/análise , Fator 1 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/efeitos adversos , Cicatriz , Cicatriz/complicações , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Dermatológicos/métodos , Queloide/cirurgia
11.
Knee ; 26(5): 1020-1025, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Bone tumors are common in the distal femur and often treated with intralesional curettage. The optimal method of stabilization of large distal femoral defects after curettage remains unclear. The goal of this study is to compare stabilization techniques for large distal femoral defects. METHODS: Large defects (60 cm3) were milled in the distal lateral metaphysis of 45 adult composite sawbone femurs. The defect was either (1) left untreated or reconstructed with (2) locked plate fixation, (3) calcium phosphate cement packing, or (4) locked plate fixation with calcium phosphate cement packing, or (5) polymethylmethacrylate packing. Each specimen then underwent axial and torsional stiffness testing followed by torsional loading to failure. The data were analyzed using ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc analysis. RESULTS: The calcium phosphate cement filled defect with a locked plate was the stiffest construct in axial and torsional loading as well as the strongest in torque to failure. However, this difference only reached significance with respect to all other groups in torque to failure testing. The calcium phosphate cement filled defect with a locked plate was significantly stiffer than three of the four other groups in both axial and torsional stiffness testing. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that calcium phosphate cement, with or without the addition of locked plate fixation, may provide improved construct stability under time zero testing conditions. This result warrants further testing under cyclic loading condition and consideration for fixation of large femoral metaphyseal defects in future clincal trails.


Assuntos
Cimentos para Ossos , Placas Ósseas , Fêmur/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Fêmur/lesões , Humanos , Modelos Anatômicos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia
12.
Surg Clin North Am ; 99(5): 955-965, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446920

RESUMO

Surgeons are often asked to perform tracheostomies and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies for a wide variety of patients. As consultants, surgeons are tasked with honoring the relationship between the referring provider and the patient while also assessing whether the consult is appropriate given the patient's prognosis and goals of care. This article discusses the most common conditions for which these procedures are requested and reviews the evidence supporting either the placement or avoidance of these tubes in each condition. It provides a framework for surgeons to use when discussing these procedures in the context of goals of care.


Assuntos
Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Nutrição Enteral , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/cirurgia , Traqueostomia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/efeitos adversos , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/ética , Traqueostomia/efeitos adversos , Traqueostomia/mortalidade
13.
Surgery ; 166(4): 564-571, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The population of patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy for medical conditions is increasing. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preinjury anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy on outcomes after trauma. METHODS: This cohort study analyzed data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program from 2012 to 2017 and included trauma patients age ≥16 years with an Injury Severity Score ≥5 treated at 29 hospitals. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of 115,042 trauma patients, 44.2% were women and 78.2% were white with a mean age (standard deviation) of 59.1 (23.2) years. A total of 23,196 patients were on antiplatelet therapy, 3,855 on warfarin, 1,893 on warfarin + antiplatelet agent, 1,306 on a direct oral anticoagulant, and 717 patients on direct oral anticoagulant + antiplatelet therapy. We observed an increased risk of mortality in patients on preinjury antiplatelet (odds ratio [OR] 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.33), warfarin (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.65), or warfarin + antiplatelet therapy (OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.18-2.14). Patients on a direct oral anticoagulant only were not at statistically increased risk for mortality. CONCLUSION: Preinjury antiplatelet and/or warfarin use was associated with an increased risk of mortality after traumatic injury. Preinjury direct oral anticoagulant use was not associated with a statistically increased risk of adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Traumatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Vitamina K/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/efeitos adversos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
14.
Unfallchirurg ; 122(8): 633-645, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367841

RESUMO

As the population gets older the prevalence of atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism also increases. Therefore, more patients require anticoagulation and currently direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), such as dabigatran etexilate, apixaban, rivaroxaban and edoxaban are preferred to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), mainly because of the more favorable risk-benefit profile with respect to bleeding. Older patients in particular frequently present at the accident and emergency department due to falls and an increased risk of fractures. The perioperative management of these patients who are treated with DOACs is a challenge in the clinical routine and needs special consideration. This article discusses these issues in an interdisciplinary approach and develops strategies for the perioperative management of patients treated with DOACs and undergoing trauma or orthopedic surgery.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Assistência Perioperatória , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
15.
S Afr J Surg ; 57(3): 24-29, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South African healthcare system has an under-financed public sector serving most of the population and a better resourced private sector serving a small fraction of the population. This study evaluated management and outcome in patients with complex bile duct injuries (BDIs) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy referred from either private or public hospitals. METHOD: The data of patients who underwent hepaticojejunostomy repair were retrieved from a prospectively maintained central departmental BDI database. Patients were treated either in the Surgical Gastroenterology Unit at Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town (UCT) or the Digestive Diseases Centre, UCT Private Academic Hospital by the same hepatobiliary surgical team. Relevant preoperative clinical data and postoperative complications and outcomes were compared between patients originating either in the public or private sector. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-five patients were included, 58 from the public and 67 from the private sector. The type of BDI, time to diagnosis, referral and repair were similar. Patients referred from the private sector underwent more percutaneous cholangiograms prior to referral (11.9% vs 1.7%, p = 0.037). Patients referred from the public sector underwent more CT examinations (p = 0.044) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (p = 0.038) after admission to our centre. There were no statistically significant differences in 30-day postoperative complications. Primary patency rates were similar for public and private referrals (90% vs 88%, respectively). There were two BDI-related mortalities at 90 days. CONCLUSION: Despite differences in public and private healthcare system resources, patients were referred early and appropriately from both sectors and had similar postoperative outcomes when treated in a specialised unit.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/lesões , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Hospitais Privados , Hospitais Públicos , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
S Afr J Surg ; 57(3): 54, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans come into contact and interact with an array of animals in a number of areas and environments. We set out to review our experience with animal-related injuries in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHOD: All patients who sustained an injury secondary to an interaction with an animal in the period December 2012-December 2017 were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry (HEMR). RESULTS: There were 104 patients in the study sample. The mean age of patients in the study was 32.8 years, with a range from 1 to 76 years old. 75% (n = 78) were male and 25% (n = 26) female. Out of the 104 animal-related injuries, 67 were blunt trauma, 39 penetrating trauma and 3 a combination of blunt and penetrating trauma. The species causing trauma included dogs (53), horses (29), cows (18), buffalo (1), warthog (1), impala (1) and a single goat (1). The median time from injury to hospitalisation was 46.62 hours (range from 0 to 504 hours). Injuries occurred to the head (n = 32), face (n = 9), neck (n = 32), abdomen (n = 22), urogenital system (n = 6), upper limb (n = 39) and lower limb (n = 39). The Injury Severity Score (ISS) mean for the patients was 8.16, the range 1-4, the median 9 and the standard deviation 6.88. In 49 patients the treatment was non-operative. In the remaining 55 patients, a total of 68 operative procedures were required. Operations included wound debridement/surgical washout (n = 38), laparotomy (n = 9), arterial repair/ligation (n = 8), skin graft (n = 4), craniotomy (n = 5), fasciotomy (n = 2), amputation (n = 1), and placement of an ICP monitor (n = 1). 49 of these operations were for patients with dog bite injuries. The mean hospital stay was 0.13 days with a range of 0-4 days. Four patients were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and two patients died. CONCLUSION: Human interactions with animals may result in injuries which require surgical treatment. The most common animal injury is a dog bite but in the case of the larger domestic farm animals, blunt force type injuries and goring can result in significant injuries which require complex surgical interventions.


Assuntos
Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Cães , Feminino , Cavalos , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lesões do Pescoço/epidemiologia , Lesões do Pescoço/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tempo para o Tratamento , Centros de Traumatologia , Extremidade Superior/lesões , Sistema Urogenital/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 25(4): 361-368, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prediction of posttraumatic potential organ donors is a complex process. The aim of this study is to evaluate the organ procurement process in trauma-related injuries and determine the medical markers in organ donors and posttraumatic mortal patients at the first level emergency, in emergency surgical service, and surgical intensive care departments. METHODS: In this retrospective study, after the approval of the ethics committee, the records of the patients in the emergency surgery unit, the operating room, and the organ donors in surgical intensive care unit between the years 2000 January-2011 December were examined. Patient demographics, distribution of donated organs, intubation area, transfer to the hospital, patient's service, trauma type, injury mechanism, and severity of the injury were examined. Continuous variables were evaluated with independent samples by the Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U test and binary variables with the Pearson Chi-Square test. The patients who lost their lives and survived in the emergency department (ED) were compared with an age ratio of 1: 3. Final results were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The patients with ≤90 mmHg systolic blood pressure (SBP) or penetrant serious injuries were more likely to be candidates for organ donation in ED, respectively; 68.2% vs. 15.2% [AOR: 4.59 (1.14, 18.40), p<0.031] and 63.6% vs. 37.9% (AOR: 6.25 [1.27-30.49] [p<0.024]). Patients with AIS head ≥3 and in-hospital blood replacement of 1500 cc or more, were more likely to be organ donors after ED: 54.5% vs. 97% (AOR: 0.074 [0.014 kan0.548], [p<0.01]) and 10% vs. 58.1% (AOR: 0.098 [0.016-0.591], p<0.01]). CONCLUSION: In terms of predictive traits for organ procurement, a SBP of ≤90 mmHg and presence of serious penetrant injuries were found to be more predictive for organ transplantation than other factors such as AIS Head ≥3 or 1500 cc or more replacement of blood and blood products.


Assuntos
Doadores de Tecidos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , California , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Emergências , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Salas Cirúrgicas , Reimplante , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doadores de Tecidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 35(11): 1279-1289, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324976

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION/PURPOSE: The burden of pediatric surgical disease is largely unknown in low- and middle-income countries such as Uganda where access to care is limited. METHODS: Implementation of a locally led database in January 2012 at a Ugandan tertiary referral hospital, and review of 3465 prospectively collected pediatric surgical admissions from January 2012 to August 2016. RESULTS: 2090 children (60.3%) underwent surgery during admission. 59% were male and 41% female. 28.6% of admissions were in neonates and 50.4% were in children less than 1 year old. Congenital anomalies including Hirschsprung's, anorectal malformations, intestinal atresias, omphalocele, and gastroschisis were the most common diagnoses (38.6%) followed by infections (15.0%) and tumors (8.6%). Mortality rates were substantially higher than those of high-income countries; for example, gastroschisis and intussusception had mortality rates of 90.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Post-operative mortality was highest in the congenital anomalies group (15.0%). CONCLUSION: There is a high burden of infant congenital anomalies with higher mortality rates compared to high-income countries. The unit performs primarily specialized procedures appropriate for a tertiary center. We hope that these data will facilitate evaluation of ongoing quality improvement and capacity-building initiatives.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Anormalidades Congênitas/cirurgia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Uganda/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
19.
Am Surg ; 85(6): 638-644, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267906

RESUMO

As the roles of trauma/acute care surgeons continue to evolve, it is imperative that health-care systems adapt to meet workforce needs. Tailoring retention strategies that elicit workforce satisfaction ensure continued coverage that is mutually beneficial to surgeons and health-care systems. We sought to elicit factors related to career characteristics and expectations of the trauma/acute care surgery (ACS) workforce to assist with such future progress. In this study, 1552 Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma members were anonymously surveyed. Data collected included demographics, career expectations, and motivators of trauma/ACS. Four hundred eight (26%) Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma members responded. Respondents were 78 per cent male and had a median age of 47.3 years. Forty-six per cent of surgeons reported earning $351K-$475K and 23 per cent >$475K. At this point in their career, 49 per cent of surgeons felt quality of life was "most important", followed by 31 per cent career ambitions and 13 per cent salary. Prominent career satisfiers were patient care and teaching. Greatest detractors were burnout, bureaucracy, and work environment. Eighty per cent would change jobs in the final 10 years of practice, 31 per cent because of family/retirement, 29 per cent because of professional growth, 24 per cent because of workload, and 7 per cent because of salary. This study could be used to help develop trauma/ACS workforce strategies. This workforce remains mobile into late career; personal happiness and patient ownership overshadow financial rewards, and most prefer a total and shared patient care model compared with no patient ownership. Burnout, bureaucracy, and work environment are dominant detractors of job satisfaction among surveyed trauma/ACS surgeons.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Esgotamento Profissional , Escolha da Profissão , Compreensão , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Carga de Trabalho
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