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1.
Am Surg ; 86(2): 104-109, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167051

RESUMO

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is linked to reimbursements and publicly reported metrics. Some hospitals discourage venous duplex ultrasound (VDUS) screening in asymptomatic trauma patients because they often find higher rates of DVT. We aim to evaluate the association between lower extremity (LE) VDUS screening and pulmonary embolism (PE) in trauma patients. Trauma patients admitted to an urban Level-1 trauma center between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. We characterized the association of asymptomatic LE VDUSs with PE, upper extremity DVT, proximal LE DVT, and distal LE DVT by univariate and multivariable logistic regression controlling for confounders. Of the 3959 trauma patients included in our study-after adjusting for covariates related to patient demographics, injury, and procedures-there was a significantly lower likelihood of PE in screened patients (odds ratio (OR) = 0.02, P < 0.001) and a higher rate of distal LE DVT (OR 11.1, P = 0.004). Screening was not associated with higher rates of proximal LE DVT after adjustment for covariates (OR = 1.8, P = 0.193). PE was associated with patient transfer status, pelvis fracture, and spinal procedures in unscreened patients. After adjusting for covariates, we have shown that LE VDUS asymptomatic screening is associated with lower rates of PE in trauma patients and not associated with higher rates of proximal LE DVT. Our detailed institutional review of a large cohort of trauma patients over five years provides support for ongoing asymptomatic screening and better characterizes venous thromboembolism outcomes than similarly sized purely administrative data reviews. As a retrospective cohort study with a large sample size, no loss to follow-up, and a population with low heterogeneity, this study should be considered as level III evidence for care management.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Extremidade Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Embolia Pulmonar/complicações , Embolia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia Doppler Dupla/estatística & dados numéricos , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Trombose Venosa/complicações
2.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 253-258, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049884

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trauma patients are considered a complex population of patients in emergency medicine and need extensive, specialized therapy. One major part is the prevention and treatment of the inflammatory response, which occurs in patients after severe injury resulting in complications like endotheliopathy. Likely as a consequence, coagulopathy occurs. Sterile inflammation is hard to address, especially because of the lack of a single activator. Moreover, it is a complex composition of factors that lead to a pathologic immune response. Our understanding of these patterns is increasing, but the complete pathophysiologic changes have yet to be investigated. Therefore, there is no specific target to treat inflammatory response in trauma patients at the moment. RECENT FINDINGS: There is increasing knowledge of the pathways and mediators that are responsible for the inflammatory response in patients after severe trauma. The endothelial glycocalyx has been identified to be an integral part of these mechanisms. There have been several new therapeutic approaches to diminish the inflammatory response. SUMMARY: Our increasing understanding of the immune system have led to new potential therapeutic perspectives. All of these approaches need further research to be validated. As the current therapies are based on empirical strategies and have not changed much over the years, new treatment options would be an important progress.


Assuntos
Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 298-304, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partial resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (pREBOA) and intermittent REBOA (iREBOA) are techniques to extend the therapeutic duration of REBOA by balloon titration for distal flow or cyclical balloon inflation/deflation to allow transient distal flow, respectively. We hypothesized that manually titrated pREBOA would reduce blood losses and ischemic burden when compared with iREBOA. METHODS: Following 20% blood volume controlled hemorrhage, 10 anesthetized pigs underwent uncontrolled hemorrhage from the right iliac artery and vein. Once in hemorrhagic shock, animals underwent 15 minutes of complete zone 1 REBOA followed by 75 minutes of either pREBOA or iREBOA (n = 5/group). After 90 minutes, definitive hemorrhage control was obtained, animals were resuscitated with the remaining collected blood, and then received 2 hours of critical care. RESULTS: There were no differences in mortality. Animals randomized to iREBOA spent a larger portion of the time at full occlusion when compared with pREBOA (median, 70 minutes; interquartile range [IQR], 70-80 vs. median, 20 minutes; IQR, 20-40, respectively; p = 0.008). While the average blood pressure during the intervention period was equivalent between groups, this was offset by large fluctuations in blood pressure and significantly more rescue occlusions for hypotension with iREBOA. Despite lower maximum aortic flow rates, the pREBOA group tolerated a greater total amount of distal aortic flow during the intervention period (median, 20.9 L; IQR, 20.1-23.0 vs. median, 9.8 L; IQR, 6.8-10.3; p = 0.03) with equivalent abdominal blood losses. Final plasma lactate and creatinine concentrations were equivalent, although iREBOA animals had increased duodenal edema on histology. CONCLUSION: Compared with iREBOA, pREBOA reduced the time spent at full occlusion and the number of precipitous drops in proximal mean arterial pressure while delivering more distal aortic flow but not increasing total blood loss in this highly lethal injury model. Neither technique demonstrated a survival benefit. Further refinement of these techniques is necessary before clinical guidelines are issued.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Oclusão com Balão/instrumentação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Sus scrofa , Fatores de Tempo , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
4.
J Surg Res ; 246: 544-549, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teamwork is a critical element of trauma resuscitation. Assessment tools such as T-NOTECHS (Trauma NOn-TECHnical Skills) exist, but correlation with patient outcomes is unclear. Using emergency department thoracotomy (EDT), we sought to describe T-NOTECHS scores during resuscitations. We hypothesized that patients undergoing EDT whose resuscitations had better scores would be more likely to have return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: Continuously recording video was used to review all captured EDTs over a 24-mo period. We used a modification of the validated T-NOTECHS instrument to measure five domains on a 3-point scale (1 = best, 2 = average, 3 = worst). A total T-NOTECHS score was calculated by one of three reviewers. The primary outcome was ROSC. ROSC was defined as an organized rhythm no longer requiring internal cardiac compressions. Associations between variables and ROSC were examined using univariate regression. RESULTS: Sixty-one EDTs were captured. Nineteen patients had ROSC (31%) and 42 (69%) did not. The median T-NOTECHS score for all resuscitations was 8 [IQR 6-10]. As demographic and injury data (age, gender, mechanism, signs of life) were not associated with ROSC in univariate analysis, they were not considered for inclusion in a multivariable regression model. The association between overall T-NOTECHS score and ROSC did not reach statistical significance, but examination of the individual components of the T-NOTECHS score demonstrated that, compared to resuscitations that had "average" (2) or "worst" (3) scores on "Assessment and Decision Making," resuscitations with a "best" score were 5 times more likely to lead to ROSC. CONCLUSIONS: Although the association between overall T-NOTECHS scores and ROSC did not reach statistical significance, better scores in the domain of assessment and decision making are associated with improved rates of ROSC in patients arriving in cardiac arrest who undergo EDT. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV Therapeutic/Care Management.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Parada Cardíaca/terapia , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Gravação em Vídeo , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Parada Cardíaca/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca/mortalidade , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pennsylvania , Ressuscitação/métodos , Toracotomia/métodos , Centros de Traumatologia/organização & administração , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
5.
J Surg Res ; 246: 605-613, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet function tests such as thrombelastography platelet mapping and impedance aggregometry have demonstrated universal platelet dysfunction in trauma patients. In this study, we introduce the measurement of platelet contraction force as a test of platelet function. We hypothesize that force will correlate with established coagulation tests such as thrombelastography, demonstrate significant differences between healthy subjects and trauma patients, and identify critically ill trauma patients. METHODS: Blood samples were prospectively collected from level 1 trauma patients at initial presentation, assayed for force of and time to contraction and compared with thrombelastography. Blood from healthy subjects was assayed to establish a reference range. Results from trauma patients were compared with healthy controls and trauma patients that died. RESULTS: The study includes one hundred trauma patients with mean age 45 y, 74% were male, and median injury severity score of 14 ± 12. Patients that survived (n = 90) demonstrated significantly elevated platelet contraction force compared with healthy controls (n = 12) (6390 ± 2340 versus 4790 ± 470 µN, P = 0.043) and trauma patients that died (n = 10) (6390 ± 2340 versus 2860 ± 1830 µN, P = 0.0001). Elapsed time to start of platelet contraction was faster in trauma patients that survived compared with healthy controls (660 ± 467 versus 1130 ± 140 s, P = 0.0022) and those that died (660 ± 470 versus 1460 ± 1340 s, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with all existing platelet function tests reported in the literature, which report platelet dysfunction in trauma patients, contractile force demonstrates hyperfunction in surviving trauma patients and dysfunction in nonsurvivors. Platelet contraction reflects platelet metabolic reserve and thus may be a potential biomarker for survival after trauma. Contractile force warrants further investigation to predict mortality in severely injured trauma patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Plaquetários/diagnóstico , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia , Transtornos Plaquetários/sangue , Transtornos Plaquetários/etiologia , Transtornos Plaquetários/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Tromboelastografia , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(2): 279-285, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced coagulopathy is a major driver of mortality following severe injury. Viscoelastic goal-directed resuscitation can reduce mortality after injury. The TEG 5000 system is widely used for viscoelastic testing. However, the TEG 6s system incorporates newer technology, with encouraging results in cardiovascular interventions. The purpose of this study was to validate the TEG 6s system for use in trauma patients. METHODS: Multicenter noninvasive observational study for method comparison conducted at 12 US Levels I and II trauma centers. Agreement between the TEG 6s and TEG 5000 systems was examined using citrated kaolin reaction time (CK.R), citrated functional fibrinogen maximum amplitude (CFF.MA), citrated kaolin percent clot lysis at 30 minutes (CK.LY30), citrated RapidTEG maximum amplitude (CRT.MA), and citrated kaolin maximum amplitude (CK.MA) parameters in adults meeting full or limited trauma team criteria. Blood was drawn ≤1 hour after admission. Assays were repeated in duplicate. Reliability (TEG 5000 vs. TEG 6s analyzers) and repeatability (interdevice comparison) was quantified. Linear regression was used to define the relationship between TEG 6s and TEG 5000 devices. RESULTS: A total of 475 patients were enrolled. The cohort was predominantly male (68.6%) with a median age of 49 years. Regression line slope estimates (ß) and linear correlation estimates (p) were as follows: CK.R (ß = 1.05, ρ = 0.9), CFF.MA (ß = 0.99, ρ = 0.95), CK.LY30 (ß = 1.01, ρ = 0.91), CRT.MA (TEG 6s) versus CK.MA (TEG 5000) (ß = 1.06, ρ = 0.86) as well as versus CRT.MA (TEG 5000) (ß = 0.93, ρ = 0.93), indicating strong reliability between the devices. Overall, within-device repeatability was better for TEG 6s versus TEG 5000, particularly for CFF.MA and CK.LY30. CONCLUSION: The TEG 6s device appears to be highly reliable for use in trauma patients, with close correlation to the TEG 5000 device and equivalent/improved within-device reliability. Given the potential advantages of using the TEG 6s device at the site of care, confirmation of agreement between the devices represents an important advance in diagnostic testing. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic test, level II.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/diagnóstico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Tromboelastografia/instrumentação , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/sangue , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Surg Res ; 246: 145-152, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580984

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Agreement regarding indications for vena cava filter (VCF) utilization in trauma patients has been in flux since the filter's introduction. As VCF technology and practice guidelines have evolved, the use of VCF in trauma patients has changed. This study examines variation in VCF placement among trauma centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data from the National Trauma Data Bank (2005-2014). Trauma centers were grouped according to whether they placed VCFs during the study period (VCF+/VCF-). A multivariable probit regression model was fit to predict the number of VCFs used among the VCF+ centers (the expected [E] number of VCF per center). The ratio of observed VCF placement (O) to expected VCFs (O:E) was computed and rank ordered to compare interfacility practice variation. RESULTS: In total, 65,482 VCFs were placed by 448 centers. Twenty centers (4.3%) placed no VCFs. The greatest predictors of VCF placement were deep vein thrombosis, spinal cord paralysis, and major procedure. The strongest negative predictor of VCF placement was admission during the year 2014. Among the VCF+ centers, O:E varied by nearly 500%. One hundred fifty centers had an O:E greater than one. One hundred sixty-nine centers had an O:E less than one. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variation in practice is present in VCF placement. This variation cannot be explained only by the characteristics of the patients treated at these centers but could be also due to conflicting guidelines, changing evidence, decreasing reimbursement rates, or the culture of trauma centers.


Assuntos
Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Filtros de Veia Cava/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/economia , Utilização de Equipamentos e Suprimentos/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Mecanismo de Reembolso/normas , Mecanismo de Reembolso/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia/economia , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Filtros de Veia Cava/economia , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
8.
Unfallchirurg ; 123(1): 68-75, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392345

RESUMO

This article presents the case of a rapidly progressing pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) following a minor trauma and surgical intervention. A 46-year-old patient was admitted to hospital after a minor trauma of the right lower leg with a suspected diagnosis of erysipelas bullosum. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan showed the suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) with indications for immediate incision and fascia resection. According to the results of the histopathological analysis and microbiological assessment without signs for a bacterial infection, high-dose steroid treatment and immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporin A were initiated under the assumption of PG. Additionally, the patient was treated with hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). The 2­year follow-up showed a gradual restitution of the soft tissues.


Assuntos
Fasciite Necrosante , Pioderma Gangrenoso , Desbridamento , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Fasciite Necrosante/etiologia , Fasciite Necrosante/terapia , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pioderma Gangrenoso/etiologia , Pioderma Gangrenoso/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
10.
J Surg Res ; 245: 31-44, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400575

RESUMO

Treatment of full-thickness skin wounds with minimal scarring and complete restoration of native tissue properties still exists as a clinical challenge. A bilayer skin substitute was fabricated by coating human amniotic membrane (AM) with electrospun silk fibroin nanofibers, and its in vivo biological behavior was studied using murine full-thickness skin wound model. Donut-shaped silicon splints were utilized to prevent wound contraction in mouse skin and simulate re-epithelialization, which is the normal path of human wound healing. Skin regeneration using the bilayer scaffold was compared with AM and untreated defect after 30 d. Tissue samples were taken from healed wound areas and investigated through histopathological and immunohistochemical staining to visualize involucrin (IVL), P63, collagen I, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, mRNA expression of IVL, P63, interleukin-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 was studied. The application of bilayer scaffold resulted in the best epidermal and dermal regeneration, demonstrated by histopathological examination and molecular analysis. In regenerated wounds of the bilayer scaffold group, the mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2) were downregulated, and the expression pattern of keratinocyte markers (IVL and P63) at both mRNA and protein levels was more similar to native tissue in comparison with AM and no-treatment groups. There was no significant difference in the expression level of collagen I, CD31, and vascular endothelial growth factor among different groups. Conclusively, these promising results serve as a supporting evidence for proceeding to clinical phase to examine the capacity of this bilayer scaffold for human skin regeneration.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Reepitelização , Pele Artificial , Pele/lesões , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Animais , Cicatriz/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibroínas/química , Humanos , Camundongos , Nanofibras/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
11.
J Surg Res ; 245: 163-167, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) shock classification has been accepted as the conceptual framework for clinicians caring for trauma patients. We sought to validate its ability to predict mortality, blood transfusion, and urgent intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of trauma patients using the 2014 National Trauma Data Bank. Using initial vital signs data, patients were categorized into shock class based on the ATLS program. Rates for urgent blood transfusion, urgent operative intervention, and mortality were compared between classes. RESULTS: 630,635 subjects were included for analysis. Classes 1, 2, 3, and 4 included 312,404, 17,133, 31, and 43 patients, respectively. 300,754 patients did not meet criteria for any ATLS shock class. Of the patients in class 1 shock, 2653 died (0.9%), 3123 (1.0%) were transfused blood products, and 7115 (2.3%) underwent an urgent procedure. In class 2, 219 (1.3%) died, 387 (2.3%) were transfused, and 1575 (9.2%) underwent intervention. In class 3, 7 (22.6%) died, 10 (32.3%) were transfused, and 13 (41.9%) underwent intervention. In class 4, 15 (34.9%) died, 19 (44.2%) were transfused, and 23 (53.5%) underwent intervention. For uncategorized patients, 21,356 (7.1%) died, 15,168 (5.0%) were transfused, and 23,844 (7.9%) underwent intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Almost half of trauma patients do not meet criteria for any ATLS shock class. Uncategorized patients had a higher mortality (7.1%) than patients in classes 1 and 2 (0.9% and 1.3%, respectively). Classes 3 and 4 only accounted for 0.005% and 0.007%, respectively, of patients. The ATLS classification system does not help identify many patients in severe shock.


Assuntos
Cuidados de Suporte Avançado de Vida no Trauma/normas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Choque/classificação , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque/diagnóstico , Choque/etiologia , Choque/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(1): 223-241, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757252

RESUMO

Pain management in acute orthopedic injury needs to be tailored to the presentation and patient. Subjective and objective assessment, in conjunction with pathophysiology, should be used to provide symptom control. Ideally, treatment should be administered in an escalating fashion, attempting to manage pain with the lowest dose of the safest medication available. There are also adjunctive therapies, including those that are nonpharmacologic, that can provide additional relief.


Assuntos
Analgesia/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Humanos , Dor/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
13.
J Surg Res ; 245: 610-618, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) is a coinhibitory molecule which can both stimulate and inhibit host immune responses. Altered expression of HVEM and its ligands is associated with increased nosocomial infections in septic patients. We hypothesize critically ill trauma patients will display increased lymphocyte HVEM expression and that such alteration is predictive of infectious events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Trauma patients prospectively enrolled from the ICU were compared with healthy controls. Leukocytes were isolated from whole blood, stained for CD3 (lymphocytes) and HVEM, and evaluated by flow cytometry. Charts were reviewed for injuries sustained, APACHE II score, hospital course, and secondary infections. RESULTS: Trauma patients (n = 31) were older (46.7 ± 2.4 versus 36.8 ± 2.1 y; P = 0.03) than healthy controls (n = 10), but matched for male sex (74% versus 60%; P = 0.4). Trauma patients had higher presenting WBC (13.9 ± 1.3 versus 5.6 ± 0.5 × 106/mL; P = 0.002), lower percentage of CD3+ lymphocytes (7.5% ± 0.8 versus 22.5% ± 0.9; P < 0.001), but significantly greater expression of HVEM+/CD3+ lymphocytes (89.6% ± 1.46 versus 67.3% ± 1.7; P < 0.001). Among trauma patients, secondary infection during the hospitalization was associated with higher APACHE II scores (20.6 ± 1.6 versus 13.6 ± 1.4; P = 0.03) and markedly lower CD3+ lymphocyte HVEM expression (75% ± 2.6 versus 93% ± 0.7; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: HVEM expression on CD3+ cells increases after trauma. Patients developing secondary infections have less circulating HVEM+CD3+. This implies HVEM signaling in lymphocytes plays a role in maintaining host defense to infection in after trauma. HVEM expression may represent a marker of infectious risk as well as a potential therapeutic target, modulating immune responses to trauma.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica , Linfócitos/imunologia , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Ferimentos e Lesões/imunologia , APACHE , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , /diagnóstico , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/imunologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
14.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 97, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitation efforts for traumatic patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are not always futile. Dispatcher-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (DA-CPR) during emergency calls could increase the rate of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and thus may enhance survival and neurologic outcomes of non-traumatic OHCA. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of DA-CPR for traumatic OHCA. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an Utstein-style population database with data from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016, in Tainan City, Taiwan. Voice recordings of emergency calls were retrospectively retrieved and reviewed. The primary outcome was an achievement of sustained (≥2 h) return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC); the secondary outcomes were prehospital ROSC, ever ROSC, survival at discharge and favourable neurologic status at discharge. Statistical significance was set at a p-value of less than 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 4526 OHCA cases were enrolled. Traumatic OHCA cases (n = 560, 12.4%), compared to medical OHCA cases (n = 3966, 87.6%), were less likely to have bystander CPR (10.7% vs. 31.7%, p < 0.001) and initially shockable rhythms (7.1% vs. 12.5%, p < 0.001). Regarding DA-CPR performance, traumatic OHCA cases were less likely to have dispatcher recognition of cardiac arrest (6.3% vs. 42.0%, p < 0.001), dispatcher initiation of bystander CPR (5.4% vs. 37.6%, p < 0.001), or any dispatcher delivery of CPR instructions (2.7% vs. 20.3%, p < 0.001). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that witnessed cardiac arrests (aOR 1.70, 95% CI 1.10-2.62; p = 0.017) and transportation to level 1 centers (aOR 1.99, 95% CI 1.27-3.13; p = 0.003) were significantly associated with achievement of sustained ROSC in traumatic OHCA cases, while DA-CPR-related variables were not (All p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DA-CPR was not associated with better outcomes for traumatic OHCA in achieving a sustained ROSC. The DA-CPR program for traumatic OHCAs needs further studies to validate its effectiveness and practicability, especially in the communities where rules for the termination of resuscitation in prehospital settings do not exist.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/etiologia , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e18145, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypotensive resuscitation is an old study. But its benefits and losses are still controversial. In clinic, the method of fluid resuscitation needs more reliable experimental evidence. This study's objective is to systematically evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in patients with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Through October 2019, Web of Science, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Clinical Trials will be systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Strict screening and quality evaluation will be independently performed on the obtained literature by 2 researchers; outcome indexes will be extracted, and a meta-analysis will be performed on the data using Revman 5.3 software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The stronger evidence about the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation in traumatic hemorrhagic shock will be provided for clinicians. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019133169. STRENGTHS OF THIS STUDY: This study is not only a simple combination of data, but also to verify and discuss the reliability of the results, and provide more convincing evidence for clinicians. LIMITATIONS OF THIS STUDY: Firstly, according to the previous literature researching, it is found that the number of relevant randomized controlled trials is small and the quality level of the literature is uneven. Secondly, the efficacy of hypotensive resuscitation is discussed for a long time, different trials may take place at different times. Comparability between different trials is reduced.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Hipotensão Controlada/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
16.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 172, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of psychosocial problems post-injury may prevent them from becoming chronic. Currently, there is no psychosocial screening instrument that can be used in patients surviving a physical trauma or injury. Therefore, we recently developed a psychosocial screening instrument for adult physical trauma patients, the PSIT. The aim of this study was to finalize and psychometrically examine the PSIT. METHODS: All adult (≥ 18 years) trauma patients admitted to a Dutch level I trauma center from October 2016 through September 2017 without severe cognitive disorders (n = 1448) received the PSIT, Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated version (WHOQOL-Bref). After 2 weeks, a subgroup of responding participants received the PSIT a second time. The internal structure (principal components analysis, PCA; and confirmatory factor analysis, CFA), internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha, α), test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC), construct validity (Spearman's rho correlations), diagnostic accuracy (Area Under the Curve, AUC), and potential cut-off values (sensitivity and specificity) were examined. RESULTS: A total of 364 (25.1%) patients participated, of whom 128 completed the PSIT again after 19.5 ± 6.8 days. Test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.86). Based on PCA, five items were removed because of cross-loadings ≥ 0.3. Three subscales were identified: (1) Negative affect (7 items; α = 0.91; AUC = 0.92); (2) Anxiety and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms (4 items; α = 0.77; AUC = 0.88); and (3) Social and self-image (4 items; α = 0.79; AUC = 0.92). CFA supported this structure (comparative fit index = 0.96; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; standardized rood mean square residual = 0.04). Four of the five a priori formulated hypotheses regarding construct validity were confirmed. The following cut-off values represent maximum sensitivity and specificity: 7 on subscale 1 (89.6% and 83.4%), 3 on subscale 2 (94.4% and 90.3%), and 4 on subscale 3 (85.7% and 90.7%). CONCLUSION: The final PSIT has good psychometric properties in adult trauma patients.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem
17.
Med Care ; 57(12): 924-929, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the critical role that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provides in the health care system, racial/ethnic treatment disparities in EMS remain relatively unexamined. OBJECTIVE: To investigate racial/ethnic treatment disparities in pain assessment and pain medication administration in EMS. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on 25,732 EMS encounters from 2015 to 2017 recorded in the Oregon Emergency Medical Services Information System using multivariate logistic regression models to examine the role of patient race/ethnicity in pain assessment and pain medication administration among patients with a traumatic injury. RESULTS: Hispanic and Asian patients were less likely to receive a pain assessment procedure and all racial/ethnic patients were less likely to receive pain medications compared with white patients. In particular, regarding the adjusted likelihood of receiving a pain assessment procedure, Hispanic patients were 21% less likely [95% confidence interval (CI), 10%-30%; P<0.001], Asian patients were 31% less likely (95% CI, 16%-43%; P<0.001) when compared with white patients. Regarding the adjusted likelihood of receiving any pain medications, black patients were 32% less likely (95% CI, 21%-42%; P<0.001), Hispanic patients were 21% less likely (95% CI, 7%-32%; P<0.01), and Asian patients were 24% less likely (95% CI, 1%-41%; P<0.05) when compared with white patients. CONCLUSIONS: Racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to experience disadvantages in EMS treatment in Oregon. Hispanic and Asian patients who requested EMS services in Oregon for traumatic injuries were less likely to have their pain assessed and all racial/ethnicity patients were less likely to be treated with pain medications when compared with white patients.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Dor/etiologia , Medição da Dor , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
19.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1010-1012, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638515

RESUMO

Many trauma patients present to nontrauma centers with emergency conditions. The Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act dictates that nontrauma centers attempt stabilization and provide appropriate transfer. Our goal was to determine whether there was a survival benefit in transferring hypotensive patients. The Tampa General Hospital trauma registry database was queried for adult trauma transfers from January 2012 to April 2018 including the first recorded systolic blood pressure (SBP) and other pertinent data. A manual chart review in hypotensive (SBP < 90) patients determined blood pressure at the time of transfer. Of the 3038 patients, 40 patients were hypotensive on arrival, with 40% (16) mortality. Eight of nine (88%) patients with SBP <70 on arrival, 3 of 11 (27%) with SBP 70 to 79, and 5 of 20 (25%) with SBP 80 to 89 died. The only survivor in the <70 group was normotensive at transport. Patients in these groups who were hypotensive at the time of transport died (4/4, 100%). Our data show no benefit in transferring patients with refractory hypotension at the time of transport; although the numbers are small, an SBP <70 should be considered prohibitive to transfer.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Transferência de Pacientes , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Florida , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia
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