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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 415: 125685, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088183

RESUMO

In this study, a novel adsorbent, Air Environment-prepared Adsorbent at 250 â„ƒ (AEPA250), was used to detoxify the main fermentation inhibitor (ferulic acid) present in the alkali-pretreated hydrolysate. AEPA250 reduced the effective concentration of ferulic acid by its adsorption, thereby decreasing the possible interaction of ferulic acid with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results indicated that AEPA250 functionalized with hydroxyl, carboxyl, and amino groups under acidic conditions with higher binding energies (-45.667, -27.046, and -11.008 kcal mol-1, respectively) and electronic cloud overlap and shorter bond distances (1.015, 1.010, and 2.094 Å, respectively) than those under the other pH conditions. These differences revealed that the electrostatic interaction dominated ferulic acid adsorption on AEPA250. Additionally, under acidic conditions and for carboxyl group functionalized AEPA250, energy band gap values of Eg1 were higher than those of Eg2, indicating that ferulic acid provided the π-electrons for the π-π electron donor-acceptor interactions with AEPA250. Furthermore, ferulic acid detoxification after AEPA250 adsorption caused the regulation of YDR316W-B and YPR137C-B genes of S. cerevisiae. These results might contribute to the development of other more efficient adsorbents and pretreatment methods and allow yeast engineering for improving the scale-up and self-sufficient production of bioethanol in the future.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aminoácidos , Fermentação
2.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(11): 2700-2713, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115624

RESUMO

Bioconversion (e.g. anaerobic fermentation and compost) is the common recycling method of waste activated sludge (WAS) and its hydrolysis, as the rate-limiting step of fermentation, could be accelerated by protease. However, the commercial protease was unstable in a sludge environment, which increased the cost. An endogenous alkaline protease stable in sludge environment was screened in this study and its suitability for treating the sludge was analyzed. The optimal production medium was determined by Response Surface Methodology as starch 20 g/L, KH2PO4 4 g/L, MgSO4·7H2O 1 g/L, sodium carboxy-methyl-cellulose 4 g/L, casein 4 g/L and initial pH 11.3, which elevated the yield of protease by up to 15 times (713.46 U/mL) compared with the basal medium. The obtained protease was active and stable at 35 °C-50 °C and pH 7.0-11.0. Furthermore, it was highly tolerant to sludge environment and maintained high efficiency of sludge hydrolysis for a long time. Thus, the obtained protease significantly hydrolyzed WAS and improved its bioavailability. Overall, this work provided a new insight for enzymatic treatment of WAS by isolating the endogenous and stable protease in a sludge environment, which would promote the resource utilization of WAS by further bioconversion.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Esgotos , Proteínas de Bactérias , Endopeptidases , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
3.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(11): 2724-2731, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115626

RESUMO

Mezcal is an alcoholic artisanal drink made from agave plants in Mexico. Its production causes the generation of wastewater called vinasses, which are highly polluting residues due to its concentration of organic matter as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (35,000-122,000 mg/L) and acidity (pH < 4). Due to their organic content, these residues can be used in dark fermentation to obtain biogas, which is rich in hydrogen. In this work, the acclimation of inoculum by means of a dark fermentation process, in the presence of toxic compounds from mezcal vinasses was studied. The strategy of increasing the initial concentration of vinasse in each treatment cycle in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) reactor was applied. It was possible to obtain a maximum biogas production of 984 ± 187 mL/L, from vinasses (18,367 ± 1,200 mg COD/L), with an organic matter removal efficiency of 20 ± 1%. A maximum generation of volatile fatty acids (VFA) of 980 ± 538 mg/L equivalent to a production of 74 ± 21% of the influent concentration and removal rate of organic matter of 1,125 ± 234 mg COD/L d-1 equivalent to a removal efficiency of 20 ± 4% was obtained from vinasses with a concentration of 19,648 ± 1,702 mg COD/L.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Aclimatação , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , México
4.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(5): 1697-1720, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085450

RESUMO

Tetracarbon organic acids are important platform chemicals that are widely used in the food, chemical, medicine, material industries and agriculture. Compared with the traditional petrochemical process, the production of tetracarbon organic acids by microbial fermentation is more promising due to milder reaction conditions, greener process and better environmental compatibility. This review summarizes the biosynthetic pathways and metabolic mechanisms for the production of tetracarbon organic acids, and illustrates recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives in the production of tetracarbon organic acids by naturally selected or purposefully engineered strains.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica , Compostos Orgânicos , Ácidos , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação
5.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(5): 1771-1793, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085454

RESUMO

Metabolic engineering has been developed for nearly 30 years since the early 1990s, and it has given a great impetus to microbial strain breeding and improvement. Aromatic chemicals are a variety of important chemicals that can be produced by microbial fermentation and are widely used in the pharmaceutical, food, feed, and material industry. Microbial cells can be engineered to accumulate a variety of useful aromatic chemicals in a targeted manner through rational engineering of the biosynthetic pathways of shikimate and the derived aromatic amino acids. This review summarizes the metabolic engineering strategies and biosynthetic pathways for the production of aromatic chemicals developed in the past 30 years, with the aim to provide a valuable reference and promote the research in this field.


Assuntos
Engenharia Metabólica , Ácido Chiquímico , Vias Biossintéticas , Fermentação
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5764-5773, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973775

RESUMO

Common buckwheat sprout (CBS) contains more flavone C-glycosides (FCGs) and flavonol O-glycosides (FOGs) than does common buckwheat seed. Both flavonoids in CBS are well known for providing benefits to human health. However, they are relatively less bioaccessible and more directly degradable to aglycone during digestion than are multiglycosylated flavonoids. To overcome such limitations, the water solubility and digestion stability of FCGs and FOGs were enhanced by transglycosylation using cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase. Gastric conditions had little effect on the stability of FCGs and FOGs and their enzyme-modified compounds. In contrast, under intestinal conditions, transglycosylated FCGs lost a glucose moiety and reverted to their parent compounds before transglycosylation. Under colonic fermentation using human fecal samples, the different profiles and concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were suggested to be mainly due to the presence of transglycosylated FCGs and FOGs. These findings indicate that the process of transglycosylation changes the bioaccessibility of flavonoids in CBS.


Assuntos
Fagopyrum , Digestão , Fermentação , Flavonoides , Glicosídeos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5663-5670, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983023

RESUMO

R-(-)-Linalool is widely used in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and fragrance industries; however, its applications are limited owing to low yield and high cost of production. To improve the production efficiency of R-(-)-linalool in Escherichia coli, three enzymes [E. coli-derived isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, Abies grandis-derived geranyl diphosphate synthase, and Streptomyces clavuligerus-derived (3R)-linalool synthases] were physically colocalized to synthetic complexes using synthetic protein scaffolds of GTPase-binding domain, Src homology 3, and PSD95/DlgA/Zo-1. R-(-)-Linalool was produced at the highest concentration in the strain IGL114 containing a scaffold ratio of 1:1:4. By further optimizing the inducer, temperature, and glycerol concentration, the production titer of R-(-)-linalool in the shake flask was increased by approximately 10 times compared with that of the scaffold-free control and was 2.78 times the previously reported yield. The production in the fermenter was about 1.5 times the previous highest production. In general, the final strain accumulated 277.8 and 1523.2 mg/L R-(-)-linalool under the conditions of shake-flask and fed-batch fermentation, respectively. This study provides a foundation for the assembly of bacterial intracellular protein scaffolds.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Engenharia Metabólica , Monoterpenos Acíclicos , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Streptomyces
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003738

RESUMO

A novel anaerobic, alkaliphilic, mesophilic, Gram-stain-positive, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from an alkaline thermal spring (42 °C, pH 9.0) in New Caledonia. This bacterium, designated strain LB2T, grew at 25-50 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and pH 8.2-10.8 (optimum, pH 9.5). Added NaCl was not required for growth (optimum, 0-1 %) but was tolerated up to 7 %. Strain LB2T utilized a limited range of substrates, such as peptone, pyruvate, yeast extract and xylose. End products detected from pyruvate fermentation were acetate and formate. Both ferric citrate and thiosulfate were used as electron acceptors. Elemental sulphur, nitrate, nitrite, fumarate, sulphate, sulfite and DMSO were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The two major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The genome consists of a circular chromosome (3.7 Mb) containing 3626 predicted protein-encoding genes with a G+C content of 36.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the isolate is a member of the family Proteinivoraceae, order Clostridiales within the phylum Firmicutes. Strain LB2T was most closely related to the thermophilic Anaerobranca gottschalkii LBS3T (93.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence identity). Genome-based analysis of average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization of strain LB2T with A. gottschalkii LBS3T showed respective values of 70.8 and 13.4 %. Based on phylogenetic, genomic, chemotaxonomic and physiological properties, strain LB2T is proposed to represent the first species of a novel genus, for which the name Alkalicella caledoniensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed (type strain LB2T=DSM 100588T=JCM 30958T).


Assuntos
Clostridiales/classificação , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Filogenia , Anaerobiose , Bactérias Anaeróbias/classificação , Bactérias Anaeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fermentação , Nova Caledônia , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4383-4395, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021810

RESUMO

Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a genotoxic and carcinogenic compound that is also a by-product of fermented foods (bread, sour milk, soy cheese, etc.) and alcoholic beverages (wine, sake, distilled liquor, etc.). Studies have showed that ethyl carbamate is ingested by humans primarily through the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many countries have thus established EC limits for alcoholic beverages. Chinese liquor (Baijiu) is a traditional and unique distilled liquor, which has a huge consumption in China due to its excellent color, flavor, and taste. Therefore, the control of EC in Chinese liquor is of great significance. This review summarized for the first time the progress in presence level, analysis method, formation mechanism, and elimination strategy of EC of Chinese liquor in recent decades. KEY POINTS: • GC-MS and HPLC are the main methods to quantify EC in Chinese liquor. • EC is formed in the fermentation, distillation, and storage stage. • EC content can be reduced from raw material, microorganism, and production process.


Assuntos
Uretana , Vinho , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , China , Fermentação , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Uretana/análise , Vinho/análise
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(11): 4357-4367, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021811

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of Gram-negative and strictly aerobic microorganisms widely used in vinegar industry, especially the species belonging to the genera Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter. The environments inhabited by AAB during the vinegar fermentation, in particular those natural traditional bioprocesses, are complex and dynamically changed, usually accompanied by diverse microorganisms, bacteriophages, and the increasing acetic acid concentration. For this reason, how AAB survive to such harsh niches has always been an interesting research field. Previous omic analyses (e.g., genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics) have provided abundant clues for the metabolic pathways and bioprocesses indispensable for the acid stress adaptation of AAB. Nevertheless, it is far from fully understanding what factors regulate these modular mechanisms overtly and covertly upon shifting environments. Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS), usually consisting of a pair of genes encoding a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin that is capable of counteracting the toxin, have been uncovered to have a variety of biological functions. Recent studies focusing on the role of TAS in Acetobacter pasteurianus suggest that TAS contribute substantially to the acid stress resistance. In this mini review, we discuss the biological functions of type II TAS in the context of AAB with regard to the acid stress resistance, persister formation and resuscitation, genome stability, and phage immunity. KEY POINTS: • Type II TAS act as regulators in the acid stress resistance of AAB. • Type II TAS are implicated in the formation of acid-tolerant persister cells in AAB. • Type II TAS are potential factors responsible for phage immunity and genome stability.


Assuntos
Acetobacter , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina , Ácido Acético , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares , Fermentação
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125569, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030415

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic mycotoxin and has strong carcinogenicity. In this study, coumarin was employed as the sole carbon source to isolate the microorganisms that had AFB1 detoxification activity. Among106 strains isolated from fermented foods, one potential strain was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum based on 16S rDNA sequence. Removal ratio of AFB1 was 89.5%, inhibitory ratio to A. flavus growth was 42.8% and inhibitory ratio to A. flavus spores growth was as high as 100%. Coumarin utilization indicated that the AFB1 could be decomposed by the strain. The strong antifungal ability against A. flavus growth and spores growth revealed that AFB1 secretion could be highly inhibited by the strain. In addition, High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis indicated that fermentation supernatant of the strain could degrade AFB1. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy indicated that the strain had a strong resistance to AFB1 and had ability to bind AFB1 on the strain surface. Possible detoxification pathway to AFB1 was proposed. Therefore, the strain with high antifungal, antimycotoxigenic abilities might have great potential and immense value in detoxifying AFB1. The use of the strain might be a promising biocontrol strategy to detoxify AFB1.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus plantarum , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1647: 462153, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957349

RESUMO

Pittosporum angustifolium, known as gumbi gumbi, is a native Australian plant, which has traditionally been used as an Aboriginal medicine. This study investigates the effect of different solvents and extractive fermentation on the content and natural products composition of Pittosporum angustifolium extracts, and compares their antioxidant activity, in vitro α-amylase inhibition, and anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production. Extracts were characterised with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, and screened for antioxidant activities and α-amylase inhibitory activity via High-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC)-Effect-directed analysis (EDA) with direct bioautography. HPTLC combined with chemical derivatization and bioassays was used for EDA screening. The results show that lactic acid fermentation of gumbi gumbi leaves boosts the antioxidant activity in extracts by increasing the total phenolic content, but does not affect (increase or decrease) α-amylase inhibitory activity or nitrogen scavenging/anti-inflammatory activity. Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra from the band at RF = 0.85 that inhibits α-amylase, suggests that fatty acid esters are responsible for the enzyme inhibition; both saturated fatty acid esters in unfermented extracts and unsaturated fatty acid esters in fermented extracts. The ATR-FTIR spectra of the polyphenolics in fermented extracts (RF = 0.15-0.20) suggests the presence of soluble lignin fragments (i.e. lignins depolymerized into monomers and oligomers during the fermentation process).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Rosales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bioensaio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Fermentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
13.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 41(4): 588-592, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Xinhui citrus fermentation liquor on liver fibrosis in mice. OBJECTIVE: Mouse models of liver fibrosis were established by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in 105 male C57BL/6 mice, followed by gavage of 0.1 mL 40% CCl4 olive oil 3 times a week (model group, n=49) or daily gavage of citrus liquor at the dose of 0.26 mL (citrus liquor group, n=56) for 8 weeks. Seven mice receiving only olive oil treatment (0.1 mL, 3 times a week) and another 7 treated with citrus liquor served as the control group. Liver tissues and serum samples were collected from 7 mice in the citrus liquor group and model group each week and from the mice in the two control groups at the 8th week for pathological examination of the liver tissues using HE staining and Sirius red staining and for determination of the biochemical indexes of liver function. OBJECTIVE: The mice in the model group showed progressively worsened liver fibrosis with obvious hepatic steatosis, necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. These liver pathologies were much ameliorated in citrus liquor group, which showed significantly reduced vacuolation, inflammatory cell infiltration, collagen deposition and the Ishak score of the liver tissue (P < 0.05). Serum levels of cholyglycine, alanine aminotransferase, transglutaminase and alanine aminotransferase were all significantly lower in citrus liquor group than in the model group (P < 0.05). OBJECTIVE: Xinhui citrus fermentation liquor has protective effect on the liver and can significantly ameliorate liver fibrosis in mice.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono , Citrus , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(9): 3771-3785, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937924

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soy-based beverages manufactured with water-soluble soy extract, containing probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium longum BB-46) and/or acerola by-product (ABP) on pooled faecal microbiota obtained from lean and obese donors. Four fermented soy beverages (FSs) ("placebo" (FS-Pla), probiotic (FS-Pro), prebiotic (FS-Pre), and synbiotic (FS-Syn)) were subjected to in vitro digestion, followed by inoculation in the TIM-2 system, a dynamic in vitro model that mimics the conditions of the human colon. Short- and branched-chain fatty acids (SCFA and BCFA) and microbiota composition were determined. Upon colonic fermentation in the presence of the different FSs formulations, acetic and lactic acid production was higher than the control treatment for faecal microbiota from lean individuals (FMLI). Additionally, SCFA production by the FMLI was higher than for the faecal microbiota from obese individuals (FMOI). Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. populations increased during simulated colonic fermentation in the presence of FS-Syn in the FMLI and FMOI. FS formulations also changed the composition of the FMOI, resulting in a profile more similar to the FMLI. The changes in the composition and the increase in SCFA production observed for the FMLI and FMOI during these in vitro fermentations suggest a potential modulation effect of these microbiotas by the consumption of functional FSs. KEY POINTS: • Soy beverages increased Bifidobacterium abundance in microbiota from obese individuals. • The synbiotic beverage increased Bifidobacterium abundance in microbiota from lean individuals. • The synbiotic beverage changed the microbiota from obese individuals, approaching the lean profiles.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Leite de Soja , Bebidas , Colo , Fezes , Fermentação , Humanos , Obesidade
15.
J Med Food ; 24(5): 441-451, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009022

RESUMO

Chestnut inner shell (CIS) is rich in phenols and flavonoids such as gallic acid and ellagic acid, which are known to exhibit effective antioxidant and anti-obesity properties. Fermentation using lactic acid bacteria can enhance the physiological activity by increasing the contents of such functional ingredients. In this study, we evaluated the anti-obesity effects of a CIS extract subjected to a fermentation process (fermented CIS [FCIS]). Treatment with CIS and FCIS extracts (125, 250, and 500 µg/mL) increased cell viability and did not induce apoptosis, indicating no toxicity. The extract suppressed the gene expression of adipogenic factors, peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha, and C/EBP beta (by 7.75% and 67.59%, 21.41% and 66.27% in 500 µg/mL, respectively), and consequently suppressed the expression of downstream lipogenic factors such as fatty acid synthase, stearoyl CoA desaturase-1, citrate synthase, and ATP citrate lyase. The expression of factors involved in fat catabolism and ß-oxidation increased in a dose-dependent manner, thereby preventing fat accumulation. This observation was consistent with the significant decrease in the staining intensity for lipid droplets, which indicated that lipid accumulation was decreased by 15.46% and 29.44% in 3T3L-1 and 27.01% and 46.68% in C3H10T1/2. Together, these results demonstrate the higher anti-obesity effects of FCIS extract than that of CIS extract, indicating the potential applicability of FCIS as an effective natural raw material to curb obesity.


Assuntos
Adipócitos , Fármacos Antiobesidade , Células 3T3-L1 , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular , Fermentação , Camundongos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146329, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030225

RESUMO

As a by-product in the pharmaceutical industry, antibiotic fermentation residue is expected to be able to be utilized after effectively removing the antibiotics. However, evaluation of the effect of fermentation residue application on soil, especially the in situ environmental consequences considering not only the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) abundance but also the resistome risk, has still not been sufficiently evaluated. Herein, the impact of treated erythromycin fermentation residue (EFR) on the resistome and risk score in soybean planting soil was investigated. Treated EFR application with dosages of 3750 kg (EFR250) and 7500 kg (EFR500) per hm2 soil did not increase the diversity (Shannon index, 2.84-3.38) or relative abundance (0.086-0.142 copies/16S rRNA gene) of the soil resistome compared with the Control (CK: 2.92-3.2, 0.088-0.096 copies/16S rRNA gene). Soil resistome risk scores calculated by metagenomic assembly, showing the dissemination potential of ARGs, ranged from 22.9 to 25.0, and were also not significantly different between treated EFR amended soil and the Control. Notably, the diversity of the resistome increased at the sprout stage (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05) and the abundance of some ARG types (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, aminoglycoside and tetracycline, etc.) shifted along the course of soybean growth (Kruskal-Wallis test, P < 0.05). Structural equation model analysis showed that the soybean growth period affected the composition of ARGs by affecting the microbial community, which was further supported by Procrustes analysis (P < 0.05) and metagenomic binning. Our findings emphasized that soil ARG abundance and resistome risk did not increase during one-time field application of treated EFR at the studied dosage. Comprehensive consideration including resistome risk and multiple influencing factors also should be given for further assessment of fermentation residue application.


Assuntos
Eritromicina , Solo , Antibacterianos , Fermentação , Genes Bacterianos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo , Soja
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146501, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030262

RESUMO

High arsenic (As) concentrations in groundwater are a worldwide problem threatening the health of millions of people. Microbial processes are central in the (trans)formation of the As-bearing ferric and ferrous minerals, and thus regulate dissolved As levels in many aquifers. Mineralogy, microbiology and dissolved As levels can vary sharply within aquifers, making high-resolution measurements particularly valuable in understanding the linkages between them. We conducted a high spatial resolution geomicrobiological study in combination with analysis of sediment chemistry and mineralogy in an alluvial aquifer system affected by geogenic As in the Red River delta in Vietnam. Microbial community analysis revealed a dominance of fermenters, methanogens and methanotrophs whereas sediment mineralogy along a 46 m deep core showed a diversity of Fe minerals including poorly crystalline Fe (II/III) and Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides such as goethite, hematite, and magnetite, but also the presence of Fe(II)-bearing carbonates and sulfides which likely formed as a result of microbially driven organic carbon (OC) degradation. A potential important role of methane (CH4) as electron donor for reductive Fe mineral (trans)formation was supported by the high abundance of Candidatus Methanoperedens, a known Fe(III)-reducing methanotroph. Overall, these results imply that OC turnover including fermentation, methanogenesis and CH4 oxidation are important mechanisms leading to Fe mineral (trans)formation, dissolution and precipitation, and thus indirectly affecting As mobility by changing the Fe-mineral inventory.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Arsênio/análise , Fermentação , Compostos Férricos , Humanos , Oxirredução , Vietnã , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(9): 2119-2132, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047112

RESUMO

Based on the systematic retrieval and the reported components of Sojae Semen Nigrum and Sojae Semen Praeparatum, this study conducted in-depth analysis of conversion of components in the fermentation process, and discussed types and possible mec-hanisms of conversion of chemical components, so as to provide the basis for studying technology, medicinal ingredients and quality standards. According to the analysis, there is a certain degree of conversion of nutrients(like protein, sugar, lipid), bioactive substances(like isoflavones, saponins, γ-aminobutyric acid) and other substances(like nucleosides, melanoids, biamines, etc) in the process of fermentation.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Soja , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fermentação , Isoflavonas/análise , Sêmen/química
19.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946291

RESUMO

Interest in the use of non-Saccharomyces yeast in mixed cultures is increasing due to the perceived improvement in the quality and complexity of the resulting wines. The aim of the study was to determine the ability of monocultures and mixed yeast cultures for deacidification and improvement of the composition of cold climate grape wines. Fermentation of grape musts with increased total acidity was carried out with the use of monocultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae MH020215 (Sc), Zygosaccharomyces bailii 749 (Zb) and Metschnikowia pulcherrima MG970690 (Mp), and their mixed cultures, inoculated simultaneously and sequentially. Oenological parameters, organic acids and volatile compounds profiles of obtained wines were characterized. The fermentation kinetics and analytical profiles of the obtained wines showed that the use of mixed yeast cultures contributed to the reduction of volatile acidity and acetic acid content in the wines, as well as obtaining a favorable aromatic profile of the wines. The dominant higher alcohols in all wines were 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Significantly higher amounts of the first two compounds were found in wines obtained with M. pulcherrima MG070690, both in monoculture and in mixed cultures. The monocultures of M. pulcherrima MG070690 (Mp) compared with Z. bailli 749 (Zb) synthesized higher levels of esters in wines, including ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, isobutyl acetate, ethyl pyroracemate and isoamyl acetate.


Assuntos
Clima Frio , Fermentação , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Leveduras/metabolismo , Ácidos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Vinho/normas
20.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33946451

RESUMO

Kefir beverage (KB) is a fermented milk initiated by kefir grains rich with starter probiotics. The KB produced in this study seemed to contain many chemical compounds elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and IR spectra. These compounds could be classified into different chemical groups such as alcohols, phenols, esters, fatty esters, unsaturated fatty esters, steroids, polyalkenes, heterocyclic compounds and aromatic aldehydes. Both KB and neutralized kefir beverage (NKB) inhibited some pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli ATCC11229 (E. coli), Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 4957 (L. monocytogenes), Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 (B. cereus), Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 (Sal. typhimurium) as well as some tested fungal strains such as Aspergillus flavus ATCC 16872 (A. flavus) and Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611 (A. niger), but the inhibitory activity of KB was more powerful than that obtained by NKB. It also appeared to contain four lactic acid bacteria species, one acetic acid bacterium and two yeast species. Finally, the KB inhibited distinctively both S. aureus and Sal. typhimurium bacteria in a brain heart infusion broth and in some Egyptian fruit juices, including those made with apples, guava, strawberries and tomatoes.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Kefir/análise , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Temperatura
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