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1.
Food Funct ; 12(5): 1983-1995, 2021 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537688

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect of young apple polyphenols (YAP) on starch digestion and gut microbiota, complexes of native wheat starch (NWS) with YAP, and their main components chlorogenic acid (CA) and phlorizin (P) were fabricated and gelatinized. Through XRD and FTIR analysis, it was found that the partial crystalline structure of NWS was destroyed during gelatinization, and the addition of P decreased the extent of destruction. Then, the gelatinized starchy samples were subjected to in vitro digestion. The wheat starch (WS)-phenolic compound complexes significantly suppressed the digestion rate and increased the proportion of resistant starch (RS) in WS. Furthermore, the residual starchy components after digestion were fermented by human fecal samples for 24 h. The WS-YAP complex greatly increased the concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic and propionic acids, and enhanced the growth of health-promoting gut microbiota such as Prevotella. Conclusively, YAP was shown to play a positive role in maintaining blood glucose balance and intestinal health.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Cristalização , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Frutas/química , Gelatina/química , Humanos , Amido/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111822, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418156

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution can serve as a selective pressure for antibiotic resistance genes in polluted environments. Anaerobic fermentation, as a recommended wastewater treatment method, is an effective mitigation measure of antibiotic resistance diffusion. To explore the influence of copper on anaerobic fermentation, we exposed the fermentation substrate to copper in a laboratory setup. We found that the relative abundance of 8 genes (pcoD, tetT, tetA, tetB, tetO, qnrS, ermA and ermB) increased at the late stage of fermentation and their abundance was linked to copper content. Corynebacterium and Streptococcus were significantly positively correlated with ermA, ermB, tetA and tetB (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of tetT was significantly positively correlated with Terrisporobacter, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Turicibacter (P < 0.05). We screened 90 strains of copper resistant bacteria from blank, medium and high copper test groups on days 25, 31 and 37. The number of fragments carried by a single strain increased with time while intl1, ermA and ermB existed in almost all combinations of the multiple fragments we identified. The relative abundance of these three genes were linearly correlated with Corynebacterium and Streptococcus. The antibiotic resistance genes carried by class 1 integrons gradually increased with time in the fermentation system and integrons carrying ermA and ermB most likely contributed to host survival through the late stages of fermentation. The genera Corynebacterium and Streptococcus may be the primary carriers of such integrated mobile gene element and this was most likely the reason for their rebound in relative abundance during the late fermentation stages.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Integrons/genética , Purificação da Água
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1630-1644, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358160

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of feeding dairy calves starter diets containing 19% or 22% crude protein (CP) content on a dry matter basis and either supplemented or not with soybean oil (SBO, 0 vs. 3%, dry matter basis) on growth performance, digestibility, urinary nitrogen, and purine derivatives (PD) excretion. A total of 48 female Holstein dairy calves (mean 39.8 kg of body weight) were randomly distributed to experimental diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The 4 dietary treatments were (1) starter diet without SBO supplement and 19% CP (NSBO-19CP), (2) starter diet without SBO supplement and 22% CP (NSBO-22CP), (3) starter diet with 3% SBO and 19% CP (SBO-19CP), and (4) starter diet with 3% SBO and 22% CP (SBO-22CP). Milk feeding value was similarly based on a constant protocol across experimental treatments and calves had ad libitum access to water and starter diets throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 63 of age and remained in the study until d 83 of age. Calves supplemented with SBO had lower starter feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) and lower feed efficiency (FE) but had a higher fecal score indicating a higher likelihood of diarrhea occurrence compared with unsupplemented calves. Wither heights, digestibilities of organic matter, CP, and neutral detergent fiber were decreased, and ruminal volatile fatty acids tended to be reduced, and the molar proportion of ruminal butyrate (preweaning) and acetate (postweaning) reduced by supplemental SBO. The urinary allantoin and total PD excretion were reduced; however, urinary nitrogen excretion was increased when calves were supplemented with SBO. The CP amount did not affect starter feed intake, FE, or diarrhea occurrence rate, whereas the 22CP diets increased neutral detergent fiber digestibility, improved ADG (tendency), and increased allantoin and urinary PD excretion compared with the 19CP diets. The starter feed intake, ADG, FE, diarrhea occurrence rate, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation were not affected by the interaction between starter SBO and CP level; however, hip height and total PD in calves that received the SBO-22CP diets were higher than those fed the SBO-19CP diets. In conclusion, based on our experimental conditions, supplemental SBO could not be recommended for dairy calves. Furthermore, our findings indicate that SBO has negative effects on performance more attributed to reducing starter intake, digestibility, and ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration rather than because of a limitation of starter metabolizable protein supply and intestinal amino acid availability. Therefore, our results indicate that feeding the higher starter CP content is not a viable strategy to compensate for the negative effects of SBO supplementation on the growth performance of dairy calves.


Assuntos
Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Purinas/urina , Rúmen/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Soja/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Desmame
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1604-1619, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358812

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to understand ruminal effects of diet modification during moderate milk fat depression (MFD) and ruminal effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid (HMTBa) and isoacids on alleviating MFD. Five ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design with the following 5 dietary treatments (dry matter basis): a high-forage and low-starch control diet with 1.5% safflower oil (HF-C); a low-forage and high-starch control diet with 1.5% safflower oil (LF-C); the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa (0.11%; 28 g/d; LF-HMTBa); the LF-C diet supplemented with isoacids [(IA) 0.24%; 60 g/d; LF-IA]; and the LF-C diet supplemented with HMTBa and IA (LF-COMB). The experiment consisted of 5 periods with 21 d per period (14-d diet adaptation and 7-d sampling). Ruminal samples were collected to determine fermentation characteristics (0, 1, 3, and 6 h after feeding), long-chain fatty acid (FA) profile (6 h after feeding), and bacterial community structure by analyzing 16S gene amplicon sequences (3 h after feeding). Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) in a Latin square design. Preplanned comparisons between HF-C and LF-C were conducted, and the main effects of HMTBa and IA and their interaction within the LF diets were examined. The LF-C diet decreased ruminal pH and the ratio of acetate to propionate, with no major changes detected in ruminal FA profile compared with HF-C. The α-diversity for LF-C was lower compared with HF-C, and ß-diversity also differed between LF-C and HF-C. The relative abundance of bacterial phyla and genera associated indirectly with fiber degradation was influenced by LF-C versus HF-C. As the main effect of HMTBa within the LF diets, HMTBa increased the ratio of acetate to propionate and butyrate molar proportion. Ruminal saturated FA were increased and unsaturated FA concentration were decreased by HMTBa, with minimal changes detected in ruminal bacterial diversity and community. As the main effect of IA, IA supplementation increased ruminal concentration of all branched-chain volatile FA and valerate and increased the percentage of trans-10 C18 isomers in total FA. In addition, α-diversity and the number of functional features were increased for IA. Changes in the abundances of bacterial phyla and genera were minimal for IA. Interactions between HMTBa and IA were observed for ruminal variables and some bacterial taxa abundances. In conclusion, increasing diet fermentability (LF-C vs. HF-C) influenced rumen fermentation and bacterial community structure without major changes in FA profile. Supplementation of HMTBa increased biohydrogenation capacity, and supplemental IA increased bacterial diversity, possibly alleviating MFD. The combination of HMTBa and IA had no associative effects in the rumen and need further studies to understand the interactive mechanism.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
5.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2234: 99-111, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165783

RESUMO

Trichoderma reesei is capable of secreting large amounts of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. Although the genome sequence of T. reesei has been available, the molecular mechanisms of the hyper-production of cellulases, including the transcriptional regulation and the protein secretion, have not been completely elucidated yet. This is partially due to the lack of genetic manipulation approaches. RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for functional genomic studies in eukaryotes. Some successful examples of RNAi have already been reported; however, these systems were either uncontrolled or relied on a nutrient source inducible promoter. Here, we present a copper-controlled RNAi system in T. reesei for reversible silencing of different target genes. As the proof of concept, T.reesei xyr1, the key transcriptional activator of cellulase genes, has been knocked down using this method.


Assuntos
Cobre/farmacologia , Hypocreales/genética , Interferência de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Fúngico/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hypocreales/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Plasmídeos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transformação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13486, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222328

RESUMO

Pyruvate and creatine, energetics and antioxidant substances, can promote rumen fermentation and metabolism. This study aimed to evaluate the stress resistance and rumen fermentation effects of the compound creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) in diets for beef cattle under heat stress. Four Jinjiang steers fitted with permanent rumen cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and fed a diet supplemented with CrPyr at 0, 20, 40, or 60 g/d. Heat stress was employed for 62 of 64 days. Supplementing with CrPyr elevated their levels of free triiodothyronine and triiodothyronine, superoxide dismutase activity, ruminal pH value, microbial crude protein concentration, crude fat digestibility, nitrogen intake, and levels of urine allantoin and total purine derivatives. It also reduced their levels of cortisol and corticosterone, malondialdehyde concentration, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and urine nitrogen excretion. In conclusion, CrPyr relieves the heat stress of beef cattle by improving antioxidant activity and rumen microbial protein synthesis.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Creatina , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Ácido Pirúvico , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Creatina/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Ácido Pirúvico/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13464, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021004

RESUMO

Methyl-mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), a new sugar esterified lipid synthesized by Pseudozyma aphidis, was assessed for its functionality in modulating rumen fermentation and microbiota toward more propionate and less methane production. A pure culture study using rumen representatives showed that MEL selectively inhibited the growth of most Gram-positive bacteria including Streptococcus bovis, ruminococci, and Fibrobacter succinogenes, but not Gram-negative bacteria such as Megasphaera elsdenii, Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens, and Selenomonas ruminantium. A batch culture study revealed that MEL significantly decreased methane production in a dose-dependent manner with accumulation of hydrogen, while propionate production was enhanced. A continuous culture (Rusitec) study confirmed all of these changes. A feeding study revealed that sheep fed a MEL diet showed an increased proportion of propionate, while proportions of acetate and butyrate were decreased without affecting total VFA level. These changes disappeared after cessation of MEL feeding. Based on these results, dietary application of MEL can favorably modify rumen fermentation in terms of the efficiency of dietary energy utilization.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Antibacterianos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/administração & dosagem , Glicolipídeos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Tensoativos/farmacologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Metabolismo Energético , Masculino , Metano/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Ovinos
8.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(5): 496-502, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758402

RESUMO

Four different pesticide residues used in barley planting were selected to investigate their effects on simulated beer brewing. The influences were found to be different by varied agricultural chemicals. Among the four types of pesticides, at 25 µg/mL, triadimefon or carbendazim barely affected the brewing progress. However, ethametsulfuron-methyl and carbaryl (15 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively) exhibited slightly inhibition on saccharification and significantly negative impacts on yeast growth and alcohol fermentation. After pretreated by 50 µL carbaryl-degrading enzyme with the Kcat value of 2.12 s-1 at 30°C for 90 min, the negative influence on simulated beer brewing brought by carbaryl can be eliminated in the fermentation system containing 2.5 µg/mL carbaryl. The efficiency of ethanol fermentation was improved, and the removal rate of carbaryl in the brewing system was greatly accelerated. Taken together, this study suggested a potential method for solving the fermentation inhibition by pesticide residues.


Assuntos
Cerveja/análise , Enzimas/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/metabolismo , Resíduos de Praguicidas/farmacologia , Cerveja/microbiologia , Benzimidazóis/metabolismo , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Carbamatos/metabolismo , Carbamatos/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/química , Triazóis/metabolismo , Triazóis/farmacologia
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7124-7140, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600762

RESUMO

Within the rumen, nitrate can serve as an alternative sink for aqueous hydrogen [H2(aq)] accumulating during fermentation, producing nitrite, which ideally is further reduced to ammonium but can accumulate under conditions not yet explained. Defaunation has also been associated with decreased methanogenesis in meta-analyses because protozoa contribute significantly to H2 production. In the present study, we applied a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to dual-flow continuous culture fermentors (n = 4). Treatments were control without nitrate (-NO3-) versus with nitrate (+NO3-; 1.5% of diet dry matter), factorialized with normal protozoa (faunated, FAUN) versus defaunation (DEF) by decreasing the temperature moderately and changing filters over the first 4 d of incubation. We detected no main effects of DEF or interaction of faunation status with +NO3-. The main effect of +NO3- increased H2(aq) by 11.0 µM (+117%) compared with -NO3-. The main effect of +NO3- also decreased daily CH4 production by 8.17 mmol CH4/d (31%) compared with -NO3-. Because there were no treatment effects on neutral detergent fiber digestibility, the main effect of +NO3- also decreased CH4 production by 1.43 mmol of CH4/g of neutral detergent fiber degraded compared with -NO3-. There were no effects of treatment on other nutrient digestibilities, N flow, or microbial N flow per gram of nutrient digested. The spike in H2(aq) after feeding NO3- provides evidence that methanogenesis is inhibited by substrate access rather than concentration, regardless of defaunation, or by direct inhibition of NO2-. Methanogens were not decreased by defaunation, suggesting a compensatory increase in non-protozoa-associated methanogens or an insignificant contribution of protozoa-associated methanogens. Despite adaptive reduction of NO3- to NH4+ and methane inhibition in continuous culture, practical considerations such as potential to depress dry matter intake and on-farm ration variability should be addressed before considering NO3- as an avenue for greater sustainability of greenhouse gas emissions in US dairy production.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitratos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogênio/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369600

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-treated wheat straw pellets and a recombinant fibrolytic enzyme on the rumen microbiome, rumen fermentation parameters, total tract diet digestibility, and performance of lambs. Eight rumen cannulated wethers and 60 lambs (n = 15 per diet, 8 rams and 7 ewes) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design digestibility study and a complete randomized growth performance study, respectively. Four treatment diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial structure with AFEX wheat straw (0% or 30% AFEX straw pellets on a dietary DM basis replacing alfalfa hay pellets) and fibrolytic enzyme (with or without XYL10C, a ß-1,4-xylanase, from Aspergillus niger) as main factors. Enzyme was applied at 100 mg/kg of diet DM, 22 h before feeding. Rumen bacteria diversity Pielou evenness decreased (P = 0.05) with AFEX compared with the control diet and increased (P < 0.01) with enzyme. Enzyme increased (P ≤ 0.02) the relative abundancies of Prevotellaceae UCG-004, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Saccharofermentans, and uncultured Kiritimatiellaeota. Total protozoa counts were greater (P ≤ 0.04) in the rumen of lambs fed AFEX compared with control, with enzyme reducing (P ≤ 0.05) protozoa counts for both diets. Digestibility of DM did not differ (P > 0.10) among diets, but digestibility of CP was reduced (P = 0.001), and digestibility of NDF and ADF increased (P < 0.05) as AFEX replaced alfalfa. Compared with control, AFEX promoted greater DMI (P = 0.003) and improved ADG up to 42 d on feed (P = 0.03), but not (P = 0.51) over the full ~94-d experiment. Consequently, overall G:F was reduced (P = 0.04) for AFEX when compared with control (0.188 vs. 0.199), but days on feed were lower (P = 0.04) for AFEX (97 vs. 91 d). Enzyme improved DMI of AFEX up to day 70 (P = 0.01), but did not affect DMI of the control diet. Enzyme addition improved ADG of lambs fed both diets in the first 28 d (P = 0.02), but not over the entire feeding period (P ≥ 10). As a result, G:F was improved with enzyme for the first 28 d (P = 0.04), but not overall (P = 0.45). This study shows that AFEX-treated wheat straw can replace alfalfa hay with no loss in lamb growth performance. Additionally, the enzyme XYL10C altered the rumen microbiome and improved G:F in the first month of the feeding.


Assuntos
Amônia/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos/fisiologia , Triticum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Masculino , Proteínas Recombinantes , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298315

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of medicinal herbal mixtures rich in phenolic, flavonoid and alkaloid compounds on ruminal fermentation and microbial populations, and fatty acid (FA) concentrations and lipid oxidation in tissues of lambs infected with the gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasite (Haemonchus contortus). Parallel in vitro and in vivo studies were performed using two different herbal mixtures (Mix1 and Mix2). The in vitro study was conducted in a 2 (infection status; non-infected versus infected) × 3 (diets; control, Mix1 and Mix2) factorial design. In the in vivo study, 24 lambs were equally divided into four treatments: non-infected lambs fed a control diet, infected lambs fed the control diet, infected lambs fed a diet with Mix1 and infected lambs fed a diet with Mix2. Herbal mixtures (100 g dry matter (DM)/d) were added to the basal diets of meadow hay (ad libitum) and a commercial concentrate (500 g DM/d). The experimental period lasted for 70 days. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and methane production were not affected by infection in vivo or in vitro. Both herbal mixture supplementation increased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations (P < 0.01) and DM digestibility (P < 0.01) in vitro. Archaea population was slightly diminished by both herbal mixtures (P < 0.05), but they did not lower methane production in vitro or in vivo (P > 0.05). Infection of H. contortus or herbal mixtures modulated FA proportion mainly in the liver, especially the long chain FA proportion. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in serum were significantly higher after 70 days post-infection in the infected lambs. Herbal Mix1 supplementation reduced TBARS concentrations in meat after seven days of storage. In conclusion, supplementing of herbal mixtures to the diets of GIN parasite infected lambs did not affect the basic ruminal fermentation parameters. Herbal mixtures may improve few FA proportions mainly in liver as well as decrease lipid oxidation in meat.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Hemoncose/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Rúmen/parasitologia , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/metabolismo
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6676, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317674

RESUMO

Grape-derived proanthocyanidins could act as a protector against various environmental stresses for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation, resulting in the increased physiological activity, fermentation efficiency and improved wine quality. In order to explore the possible protection mechanism of proanthocyanidins globally, RNA-seq analysis for wine yeast AWRI R2 cultivated with 0 g/L (group A), 0.1 g/L (group B), 1.0 g/L (group C) proanthocyanidins were applied in this study. Differentially expressed genes were enriched into six metabolic pathways including vitamin B6, thiamine, amino acids, aminoacyl-tRNA, carbohydrate and steroid based on KEGG enrichment analysis. Four key genes (SNZ2, THI6, THI21 and THI80), participated in the biosynthesis of vitamin B6 and thiamine, were up-regulated significantly in proanthocyanidins treated yeast cells and the gene expression levels were verified by RT-qPCR. Yeast cells supplemented with proanthocyanidins performed increased intracellular levels of vitamin B6 and thiamine and higher cell viability compared to the control group. In addition, the composition of intracellular fatty acids showed an obvious alternation in proanthocyanidins-treated yeast cells, in which the UFAs content increased whereas the SFA content decreased. In general, we provided an indirect protection effect of proanthocyanidins on the yeast cells to alleviate environmental stresses during wine fermentation.


Assuntos
Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiamina/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/genética , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230200, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214324

RESUMO

Statins, a class of drugs that can effectively remove cholesterol from serum, are used to regulate plasma total cholesterol and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases, but it is still unclear whether the drug are modulated by gut microbiota or the structures of gut microbiota are shaped by statins. We investigated the interactions between statins and the human gut microbiota during the in vitro fermentation process by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. The presence of fluvastatin (FLU2) specifically promoted the growth of Escherichia/Shigella, Ruminococcaceae UCG 014, and Sutterella. However, the composition of the gut bacterial microbiota remained relatively static in samples treated with rosuvastatin (ROS), simvastatin (SIM), and atorvastatin (ATO). The PICRUSt program predicted moderate differences in the functional categories related to the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, cellular processes and signaling, and signal transduction in the FLU2 fermentation samples. Our study revealed substantial variation in the structure and function of microbiomes from the FLU2-treated samples. In addition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were also significantly decreased in FLU2-treated samples compared with the samples treated with other stains. Statins can be degraded by the human gut microbiota in vitro, and the degradation rate was approximately 7%-30% and 19%-48% after fermentation was allowed to proceed for 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Generally, FLU2 could largely shape the composition and function of human gut microbiota, which resulted in changes in the production of SCFAs. In turn, all statins could be degraded or modified by the gut microbiota. Our study paves the way for elucidating statin-gut microbiota interactions in vitro towards the improvement of the host health and personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Benef Microbes ; 11(1): 91-99, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066261

RESUMO

As a member of photosynthetic bacteria, Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which has extraordinary metabolic versatility, has been applied as one of potential probiotics in feed industry. To explore whether R. palustris can increase rumen microbial viability and thus improve microbial fermentation, a 2×5 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of R. palustris at dose rates of 0, 1.3, 2.6, 3.9, 5.2×106 cfu/ml on ruminal fermentation of two representative total mixed rations (HY, a ration for high-yield (>32 kg/d) lactating cows; LY, a ration for low-yield (<25 kg/d) lactating cows). After a 48 h in vitro rumen incubation, both rations resulted in different fermentation characteristics. The HY in comparison with LY group presented greater in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), cumulative gas production (GP48) and total volatile fatty acids (VFA, P<0.01). Increasing R. palustris addition linearly increased IVDMD (P<0.01) and GP48 (P<0.05), and the IVDMD increment in response to R. palustris addition was greater in LY than HY group (6.4% vs 1.4%). Meanwhile, increasing R. palustris addition also linearly enhanced microbial protein synthesis and increased total VFA production (P<0.01), especially in LY group (up to 21.5% and 24.5% respectively). Unchanged acetate and declined propionate in molar percentage were observed in response to the R. palustris addition. Furthermore, increasing R. palustris addition altered fermentation gas composition in which molar O2 proportion in headspace of fermentation system was linearly reduced by 46.1% in LY and 32.9% in HY group, respectively (P<0.01), and methane production in both ration groups was enhanced by 1.9-4.1% (P=0.02). In summary, the R. palustris addition exhibited high potential for promoting the growth of rumen microorganism and enhancing microbial fermentation towards non-glucogenic energy supply by maintaining an anaerobic environment to microbe equilibrium.


Assuntos
Probióticos/farmacologia , Rodopseudomonas , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1613, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005859

RESUMO

Ruminants contribute to the emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular methane, due to the microbial anaerobic fermentation of feed in the rumen. The rumen simulation technique was used to investigate the effects of the addition of different supplemental plant oils to a high concentrate diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial community composition. The control (CTR) diet was a high-concentrate total mixed ration with no supplemental oil. The other experimental diets were supplemented with olive (OLV), sunflower (SFL) or linseed (LNS) oils at 6%. Rumen digesta was used to inoculate the fermenters, and four fermentation units were used per treatment. Fermentation end-products, extent of feed degradation and composition of the microbial community (qPCR) in digesta were determined. Compared with the CTR diet, the addition of plant oils had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on ruminal pH, substrate degradation, total volatile fatty acids or microbial protein synthesis. Gas production from the fermentation of starch or cellulose were decreased by oil supplementation. Methane production was reduced by 21-28% (P < 0.001), propionate production was increased (P < 0.01), and butyrate and ammonia outputs and the acetate to propionate ratio were decreased (P < 0.001) with oil-supplemented diets. Addition of 6% OLV and LNS reduced (P < 0.05) copy numbers of total bacteria relative to the control. In conclusion, the supplementation of ruminant diets with plant oils, in particular from sunflower or linseed, causes some favorable effects on the fermentation processes. The addition of vegetable oils to ruminant mixed rations will reduce methane production increasing the formation of propionic acid without affecting the digestion of feed in the rumen. Adding vegetable fats to ruminant diets seems to be a suitable approach to decrease methane emissions, a relevant cleaner effect that may contribute to alleviate the environmental impact of ruminant production.


Assuntos
Anaerobiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Propionatos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ovinos/metabolismo
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 74(4): 271-295, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108496

RESUMO

Short and medium-chain fatty acids (SCFA and MCFA, respectively) are commonly used as feed additives in piglets to promote health and prevent post-weaning diarrhoea. Considering that the mechanism and site of action of these fatty acids can differ, a combined supplementation could result in a synergistic action. Considering this, it was aimed to assess the potential of two new in-feed additives based on butyrate or heptanoate, protected with sodium salts of MCFA from coconut distillates, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4+ using an experimental disease model. Two independent trials were performed in 48 early-weaned piglets fed a control diet (CTR) or a diet supplemented with MCFA-protected sodium butyrate (BUT+; Trial 1) or sodium heptanoate (HPT+; Trial 2). After 1 week of adaptation, piglets were challenged with a single oral inoculum of ETEC F4+ (minimum 1.4 · 109 cfu). One animal per pen was euthanised on days 4 and 8 post-inoculation (PI) and the following variables assessed: growth performance, clinical signs, gut fermentation, intestinal morphology, inflammatory mediators, pathogen excretion and colon microbiota. None of the additives recovered growth performance or reduced diarrhoea when compared to the respective negative controls. However, both elicited different responses against ETEC F4+. The BUT+ additive did not lead to reduce E. coli F4 colonisation but enterobacterial counts and goblet cell numbers in the ileum were increased on day 8 PI and this followed higher serum TNF-α concentrations on day 4 PI. The Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio was nevertheless increased. Findings in the HPT+ treatment trial included fewer animals featuring E. coli F4 in the colon and reduced Enterobacteriaceae (determined by 16S RNA sequencing) on day 4 PI. In addition, while goblet cell numbers were lower on day 8 PI, total SCFA levels were reduced in the colon. Results indicate the efficacy of MCFA-protected heptanoate against ETEC F4+ and emphasise the potential trophic effect of MCFA-protected butyrate on the intestinal epithelium likely reinforcing the gut barrier.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Cocos/química , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/anatomia & histologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Heptanoatos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 748-758, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913387

RESUMO

Growing attention has been paid to the importance of bound polyphenols in dietary fiber. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of bound polyphenols on the fermentation and antioxidant properties of carrot dietary fiber (CDF) in vivo and in vitro. Compared with CDF treatment, 16S rRNA pyrosequencing of in vivo mice feces and in vitro human fecal fermentation samples showed that dephenolized carrot dietary fiber (CDF-DF) treatment decreases operational taxonomic units (OTUs), ACE and Chao1 indexes, increases Firmicute/Bacteroidetes ratio and relative abundance (RA) of Parabacteroides at phylum, restrains RAs of typical beneficial bacteria as well as improves RAs of various harmful bacteria at genus. Meanwhile, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) contents were lower, while the pH value was higher in the CDF-DF group than those in the CDF group. Interestingly, the combination of bound polyphenols and CDF-DF (CDDP) could recover these indexes influenced by the removal of bound polyphenols in in vitro fermentation samples. Furthermore, the CDF-DF-fed mice exhibited higher MDA content and lower SOD and GSH-Px activities in the colon. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) value of CDF-DF was lower than that of CDF and CDDP. These results revealed that bound polyphenols significantly contribute to the fermentation and antioxidant properties of CDF.


Assuntos
Daucus carota , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem
18.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 834-845, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932826

RESUMO

A substantial fraction of ingested polyphenols accumulate in the large intestine (LI), attached to undigested plant cell walls (PCW) (dietary fibre). Yet, whether these PCW-bound polyphenols alter the structure and function of the resident microbiota remains unclear. This study characterised bacterial populations during the in vitro fermentation of three standard polyphenols: ferulic acid (FER), (±)-catechin (CAT), and cyanidin-3-glucoside (CYAN), adsorbed individually or in combination to apple cell walls (ACW). During fermentation with porcine faeces, samples were collected at regular time-points (up to 72 hours) for bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and fermentation end-product analyses (short-chain fatty acids and ammonium). The metabolic end-products differed to only a small extent between substrates, though significantly for propionate (P < 0.0001). Significant differences in microbial populations were noted between substrates tested (P < 0.0001). The presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside resulted in the most significant differences between bacterial communities during fermentation of the ACW substrate. Key microbes identified to be associated with the ACW with adsorbed polyphenols as well as individual polyphenols were: Phascolarctobacterium with ACW + FER and FER, the Lachnospiraceae family with ACW + CYAN, Parabacteroides with ACW + CYAN and CYAN, Collinsella and Coprococcus with ACW + CAT, and the Clostridiales order with ACW + CAT and CAT. This study has demonstrated the use of a simplified model to indicate any microbial effects of polyphenols associated with dietary fibre in whole fruits. This work has shown that individual polyphenols, or those adsorbed to PCW, have potentially very different effects on the gut bacteria. Future work could examine further polyphenols associated with a range of fresh fruits.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Células Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Suínos
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2303-2314, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954586

RESUMO

Different inclusion rates of oregano essential oil (OEO) were investigated for their effects on ruminal in vitro fermentation parameters, total gas, methane production, and bacterial communities. Treatments were (1) control, 0 mg/L of OEO (CON); 13 mg/L (OEO1); 52 mg/L (OEO2); 91 mg/L (OEO3); and 130 mg/L (OEO4), each incubated with 150 mL of buffered rumen fluid and 1,200 mg of substrate for 24 h using the Ankom in vitro gas production system (Ankom Technology Corp., Fairport, NY). Treatment responses were statistically analyzed using polynomial contrasts. Digestibility of DM, NDF, and ADF increased quadratically with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Digestibility of DM and NDF were highest for OEO2, whereas ADF digestibility was highest for OEO3, compared with CON, with the remaining treatments being intermediate and similar. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations decreased from CON at a quadratic rate with increasing OEO inclusion rates, and OEO2 had the lowest concentration compared with the other groups. Total VFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate, and isovalerate concentrations linearly decreased with increasing OEO inclusion rates. Total gas production levels by CON and OEO4 were greater than those of OEO1, OEO2, and OEO3 in a quadratic response, and methane production linearly decreased from CON, compared with OEO4, at a decreasing rate with OEO inclusion rates. As determined by 16S rRNA sequencing, the α biodiversity of ruminal bacteria was similar among OEO inclusion rates. Increasing OEO inclusion rates linearly increased the relative abundance of Prevotella and Dialister bacteria. Several bacteria demonstrated different polynomial responses, whereas several bacteria were similar among increasing OEO inclusion rates. These results suggested that OEO supplementation can modify ruminal fermentation to alter VFA concentrations and reduce methane emissions by extensively altering the ruminal bacterial community, suggesting an optimal feeding rate for future animal studies of approximately 52 mg/L for mature ruminants.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bovinos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Origanum/química , Ovinos/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 779-786, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922158

RESUMO

This study evaluated for the first time the feasibility of mild preheating treatment of broccoli florets combined with lactic acid bacteria fermentation for enhancing sulforaphane yield in broccoli puree. The optimum preheating condition for in-pack processing of broccoli florets was 3 min treatment at 65 °C increasing sulforaphane yield in broccoli puree by ∼5 times compared to untreated broccoli. Preheating of broccoli florets in-pack (65 °C per 3 min) combined with lactic acid bacteria fermentation further enhanced the sulforaphane content by ∼16 times compared to untreated broccoli. The sulforaphane content of the preheated-fermented puree remained stable (∼94% retention) for two weeks at 4 °C. The results indicate that a combination of judicious heat treatment of broccoli florets with lactic acid bacteria fermentation enables production of safe and high sulforaphane content broccoli products with potential health benefits.


Assuntos
Brassica , Isotiocianatos/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/farmacologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Culinária , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Humanos
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