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1.
Infect Immun ; 88(2)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685547

RESUMO

The fungus Mucor circinelloides undergoes yeast-mold dimorphism, a developmental process associated with its capability as a human opportunistic pathogen. Dimorphism is strongly influenced by carbon metabolism, and hence the type of metabolism likely affects fungus virulence. We investigated the role of ethanol metabolism in M. circinelloides virulence. A mutant in the adh1 gene (M5 strain) exhibited higher virulence than the wild-type (R7B) and the complemented (M5/pEUKA-adh1 +) strains, which were nonvirulent when tested in a mouse infection model. Cell-free culture supernatant (SS) from the M5 mutant showed increased toxic effect on nematodes compared to that from R7B and M5/pEUKA-adh1 + strains. The concentration of acetaldehyde excreted by strain M5 in the SS was higher than that from R7B, which correlated with the acute toxic effect on nematodes. Remarkably, strain M5 showed higher resistance to H2O2, resistance to phagocytosis, and invasiveness in mouse tissues and induced an enhanced systemic inflammatory response compared with R7B. The mice infected with strain M5 under disulfiram treatment exhibited only half the life expectancy of those infected with M5 alone, suggesting that acetaldehyde produced by M. circinelloides contributes to the toxic effect in mice. These results demonstrate that the failure in fermentative metabolism, in the step of the production of ethanol in M. circinelloides, contributes to its virulence, inducing a more severe tissue burden and inflammatory response in mice as a consequence of acetaldehyde overproduction.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Mucor/metabolismo , Mucor/patogenicidade , Virulência/fisiologia , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mucor/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/fisiologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125275, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442701

RESUMO

2,6-Dimethoxy-ρ-benzoquinone (DMBQ) is a potential anti-tumor substance found in the fermented wheat germ. In this study, ultrasound and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used to improve the DMBQ yield. An artificial neural network (ANN) embedded separately with the back-propagation algorithm (BP), genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimized algorithm (PSO), ant colony optimized algorithm (ACO), GA-ACO, GA-PSO and PSO-ACO, were used to establish the relationship between 11 factors and DMBQ yield. The robustness and generalization of PSO-ACO-ANN, which gave the minimum mean squared error and mean absolute percentage error for the training and test dataset, was superior to the others. Next, a modified Garson's algorithm and mixed partial derivatives algorithm indicated that the most influential paired-parameters were ultrasonic power and concentration of nanoparticles. Finally, the factors were optimized by six optimization algorithms, and confirmatory experimental results indicated that the optimum DMBQ yield was 0.213 ±â€¯0.007 mg/g, which was 161.2% higher than the control.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Benzoquinonas/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Redes Neurais de Computação
3.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(6): 485-504, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544530

RESUMO

The same food formulation processed to obtain two different starch gelatinisations (SG) and resistant starch (RS) contents was evaluated in old and adult dogs, regarding apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, fermentation products in faeces, and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A diet with corn was ground and extruded in two different ways, obtaining Low RS (2.2 g/kg DM; 99.9% of SG) and High RS (15.3 g/kg DM; 62.6% of SG). Each diet was fed to adults (4.0 ± 0.7 years) or old beagle dogs (11.5 ± 0.4 years) in a 2 (ages) x 2 (RS amounts) factorial arrangement with 8 dogs per food. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance, and postprandial responses by analysis of variance of repeated measurements over time (p < 0.05). Diet × age interaction was observed for protein ATTD, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS than those for the other treatments (p < 0.05). No age or diet effect was verified for the ATTD of other nutrients and faecal score. Faecal moisture and pH were higher for adults than that for old dogs (p < 0.05). The High RS food increased acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations in faeces, regardless of age (p < 0.01). Old dogs presented lower acetate and total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and higher lactate and ammonia than adults (p < 0.05). Only for old dogs the intake of the High RS food reduced ammonia and increased faecal lactate (p < 0.05). An age × diet interaction was verified for glucose postprandial response, with lower values for old dogs fed High RS food (p < 0.05), while no differences were found for the other treatments. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion regardless of the diet (p < 0.05), and lower insulin increment at 180 min after the meal when fed the Low RS than when fed the High RS food (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the diet with lower SG and higher RS improved the intestinal microenvironment, with higher butyrate and total SCFA without altering faeces production or score. Old dogs presented less acetate and total SCFA and higher lactate and ammonia in faeces than adults. The High RS food increased lactate and reduced ammonia in faeces of old dogs, with possible positive influences for gut health. Old dogs had higher postprandial insulin secretion than that of adults to maintain blood glucose, and the diet with higher RS content reduced the postprandial glucose response of old dogs.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/química
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 30220-30228, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422537

RESUMO

The effects of patchouli essential oil (PEO) as an alternative to antibiotics on ruminal methanogenesis, feed degradability, and enzyme activities were evaluated. The basal substrate was incubated without additives (control, CTL) and with monensin (MON, 6 µM/g DM) or patchouli essential oil (PEO, 90 µg/g DM) for 24 h. In three different runs, the gas production (GP) was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h of incubation using a semi-automatic system. The results revealed that MON had decreased (P < 0.05) the net GP and CH4 production and digestible and metabolizable energy relative to PEO supplementation. The in vitro truly degraded organic matter was not influenced by PEO application, while was reduced (P = 0.027) with MON. Both PEO and MON had similar reducing effect on the activity of carboxymethylcellulase (P = 0.030), in vitro truly degraded neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.010), NH3-N concentrations (P = 0.012), acetate proportion (C2, P = 0.046), C2 to C3 ratio (P = 0.023), and total protozoal count (P = 0.017). Both additives recorded similar elevating potential on the α-amylase activity (P = 0.012), propionate (C3) proportion (P = 0.011), and microbial protein (P = 0.034) compared with CTL. Effects of MON and PEO on ruminal feed degradability, microbial enzyme activities, and total protozoa counts may be responsible for modifying rumen fermentation ecology. Addition of PEO may act as a desirable alternative rumen modifier for MON in ruminant diets.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pogostemon/química , Rúmen/metabolismo , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/análise , Monensin/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Ovinos
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108287, 2019 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437693

RESUMO

This study investigated the use of seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lamark (MO) for both clarifying the sugarcane juice and removing fermentation contaminants that originated during the 24 h storage of the freshly cut stalks. The addition of the MO seed extract during the juice clarification step decreased the total microbial population by 41.66% compared to the other treatments. The non-stored raw material had less lactic acid bacteria and yeasts counts in the fermentation process, resulting in 8.8% lower glycerol content compared to the stored raw material. The concentrations of congeners in both raw materials decreased by 5.27% after liming and by 10% after using the natural extract with flocculation activity. It can be concluded that the clarification process combined with the use of the seed extract from Moringa oleifera Lamarck can potentially control microbial contaminating during fermentation and increase the alcohol content in the cachaça.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Moringa oleifera/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Floculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química
6.
Anim Sci J ; 90(10): 1350-1361, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393669

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of using encapsulated nitrate product (ENP) replacing soybean meal in diets differing in concentrate to forage ratio on ruminal fermentation and methane production in vitro using a semi-automatic gas production technique. Eight treatments were used in a randomized complete design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement: two diet (20C:80F and 80C:20F concentrate to forage ratio) and four levels of ENP addition (0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, and 4.5% of DM) replacing soybean meal. There was a diet × ENP interaction (p = 0.02) for methane production. According to ENP addition, diets with 80C:20F showed more intense reduction on methane production that 20C:80F. A negative linear effect was observed for propionate production with ENP addition in diet with 80C:20F and to the relative abundance of methanogens Archaea, in both diet. The replacement of soybean meal by ENP in levels up to 3% of DM inhibited methane production due to a reduction in the methanogens community without affecting the organic matter degradability. However, ENP at 4.5% of DM level affected fiber degradability, abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, and propionic acid production, indicating that this level of inclusion is not recommended for ruminant production.


Assuntos
Archaea/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Metano/biossíntese , Nitratos/uso terapêutico , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fermentação/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Técnicas In Vitro , Metano/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ruminantes , Soja
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121848, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377513

RESUMO

Butyrate is an important precursor for fine chemicals and biofuels. The aim of this study is to investigate butyrate production as affected by transition metal addition of food waste fermentation including, nickel, Raney nickel and copper particles. Performance of fermentation showed nickel particles achieved the highest butyrate concentration, 7.3 g/L, which was 38.5% higher than that in the control trial. Raney nickel also showed similar effect on the enhancement of butyrate production. However, increased dosage of transition metal particle addition led to decreased butyrate production. The theoretical link between metal-assisted dark fermentation and butyrate production was tentatively explored. Redox potential affected by nickel addition was assumed to be an essential factor for butyrate production. Microbial community analysis found Clostridium sensu stricto 11 may be the dominant functional species for butyrate production. The study demonstrates that development on transition metal catalyst may contribute to waste biorefinery for added value products/energy production.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Alimentos , Elementos de Transição/farmacologia , Clostridium/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota
8.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3535-3549, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260526

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of treatment of wheat straw using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (Viscozyme) on fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and microbial populations in an artificial rumen system [Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)]. Four treatments were assigned to 16 vessels (4 per treatment) in 2 RUSITEC apparatuses in a randomized block design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial using untreated or AFEX-treated wheat straw with or without exogenous fibrolytic enzymes [0 or 500 µg of protein/g straw dry matter (DM)]. Fibrolytic enzymes were applied to straw, prior to sealing in nylon bags. The concentrate mixture was provided in a separate bag within each fermentation vessel. The RUSITECs were adapted for 8 d and disappearance of DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude protein (CP) was measured after 48 h of incubation. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) the disappearance of wheat straw DM (69.6 vs. 38.3%), NDF (65.6 vs. 36.8%), ADF (61.4 vs. 36.0%), and CP (68.3 vs. 24.0%). Total dietary DM, organic matter (OM), and NDF disappearance was also increased (P ≤ 0.05) by enzymes. Total microbial protein production was greater (P < 0.01) for AFEX-treated (72.9 mg/d) than untreated straw (63.1 mg/d). Total gas and methane (CH4) production (P < 0.01) were also greater for AFEX-treated wheat straw than untreated straw, with a tendency for total gas to increase (P = 0.06) with enzymes. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the molar proportion of propionate, while it decreased (P < 0.01) acetate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. The AFEX-treated straw had lower relative quantities of fungi, methanogens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.01) and fewer protozoa (P < 0.01) compared to untreated straw. The pH of fermenters fed AFEX-treated straw was lower (P < 0.01) than those fed untreated straw. Both AFEX (P < 0.01) and enzymes (P = 0.02) decreased xylanase activity. There was an enzyme × straw interaction (P = 0.02) for endoglucanase activity. Enzymes increased endoglucanase activity of AFEX-treated wheat straw, but had no effect on untreated straw. The addition of enzymes lowered the relative abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, but increased F. succinogenes. These results indicate that AFEX increased the ruminal disappearance of wheat straw and improved fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in the RUSITEC.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Celulase/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27043-27051, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313228

RESUMO

Improving digestibility, fermentation characteristics, and reducing greenhouse biogases to protect the environment without the use of synthetic materials is an important goal of modern-day farming and nutritionist. Plant extracts are capable of solving these. This is due to the digestive enzymes and the bioactive components capable of performing antimicrobial functions inherent in these plants. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of standard maize substrate treated with selected herbs and spices extracts on ruminal environmental biogas production and pressure during fermentation via biogas production technique. Herbs (Azadirachta indica leaves (T1), Moringa oleifera leaves (T2), Ocimum gratissimum leaves (T3) and spices (Allium sativum bulb (T4), Zingiber officinale rhizome (T5)) were harvested, air dried, and milled using standard procedures. Methanolic extracts of the herbs and spices were prepared and used as additives at different concentrations (50, 100, and 150 µL) to the maize substrate for in vitro biogas production. Data were analyzed using regression analysis. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences across all the treatments on the volume and pressure of biogas. The pressure and volume of biogas when compared with the levels tested showed differences (P < 0.05) across all the treatments for the prediction of volume from pressure of biogas. The pressure and volume of gas produced in vitro increased (P < 0.05) and biogases decreased (P < 0.05) by the substrate treated with herbs and spices but for the drum stick leaves which was similar for the levels of concentration tested. This means that the level tested had a pronounced mitigation effect on pressure of biogas and volume of biogas produced. It was concluded that the herb and spice extracts have the potential to improve rumen fermentation and reduce the production of biogases in ruminant diet.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Biocombustíveis , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Animais , Azadirachta/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Metano/metabolismo , Moringa oleifera/química , Ocimum/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Pressão , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos , Especiarias , Zea mays/química
10.
Anim Sci J ; 90(9): 1170-1176, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321858

RESUMO

Lonicera japonica (LJ; honeysuckle) is used in traditional folk medicine in Korea and is a rich source of ascorbic acid and phenolic components that are reported to have antioxidant and antibiotic properties. We performed an in vitro experiment to assess the effects of LJ extracts (LJE) on ruminal fermentation. Timothy hay (0.3 g dry matter [DM]) was incubated with buffer, ruminal fluid, and 0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 9% LJE. Batch culture fermentation was conducted separately for 12, 24, and 48 hr to determine gas production (GP), ruminal fermentation characteristics, and microbial population characteristics. The effects on GP were generally similar to those on DM degradability, with a linear decrease observed at 9% extract at 24 hr. NH3 -N showed a linear increase with increasing extract concentrations at 12 hr, whereas a decrease was observed at 24 hr. Extract supplementation decreased methane (CH4 ) production at 12, 24, and 48 hr. In addition, the abundance of fibrolytic bacteria and ciliate-associated methanogen was reduced at all concentrations of extracts. These results indicate that LJE have the potential to serve as a ruminal fermentation modifier to suppress CH4 production with minimal effects on nutrient digestion in the rumen.


Assuntos
Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lonicera/química , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Técnicas In Vitro , Medicina Tradicional , República da Coreia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes
11.
Animal ; 13(12): 2792-2801, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293228

RESUMO

In this study, a brown macroalgae species, Saccharina latissima, processed to increase its protein concentration, and a red macroalgae species, Porphyra spp., were used to evaluate their in vivo digestibility, rumen fermentation and blood amino acid concentrations. Four castrated rams were used, whose diets were supplemented with a protein-rich fraction of S. latissima, a commercial Porphyra spp. and soybean meal (SBM). Our results show that the protein digestibility of a diet with S. latissima extract was lower (0.55) than those with Porphyra spp. (0.64) and SBM (0.66). In spite of the higher nitrogen (N) intake of diets containing Porphyra spp. and SBM (20.9 and 19.8 g N/day, respectively) than that with S. latissima (18.6 g N/day), the ratio of N excreted in faeces to total N intake was significantly higher in the diet with S. latissima than those with Porphyra spp. and SBM. This reflects that the utilization of protein in S. latissima was impaired, possibly due to reduced microbial activity. The latter statement is corroborated by lower volatile fatty acid composition (25.6, 54.8 and 100 mmol/l for S. latissima, Porphyra spp. and SBM, respectively) and a non-significant tendency for lower ammonia concentration observed in diets with S. latissima and Porphyra spp. compared to SBM. It is important to note that the S. latissima used in this trial was rinsed during processing to remove salt. This process potentially also removes other water-soluble compounds, such as free amino acids, and may have increased the relative fraction of protein resistant to rumen degradation and intestinal absorption. Furthermore, the phlorotannins present in macroalgae may have formed complexes with protein and fibre, further limiting their degradability in rumen and absorption in small intestines. We recommend that further studies explore the extent to which processing of macroalgae affects its nutritive properties and rumen degradability, in addition to studies to measure the intestinal absorption of these macroalgae species.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Porphyra , Ovinos/fisiologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Alga Marinha , Soja
12.
Animal ; 13(12): 2811-2820, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270003

RESUMO

Rubber seed oil (RO) that is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA) can improve milk production and milk FA profiles of dairy cows; however, the responses of digestion and ruminal fermentation to RO supplementation in vivo are still unknown. This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of RO and flaxseed oil (FO) supplementation on nutrients digestibility, rumen fermentation parameters and rumen FA profile of dairy cows. Forty-eight mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments for 8 weeks, including basal diet (CON) or the basal dietary supplemented with 4% RO, 4% FO or 2% RO plus 2% FO on a DM basis. Compared with CON, dietary oil supplementation improved the total tract apparent digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre and ether extracts ( P < 0.05). Oil treatment groups had no effects on ruminal digesta pH value, ammonia N and microbial crude protein ( P > 0.05), whereas oil groups significantly changed the volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile by increasing the proportion of propionate whilst decreasing total VFA concentration, the proportion of acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate ( P < 0.05). However, there were no differences in VFA proportions between the three oil groups (P > 0.05). In addition, dietary oil supplementation increased the total unsaturated FA proportion in the rumen by enhancing the proportion of trans-11 C18:1 vaccenic acid (VA), cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA) ( P < 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with RO and FO could improve nutrients digestibility, ruminal fermentation and ruminal FA profile by enhancing the VA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA and ALA composition of lactating dairy cows. These findings provide a theoretical basis for the application of RO in livestock production.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Óleo de Semente do Linho/farmacologia , Leite/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactação , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/análise
13.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 996-1003, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287945

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) in a diet on the systemic health and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of dogs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen healthy 11-month-old Beagle dogs were distributed at random (eight animals per treatment) in two treatments groups: control (0 g kg-1 IgY) and test (2 g IgY per day). The animals were evaluated on days 0 and 40 for a complete blood count (CBC) and biochemical profiles (ALT, ALP, creatinine and urea). Faecal samples were collected from days 35 to 40 to measure nutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics, sialic acid, intestinal microbiota composition and microbial metabolites. The CBC, biochemical profiles, apparent nutrient digestibility and faecal characteristics did not differ between the two treatment groups (P > 0·05). Dog faeces that received IgY were characterized by lower sialic acid and n-valeric concentration, as well as an increase in n-butyric concentration, in contrast to dogs fed a diet without IgY (P < 0·05). The other microbial faecal metabolites did not differ between the two treatment groups (P > 0·05). There tended to be an increase in the copy number of Clostridium cluster XIVa (Clostridium coccoides group) in the IgY group in contrast to the control group (P = 0·07). The other bacteria analysed did not differ between the treatment groups (P > 0·05). The colonic pH in the IgY group was lower than in control group (P < 0·05). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of IgY in the diet of healthy dogs maintains the microbial balance and has an interesting effect on microbial metabolites. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The use of IgY, antibodies produced by laying hens, in animal feed is an alternative for the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases in companion animals.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulinas/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Intestinos/química , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31262003

RESUMO

The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria during in vitro colonic fermentation using pig colonic digest. Jar fermenters were used to conduct a small scale in vitro colonic fermentation experiments under the anaerobic condition for 48 h. Jar fermenters were assigned to one of the following groups: Cellulose, cellulose + PSP, inulin, and inulin + PSP. The present study revealed that the polyphenolic content of purple sweet potato could modulate the colonic microbiota by differentially increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the pathogenic bacteria depending on cellulose and inulin. Accordingly, PSP might be a material conducive for improving the conditions for the fermentation of partly-fermentable dietary fiber. Besides, PSP was also responsible for the drastic reduction of putrefactive products, especially p-cresol to a significant level. Our results suggest that PSP could alter the microbial composition depending upon the fermentability of dietary fiber and has the potential to maintain a stable and healthy colonic environment that will ultimately alleviate chronic diseases development and confer health benefits to the host.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ipomoea batatas , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Ipomoea batatas/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Sus scrofa
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 289: 121713, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276993

RESUMO

Alkaline fermentation technology is an effective method for resource recovery, e.g., short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), but the acidification process needs to be further enhanced. To improve the release and acidification of organic matters in waste activated sludge (WAS) fermentation simultaneously, a novel method was proposed with magnetite addition under alkaline condition in this study. Compared with the control, SCFAs and acetic acids yields increased by 21.2% ±â€¯3.1% and 31.0% ±â€¯1.2% in the 0.6 g/gVSS magnetite-based system, respectively. Besides, the activities of α-glucosidase, protease and acetate kinase (AK) were enhanced with magnetite addition, and the abundance of acidogenic microbes was improved obviously. Furthermore, magnetite reduced the release of PO43--P significantly via the precipitation reaction. Of all, a novel side-stream WAS hydrolysis and acidification process based on magnetite addition under suitable alkaline condition is proposed, realizing the efficient recovery of carbon and phosphorus resources along with wastewater and WAS treatment.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/farmacologia , Esgotos , Álcalis , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
16.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 73(5): 339-359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342760

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the potential of two new fat-protected butyrate or heptanoate salts to improve gut health and control post-weaning colibacillosis in weaning piglets challenged with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4+, particularly focusing on their impact on intestinal microbiota and fermentative activity along the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Seventy-two 21-d-old pigs were fed a plain diet (CTR) or supplemented with sodium butyrate (BUT) or sodium heptanoate (HPT), both at 0.3%. After a week of adaptation, animals were orally challenged at days 8 and 9 with 5.8 · 109 and 6.6 · 1010 cfu, respectively, and were euthanised on d 4 and d 8 post-inoculation (PI) (n = 8) to collect blood, digesta and tissue samples and characterise microbial groups, pathogen loads (qPCR), fermentation, ileal histomorphometry and immune markers. Colonic microbiota was analysed by 16S rRNA gene MiSeq sequencing. Supplementing both acid salts did not compensate clinical challenge effects nor performance impairments and neither histomorphometry nor serum biomarkers. Changes in the gastric fermentative activity were registered, BUT reducing lactic acid concentrations (day 8 PI), and with HPT fewer animals presenting detectable concentrations of propionic, butyric and valeric acids. At ileum BUT increased acetic acid concentration (day 8 PI), and both additives reduced short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the colon. Increases in enterobacteria and coliforms counts in ileal digesta (day 4 PI, p < 0.10) and mucosa scrapes (p < 0.05) were registered although E. coli F4 gene copies were unaffected. Regarding changes in the colonic microbiota (day 4 PI), Prevotellaceae and Prevotella were promoted with BUT supplementation whereas only minor groups were modified in HPT-treated animals. Summarising, although the pathogen loads or inflammatory mediators remained unresponsive, butyrate and heptanoate showed a significant impact on microbial fermentation along the whole GIT, being able to modify different bacterial groups at the colon. It could be hypothesised that these effects might be mediated by a carry-over effect of the changes observed in gastric fermentation, but possibly also to a better nutrient digestion in the foregut as a result of the reduced colonic SCFA concentrations.


Assuntos
Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heptanoatos/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/fisiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Heptanoatos/administração & dosagem , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/microbiologia , Masculino , RNA Bacteriano/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , Sódio/administração & dosagem , Sódio/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/metabolismo , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
17.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3578-3587, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251799

RESUMO

A metabolism study was conducted using 8 ruminal cannulated beef heifers to investigate the effects of a recombinant fibrolytic enzyme (RFE; xylanase XYL10C) selected specifically for forage-fed ruminants on ruminal pH, fermentation, nitrogen balance, and total tract digestibility of heifers. The experiment was a cross-over design with 2 treatments and 2 periods. The 2 treatments were a basal diet containing 60% barley silage, 30% barley straw, and 10% supplement (DM basis) without (control) or with RFE. The enzyme was sprayed onto the barley straw at a rate of 6.6 × 104 IU·kg-1 DM 24 h before feeding. Each period comprised 2 wk of diet adaptation and 1 wk of sampling and data collection. Feed intake and total tract digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF were unaffected by RFE. Ruminal pH including mean, minimum, maximum, and duration pH <5.8, did not differ between treatments. Total VFA concentration, molar proportion of individual VFA, and acetate-to-propionate ratio were also not affected by RFE. However, ruminal NH3-N concentration (P < 0.06) and endoglucanase activity (P < 0.08) in ruminal fluid tended to be higher with RFE. Nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis were not affected by treatment. These results indicate that XYL10C did not improve fiber digestion in heifers fed a high forage diet, despite the fact that it was specifically selected for this trait in laboratory assays. However, the increased ruminal NH3-N concentration suggests it potentially increased ruminal proteolytic activity.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hordeum , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem
18.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(3): 670-682, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165532

RESUMO

AIMS: Experiments were designed to determine the effects of different chemical inhibitors of lysozyme and peptidases on rumen protozoa and the associated prokaryotes, and in vitro fermentation using Entodinium caudatum as a model protozoan species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Imidazole (a lysozyme inhibitor), phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF, a serine peptidase inhibitor) and iodoacetamide (IOD, a cysteine peptidase inhibitor) were evaluated in vitro both individually and in two- and three-way combinations using E. caudatum monocultures with respect to their ability to inhibit the protozoan and their effect on feed digestion, fermentation and the microbiota. All the three inhibitors, both individually and in combination, decreased E. caudatum counts (P < 0·001), and IOD and its combinations with the other inhibitors significantly (P < 0·01) decreased ammonia concentration, with the two- and three-way combinations showing additive effective. Feed digestion was not affected, but fermentation and microbial diversity were affected mostly by PMSF, IOD and their combinatorial treatments potentially due to the overgrowth of Streptococcus luteciae accompanying with the disappearance of host ciliates. CONCLUSIONS: Entodinium caudatum depends on lysozyme and peptidase for digestion and utilization of the engulfed microbes and specific inhibition of these enzymes can inhibition E. caudatum without adversely affecting feed digestion or fermentation even though they changed the microbiota composition in the cultures. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The peptidase inhibitors may have the potential to be used in controlling rumen protozoa to improve ruminal nitrogen utilization efficiency.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Muramidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Amônia/metabolismo , Animais , Cilióforos/enzimologia , Cilióforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cilióforos/microbiologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Iodoacetamida/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluoreto de Fenilmetilsulfonil/farmacologia , Rúmen/parasitologia
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(8): 7118-7133, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155249

RESUMO

Grass-based production systems use concentrate supplementation primarily when pasture quality and availability have declined. Barley is a common concentrate ingredient; however, oat grain grows well in Ireland, is a source of lipids and fiber, and may provide an alternative to barley. The antioxidant α-tocopherol (α-TOC) plays a role in cell membrane structure, and it has the potential to improve tight junction structures of the mammary gland that deteriorate in late lactation. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of cereal type and α-TOC level on milk yield, milk composition, rumen fermentation, and N excretion in late-lactation dairy cows at pasture and when housed indoors on grass silage. Forty-eight Holstein Friesian dairy cows were blocked on days in milk (+185 d in milk) and balanced for parity, pre-experimental milk yield, milk composition, and body condition score and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (n = 12). The dietary treatments were control (C) base diet; base diet + barley-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (B); base diet + oat-based concentrate + low α-TOC (350 IU/kg) (O); and base diet + oat-based concentrate + high α-TOC (1,050 IU/kg) (O+T). Following a 14-d acclimation period, diets were offered for a 49-d experimental period at pasture (P1) and a 21-d experimental period indoors (P2). The base diet was grazed grass in P1 and grass silage in P2. In P2, cows on C also received 2.65 kg (dry matter) of a standard concentrate. In P1, supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield (B: 20.7 kg/d, 1.74 kg/d; O: 20.6 kg/d, 1.81 kg/d; O+T: 20.5 kg/d, 1.77 kg/d, respectively) compared with C (17.8 kg/d, 1.60 kg/d). Cows offered B had a lower milk fat (4.60%) concentration than C (5.00%) and O (4.90%). In P2, cereal type and α-TOC level did not alter milk production. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation increased milk and milk solids yield and cows offered O had a higher milk fat concentration than cows offered B. Increasing the level of α-TOC had no major effect on production parameters measured in P1 or in P2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Bovinos/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Irlanda , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Leite/química , Poaceae , Gravidez , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise
20.
Ars pharm ; 60(2): 119-124, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186015

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar el uso de la miel de Apis mellifera (miel de abeja) en agar base como diferenciador de oxidante-fermentador de carbohidratos en cepas de Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212. Métodos: Se realizó un tamizaje fitoquímico preliminar de la miel de abeja. Para evaluar el uso del agar con miel de abeja como diferenciador oxidativo-fermentador, se emplearon 96 tubos de cultivo que contienen 10 mL de agar base aleatorizadas y divididas en cuatro grupos de 24 tubos: grupo I agar base con miel y Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, grupo II agar base con miel y Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212, grupo III agar OF (Basal Medium acc. To Hugh and Leifson, Merck) con Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, y el grupo IV agar OF con Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212; siendo el agar OF estándar. Se consideraron dos criterios de evaluación: Oxidación y Fermentación de los carbohidratos. Resultados: La miel de abeja presenta alcaloides, triterpenoides y compuestos fenólicos. Se determinó el calificativo de Bueno (100%) para el agar con miel de abeja y Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, y agar con miel de abeja y Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212; comparado con el agar OF. Conclusión: El uso del agar con miel de Apis mellifera (miel de abeja) ha evidenciado ser bueno como alternativa al agar OF (Basal Medium acc. To Hugh and Leifson) para diferenciar Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 y Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212 como oxidantes y fermentadoras de carbohidratos


Objective: To evaluate the use of Apis mellifera (honey) on base agar as an oxidant-carbohydrate fermentor differentiator in strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening of honey was carried out. Using agar with bee honey as an oxidative-fermenter differentiator, use 96 culture tubes containing 10 ml of randomized base agar and divided into four groups of 24 tubes: group I base agar with honey and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, group II agar base with honey and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212, group III agar OF (basal medium according to Hugh and Leifson, Merck) with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and group IV agar OF with Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212; being the standard OF agar. Two evaluation criteria were considered: Oxidation and Fermentation of carbohydrates. Results: Bee honey has alkaloids, triterpenoids and phenolic compounds. The qualifier of Good (100%) was determined for the grip with honey and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and agar with honey and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212; compared with the agar OF. Conclusion: The use of agar with honey of Apis mellifera has been shown as good as an alternative to agar OF (Basal medium according to Hugh and Leifson) to differentiate Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 29212 as oxidants and carbohydrate fermenters


Assuntos
Animais , Apis mellifica , Mel , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais
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