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1.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923841

RESUMO

The response of a coeliac and a healthy gut microbiota to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was evaluated using an in vitro continuous, pH controlled, gut model system, which simulated the human colon. The effect of C. pyrenoidosa on the microbial structure was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and inferred metagenomics, whereas the metabolic activitywas determined by1H-nuclear magnetic resonancespectroscopic analysis. The addition of C. pyrenoidosa significantly increased the abundance of the genera Prevotella, Ruminococcus and Faecalibacterium in the healthy donor, while an increase in Faecalibacterium, Bifidobacterium and Megasphaera and a decrease in Enterobacteriaceae were observed in the coeliac donor. C. pyrenoidosa also altered several microbial pathways including those involved in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production. At the metabolic level, a significant increase from baseline was seen in butyrate and propionate (p < 0.0001) in the healthy donor, especially in vessels 2 and 3. While acetate was significantly higher in the healthy donor at baseline in vessel 3 (p < 0.001) compared to the coeliac donor, this was markedly decreased after in vitro fermentation with C. pyrenoidosa. This is the first in vitro fermentation study of C. pyrenoidosa and human gut microbiota, however, further in vivo studies are needed to prove its efficacy.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Fermentação/fisiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 111981, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592372

RESUMO

Environmental pollution due to resistance genes from livestock manure has become a serious issue that needs to be resolved. However, little studies focused on the removal of resistance genes in simultaneous processing of livestock feces and urine. This study investigated the fate of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs), and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) during thermophilic fermentation of swine manure in an ectopic fermentation system (EFS), which has been regarded as a novel system for efficiently treating both feces and urine. The abundances of MRGs and tetracycline resistance genes were 34.44-97.71% lower in the EFS. The supplementation of heavy metals significantly increased the abundance of intI1, with the enhancement effect of copper being more prominent than that of zinc. The highest abundances of resistance genes and intI1 were observed at high Cu levels (A2), indicating that Cu can increase the spreading of resistance genes through integrons. Network analysis revealed the co-occurrence of ARGs, MRGs, and intI1, and these genes potentially shared the same host bacteria. Redundancy analysis showed that the bacterial community explained most of the variations in ARGs, and environmental factors had influences on ARGs abundances by modulating the bacterial community composition. The decreased Sphingomonas, Comamonas, Acinetobacter, Lactobacillus, Bartonella, Rhizobium, and Bacteroides were mainly responsible for the reduced resistance genes. These results demonstrate that EFS can reduce resistance genes in simultaneous processing of livestock feces and urine.


Assuntos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Fermentação/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Esterco/microbiologia , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre , Integrons , Gado , Esterco/análise , Suínos , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
4.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525580

RESUMO

During the production of beer, and especially beer wort, the main wastes are spent grain and hot trub, i.e., the so-called "hot break." Combined with yeast after fermentation, they represent the most valuable wastes. Hot trub is also one of the most valuable by-products. Studies on the chemical composition of these sediments and their rheological properties as waste products will contribute to their effective disposal and even further use as valuable pharmaceutical and cosmetic raw materials. So far, hot trub has been studied for morphology and particle distribution depending on the raw material composition and beer wort extract. However, there are no preliminary studies on the rheological properties of hot trub and hops. In particular, no attention has yet been paid to the dependence of these properties on the hop variety or different protein sources used. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different hopping methods on hot trub viscosity and beer wort physicochemical parameters. Additionally, the hop solutions were measured at different temperatures. A microbiological analysis of hop sediments was also performed to determine the post-process survival of selected microorganisms in these wastes. For manufacturers of pumps used in the brewing industry, the most convenient material is that of the lowest viscosity. Low viscosity hot trub can be removed at lower velocities, which reduces costs and simplifies washing and transport. The sediments also had similar equilibrium viscosity values at high shear rates.


Assuntos
Cerveja/microbiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Humulus/metabolismo , Humulus/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Viscosidade , Leveduras/fisiologia
5.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525711

RESUMO

Monascus vinegar (MV), during whose brewing process Monascus spp. and polished rice (PR) are normally used as the starter and the raw material, respectively, is one of the traditional vinegars in China. In this study, the effects of three raw materials, including PR, unhusked rice (UR), and germinated UR (GR), on MV volatile compounds have been investigated. The results revealed that MV of GR (GMV), and its intermediate Monascus wine (GMW), exhibited the highest amount of aroma, not only in the concentrations but also in the varieties of the aromatic compounds mainly contributing to the final fragrance. Especially after three years of aging, the contents of benzaldehyde and furfural in GMV could reach to 13.93% and 0.57%, respectively, both of which can coordinate synergistically on enhancing the aroma. We also found that the filtering efficiency was significantly improved when UR and GR were applied as the raw materials, respectively. Therefore, GR might be more suitable raw materials for MV.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/química , Monascus/química , Oryza/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , China , Fermentação/fisiologia , Odorantes/análise , Vinho
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466562

RESUMO

Given the pharmacological properti es and the potential role of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in human physiology and the pleiotropic activity of the neurohormone melatonin (MEL) involved in physiological and immunological functions and as regulator of antioxidant enzymes, this study aimed at evaluating the capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 to release tryptophan derivatives (dTRPs) from the kynurenine (KYN) and melatonin pathways. The setting up of the spectroscopic and chromatographic conditions for the quantification of the dTRPs in LC-MS/MS system, the optimization of dTRPs' production in fermentative and whole-cell biotransformation approaches and the production of dTRPs in a soybean-based cultural medium naturally enriched in tryptophan, as a case of study, were included in the experimental plan. Variable amounts of dTRPs, with a prevalence of metabolites of the KYN pathway, were detected. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the compound synthesized at highest concentration is KYNA that reached 9.146 ± 0.585 mg/L in fermentation trials in a chemically defined medium at 400 mg/L TRP. Further experiments in a soybean-based medium confirm KYNA as the main dTRPs, whereas the other dTRPs reached very lower concentrations. While detectable quantities of melatonin were never observed, two MEL isomers were successfully measured in laboratory media.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Soja/metabolismo , Triptofano/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Fermentação/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Cinurênico/metabolismo , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
7.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127942, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835976

RESUMO

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are considered building blocks for bioproducts in the so-called carboxylate platform. These compounds can be sustainably produced via anaerobic fermentation (AF) of organic substrates, such as microalgae. However, SCFAs bioconversion efficiency is hampered by the hard cell wall of some microalgae. In this study, one thermal and two enzymatic pretreatments (carbohydrases and proteases) were employed to enhance Chlorella vulgaris biomass solubilization prior to AF. Pretreated and non-pretreated microalgae were assessed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) for SCFAs production. Aiming to understand microorganisms' roles in AF depending on the employed substrate, not only bioconversion yields into SCFAs were evaluated but microbial communities were thoroughly characterized. Proteins were responsible for the inherent limitation of raw biomass conversion into SCFAs. Indeed, the proteolytic pretreatment resulted in the highest bioconversion (33.4% SCFAs-COD/CODin), displaying a 4-fold enhancement compared with raw biomass. Population dynamics revealed a microbial biodiversity loss along the AF regardless of the applied pretreatment, evidencing that the imposed operational conditions specialized the microbial community. In fact, a reduced abundance in Euryarchaeota phylum explained the low methanogenic activity, implying SCFAs accumulation. The bacterial community developed in the reactors fed with pretreated microalgae exhibited high acidogenic activities, being dominated by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes was by far the dominant phylum when using protease (65% relative abundance) while Bacteroidetes was prevailing in the reactor fed with carbohydrase-pretreated microalgae biomass (40% relative abundance). This fact indicated that the applied pretreatment and macromolecule solubilization have a strong effect on microbial distribution and therefore in SCFAs bioconversion yields.


Assuntos
Microalgas/fisiologia , Anaerobiose , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Chlorella vulgaris , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Firmicutes , Microalgas/metabolismo , Microbiota
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(2): 1696-1713, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309357

RESUMO

The environment temperature and its effect on the temperature of silage is very important for the fermentation and subsequent quality of a silage. Obligate heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inocula, because of their ability to inhibit yeasts, have been developed to prevent the aerobic deterioration of silages. The temperature during silage conservation may also play an important role in the fermentation profile of silages. This study has evaluated the effect of temperature, during the conservation of whole crop corn silage, untreated or treated with different LAB inocula, on the fermentation profile and on the aerobic stability of the silage. Corn was harvested at 42% dry matter and either not treated (control) or treated with Lactobacillus buchneri NCIMB 40788 (LB) at 300,000 cfu/g fresh matter (FM); Lactobacillus hilgardii CNCM I-4785 at 150,000 cfu/g FM (LH150); L. hilgardii CNCM I-4785 at 300,000 cfu/g FM (LH300); or LB+LH at 150,000 cfu/g FM each. In an attempt to experimentally simulate temperature fluctuations in the mass or at the periphery of a silage bunker, corn was conserved in laboratory silos at a constant temperature (20 ± 1°C; MASS) or at lower and variable outdoor temperatures (PERIPH; ranging from 0.5 to 19°C), and the silos were opened after 15, 30, and 100 d of conservation. Lactic acid, acetic acid, and ethanol contents increased in all the silages over the conservation period. The lactic acid content was higher (+10%) in the silages kept at a constant temperature than those conserved at the lower and variable outdoor temperatures. The acetic acid was higher in the treated silages than in the control ones conserved at a constant temperature for 100 d. Moreover, 1,2-propanediol was only detected in the treated silages after at least 30 d at a constant temperature, whereas only traces were detected in the LB+LH treatment for the other temperature conditions. The yeast count decreased during conservation at a slower rate in PERIPH than in MASS and on average reached 2.96 and 4.71 log cfu/g for MASS and PERIPH, respectively, after 100 d of conservation. The highest aerobic stability values were observed for LH300 (191 h) in the MASS silage after 100 d of conservation, whereas the highest aerobic stability was observed in LB+LH (150 h) in the PERIPH silages. After 7 d of air exposure, a pH higher than 4.5 and a higher yeast than 8.0 log cfu/g were detected in all the silages opened after 15 and 30 d of conservation. A pH value close to that of silo opening was detected in the LB, LH150, and LH300 silages conserved under MASS conditions after 100 d, whereas LB+LH was the most effective under PERIPH conditions. The temperature and its fluctuation during conservation of silage in laboratory silos influenced the fermentation, which in turn had an effect on the quality of silage and on the extent of the effect of LAB inocula.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Silagem/microbiologia , Temperatura , Zea mays/microbiologia , Ácido Acético/análise , Aerobiose , Animais , Etanol/análise , Laboratórios , Ácido Láctico/análise , Silagem/análise , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352625

RESUMO

Chrysophyllum albidum Linn (African star apple) is a fruit with extensive nutritional and medicinal benefits. The fruit and kernel in the seed are both edible. Strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from fermented seeds and assessed for probiotic characteristics. The extracts in both the unfermented and the fermented aqueous extracts from the kernels obtained from the seeds of C. albidum were subjected to analysis using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. This analysis identified the bioactive compounds present as possible substrate(s) for the associated organisms inducing the fermentation and the resultant biotransformed products formed. Three potential probiotic LAB strains identified as Lactococcus raffinolactis (ProbtA1), Lactococcus lactis (ProbtA2a), and Pediococcus pentosaceus (ProbtA2b) were isolated from the fermented C. albidum seeds. All strains were non hemolytic, which indicated their safety, Probt (A1, A2a, and A2b) grew in an acidic environment (pH 3.5) during the 48-h incubation time, and all three strains grew in 1% bile, and exhibited good hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation properties. Mucin binding proteins was not detected in any strain, and bile salt hydrolase was detected in all the strains. l-lactic acid (28.57%), norharman (5.07%), formyl 7E-hexadecenoate (1.73%), and indole (1.51%) were the four major constituents of the fermented kernel of the C. albidum, while 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (C1, 1.27%), 3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-2,3-dihydropyran-4-one (C2, 2.90%), indole (C3, 1.31%), norharman (C4, 3.01%), and methyl petroselinate (C5, 4.33%) were the five major constituents of the unfermented kernels. The isolated LAB are safe for consumption. The fermenting process metabolized C1, C2, and C5, which are possible starter cultures for the growth of probiotics. Fermentation is an essential tool for bioengineering molecules in foods into safe and health beneficial products.


Assuntos
Biotransformação/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Sapotaceae/metabolismo , Sapotaceae/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Lactococcus/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Pediococcus pentosaceus/isolamento & purificação , Probióticos , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia
10.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352640

RESUMO

Maize, also called corn, is one of the most available feedstocks worldwide for lignocellulosic biorefineries. However, a permanent biomass supply over the year is essential for industrial biorefinery application. In that context, ensiling is a well-known agricultural application to produce durable animal feed for the whole year. In this study, ensiled maize was used for steam refining experiments with subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis using the Cellic® CTec2 to test the application possibilities of an ensiled material for the biorefinery purpose of fermentable carbohydrate production. Steam refining was conducted from mild (log R0 = 1.59) to severe conditions (log R0 = 4.12). The yields were determined, and the resulting fractions were characterized. Hereafter, enzymatic hydrolysis of the solid fiber fraction was conducted, and the carbohydrate recovery was calculated. A conversion to monomers of around 50% was found for the mildest pretreatment (log R0 = 1.59). After pretreatment at the highest severity of 4.12, it was possible to achieve a conversion of 100% of the theoretical available carbohydrates. From these results, it is clear that a sufficient pretreatment is necessary to achieve sufficient recovery rates. Thus, it can be concluded that ensiled maize pretreated by steam refining is a suitable and highly available feedstock for lignocellulosic biorefineries. Ultimately, it can be assumed that ensiling is a promising storage method to pave the way for a full-year biomass supply for lignocellulosic biorefinery concepts.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Biomassa , Celulose/química , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Silagem , Vapor
11.
Molecules ; 25(24)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352794

RESUMO

Value-added chemicals, including phenolic compounds, can be generated through lignocellulosic biomass conversion via either biological or chemical pretreatment. Currently vanillin is one of the most valuable of these products that has been shown to be extractable on an industrial scale. This study demonstrates the potential of using rice straw inoculated with Serpula lacrymans, which produced a mixture of high value bio-based compounds including vanillin. Key extraction conditions were identified to be the volume of solvent used and extraction time, which were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The vanillin compounds extracted from rice straw solid state fermentation (SSF) was confirmed through LC-ESI MS/MS in selective ion mode. The optimum concentration and yield differed depending on the solvent, which was predicted using 60 mL ethyl acetate for 160 min were 0.408% and 3.957 µg g-1 respectively. In comparison, when ethanol was used, the highest concentration and yields of vanillin were 0.165% and 2.596 µg g-1. These were achieved using 40 mL of solvent, and extraction time increased to 248 min. The results confirm that fungal conversion of rice straw to vanillin could consequently offer a cost-effect alternative to other modes of production.


Assuntos
Benzaldeídos/química , Oryza/química , Basidiomycota/química , Biomassa , Etanol/química , Fermentação/fisiologia , Solventes/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5155, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056995

RESUMO

The diverse physiological functions of tocotrienols have listed them as valuable supplementations to α-tocopherol-dominated Vitamin E products. To make tocotrienols more readily available, tocotrienols-producing S. cerevisiae has been constructed by combining the heterologous genes from photosynthetic organisms with the endogenous shikimate pathway and mevalonate pathway. After identification and elimination of metabolic bottlenecks and enhancement of precursors supply, the engineered yeast can produce tocotrienols at yield of up to 7.6 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW). In particular, proper truncation of the N-terminal transit peptide from the plant-sourced enzymes is crucial. To further solve the conflict between cell growth and tocotrienols accumulation so as to enable high-density fermentation, a cold-shock-triggered temperature control system is designed for efficient control of two-stage fermentation, leading to production of 320 mg/L tocotrienols. The success in high-density fermentation of tocotrienols by engineered yeast sheds light on the potential of fermentative production of vitamin E tocochromanols.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Tocotrienóis/metabolismo , Aclimatação/genética , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866191

RESUMO

The filamentous fungus Acremonium chrysogenum is the main industrial producer of cephalosporin C (CPC), one of the major precursors for manufacturing of cephalosporin antibiotics. The plasma membrane H+-ATPase (PMA) plays a key role in numerous fungal physiological processes. Previously we observed a decrease of PMA activity in A. chrysogenum overproducing strain RNCM 408D (HY) as compared to the level the wild-type strain A. chrysogenum ATCC 11550. Here we report the relationship between PMA activity and CPC biosynthesis in A. chrysogenum strains. The elevation of PMA activity in HY strain through overexpression of PMA1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, under the control of the constitutive gpdA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans, results in a 1.2 to 10-fold decrease in CPC production, shift in beta-lactam intermediates content, and is accompanied by the decrease in cef genes expression in the fermentation process; the characteristic colony morphology on agar media is also changed. The level of PMA activity in A. chrysogenum HY OE::PMA1 strains has been increased by 50-100%, up to the level observed in WT strain, and was interrelated with ATP consumption; the more PMA activity is elevated, the more ATP level is depleted. The reduced PMA activity in A. chrysogenum HY strain may be one of the selected events during classical strain improvement, aimed at elevating the ATP content available for CPC production.


Assuntos
Acremonium/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Cefalosporinas/biossíntese , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , ATPases Translocadoras de Prótons/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , beta-Lactamas/metabolismo
14.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108796, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771820

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of yeasts in the wet fermentation of coffee beans and their contribution to coffee quality using a novel approach. Natamycin (300 ppm) was added to the fermentation mass to suppress yeast growth and their metabolic activities, and the resultant microbial ecology, bean chemistry and sensory quality were analyzed and compared to non-treated spontaneous fermentation we reported previously. The yeast community was dominated by Hanseniaspora uvarum and Pichia kudriavzevii and grew to a maximum population of about 5.5 log CFU/g in the absence of Natamycin, while when Natamycin was added yeasts were suppressed. The major bacterial species in both the spontaneous and yeast-suppressed fermentations included the lactic acid bacteria Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactococcus lactis, the acetic acid bacteria Gluconobacter cerinus and Acetobacter persici and the Enterobacteriaceae Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Erwinia. For both fermentations, the mucilage layers were completely degraded by the end of the process and the absence of yeast activities had no significant impact on mucilage degradation. During fermentation, reducing sugars were consumed while lactic acid was accumulated inside the beans, and its concentration was significantly higher in the spontaneous fermentation (3 times) than that where yeasts were suppressed by Natamycin. Glycerol was detected with a concentration of 0.08% in the absence of Natamycin and was not identified when Natamycin was added. Green beans fermented with yeast growth contained a higher amount of isoamyl alcohol (21 times), ethanol (3.7 times), acetaldehyde (8 times), and ethyl acetate (25 times) compared to beans fermented in the absence of yeast activities, which remained higher in the former after roasting. Beans fermented without yeast activities had a mild fruity aroma, and lower sensory scores of fragrances (7.0), flavor (6.5), acidity (6.3), body (7.0) and overall score (6.5) compared to the former. These findings demonstrated the crucial roles of yeasts in wet fermentation of coffee beans and for producing high quality coffee.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Café/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Hanseniaspora/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Leveduras/metabolismo , Acetaldeído/metabolismo , Acetatos/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Café/microbiologia , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Natamicina/farmacologia , Odorantes/análise , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Paladar
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108802, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745827

RESUMO

Soy (tofu) whey is a liquid by-product generated from tofu (soybean curd) production and it is often discarded off as a waste liquid by the tofu manufacturers. Previous studies have demonstrated that soy whey can be biotransformed into a soy alcoholic beverage by using Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts even though soy whey is low in yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) content. In this study, the initial YAN of the soy whey was estimated to be 46.6 mg N/L and Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva was used to ferment soy whey supplemented with either isoleucine only or isoleucine paired with valine, leucine or phenylalanine (each amino acid supplemented at a dosage of 30 mg N/L). Amino acid supplementation was found to enhance sugar utilization by the yeast, which led to higher ethanol production (7.49% v/v in control versus 8.35-8.80% v/v in supplemented samples). Samples supplemented with isoleucine only experienced slower sugar utilization during the fermentation as compared to the paired amino acid samples, but the yeast was still able to utilize the sugar to low levels at the end of the fermentation. The presence of leucine supplementation counteracted the "inhibition" induced by the presence of isoleucine at the first day of the fermentation. Amino acid supplementation slowed down glutamic acid utilization and resulted in higher levels of residual glutamic acid and alanine. Amino acid supplementation increased the corresponding fusel alcohol production and the presence of other amino acids reduced the active amyl alcohol production. Therefore, interactions between amino acids can impact the metabolism of the yeast as well as the flavor modulation during soy whey fermentation.


Assuntos
Bebidas Alcoólicas/microbiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Isoleucina/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja , Torulaspora/metabolismo , Bebidas Alcoólicas/análise , Etanol/metabolismo , Pentanóis/metabolismo , Leite de Soja/química , Paladar , Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/metabolismo , Vinho
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108777, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745828

RESUMO

This study aimed to model the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by A. flavus in wheat grains during malting for craft beer. A total of sixty-four different combinations of grains steeping degree (ST; 41, 43, 45 and 47%), temperature (13, 15, 17 and 19 °C) and time of germination (48, 72, 96 and 120 h), comprising the range of malting conditions that allow the production of quality malt, were assayed. AFB1 was produced in a range of 15.78 ± 3.54 µg/kg (41% ST, 13 °C for 48 h) to 284.66 ± 44.34 µg/kg (47% ST, 19 °C for 120 h). The regression model showing an acceptable fit to the experimental data (adjusted R2 0.84) for AFB1 as a function of grains steeping degree, temperature and time of germination. Results showed that AFB1 levels in wheat malt increase with increase of the temperature or time of germination. Within the range of tested malting conditions, no significant effects were observed for steeping degree on AFB1 levels in wheat malt. The generated model is useful to estimate the AFB1 levels in wheat malt. Findings highlight overall that if wheat grains are contaminated with A. flavus, AFB1 might be produced in malt in levels above the limits set by regulatory agencies, regardless the steeping conditions used.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/biossíntese , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Cerveja/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Triticum/microbiologia , Cerveja/análise , Fermentação/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Sementes/microbiologia , Temperatura
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108818, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805574

RESUMO

Several yeasts, which are eukaryotic microorganisms, have long been used in different industries due to their potential applications, both for fermentation and for the production of specific metabolites. Kluyveromyces marxianus is one of the most auspicious nonconventional yeasts, generally isolated from wide-ranging natural habitats such as fermented traditional dairy products, kefir grain, sewage from sugar industries, sisal leaves, and plants. This is a food-grade yeast with various beneficial traits, such as rapid growth rate and thermotolerance that make it appealing for different industrial food and biotechnological applications. K. marxianus is a respiro-fermentative yeast likely to produce energy by either respiration or fermentation pathways. It generates a wide-ranging specific metabolites and could contribute to a variety of different food and biotechnological industries. Although Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used dominant representative in all aspects, many applications of K. marxianus in biotechnology, food and environment have only started to emerge nowadays; some of the most promising applications are reviewed here. The general physiology of K. marxianus is outlined, and then the different applications are discussed: first, the applications of K. marxianus in biotechnology, and then the recent advances and possible applications in food, feed and environmental industries. Finally, this review provides a discussion of the main challenges and some perspectives for targeted applications of K. marxianus in the modern food technology and applied biotechnology in order to exploit the full potential of this yeast which can be used as a cell factory with great efficiency.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Fermentação/fisiologia , Kluyveromyces/isolamento & purificação , Kluyveromyces/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Kluyveromyces/classificação , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fermento Seco/metabolismo
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108797, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738750

RESUMO

Acetic acid bacteria form a complex microbiota that plays a fundamental role in the industrial production of vinegar through the incomplete oxidation reaction from ethanol to acetic acid. The organoleptic properties and the quality of vinegar are influenced by many factors, especially by the raw material used as acetification substrate, the microbial diversity and the technical methods employed in its production. The metaproteomics has been considered, among the new methods employed for the investigation of microbial communities, since it may provide information about the microbial biodiversity and behaviour by means of a protein content analysis. In this work, alcohol wine vinegar was produced through a submerged culture of acetic acid bacteria using a pilot acetator, operated in a semi-continuous mode, where the main system variables were monitored and the cycle profile throughout the acetification was obtained. Through a first approach, at qualitative level, of a metaproteomic analysis performed at relevant moments of the acetification cycle (end of fast and discontinuous loading phases and just prior to unloading phase), it is aimed to investigate the microbiota existent in alcohol wine vinegar as well as its changes during the cycle; to our knowledge, this is the first metaproteomics report carried out in this way on this system. A total of 1723 proteins from 30 different genera were identified; 1615 out of 1723 proteins (93.73%) belonged to the four most frequent (%) genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter. Around 80% of identified proteins belonged to the species Komagataeibacter europaeus. In addition, GO Term enrichment analysis highlighted the important role of catalytic activity, organic cyclic compound binding, metabolic and biosynthesis processes throughout acetic acid fermentation. These findings provide the first step to obtain an AAB profile at omics level related to the environmental changes produced during the typical semi-continuous cycles used in this process and it would contribute to the optimization of operating conditions and improving the industrial production of vinegar.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Gluconacetobacter/metabolismo , Gluconobacter/metabolismo , Acetobacter/genética , Biodiversidade , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Gluconacetobacter/genética , Gluconobacter/genética , Microbiota/genética , Vinho/microbiologia
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108778, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731153

RESUMO

Kombucha is a fermented tea. Here we investigate the fermentation kinetics, metabolite production, microbiome and potential health promoting properties of three different kombucha consortia. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing revealed several dominant bacterial genera such as Komagataeibacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter. Brettanomyces and Schizosaccharomyces were the most dominant yeasts identified. Species distribution reflected different patterns of sugar consumption, with S. pombe being present in samples with the highest sugar conversion. Liquid-liquid extractions were performed with organic solvents in order to obtain dried extracts, which were later characterized. HPLC-DAD and GC-MS analysis revealed differences in the production of organic acids, sugars, alcohols and phenolic compounds, where the presence of caffeine, propanoic acid and 2,3 butanediol differ greatly across the three kombuchas. Metabolomic analysis exhibited a link between the microbiota and the production of bioactive compounds in kombucha fermentation. In vitro assays were carried out in order to evaluate potential health-promoting features of the fermented teas, with notable outcomes including antioxidant ability against DPPH radical and against the 15-lipoxygenase enzyme, indicating a potential anti-inflammatory activity. These investigations considerably enhance our understanding of the relationship between the microbiota and metabolites as well as health promoting potential of kombucha and have the potential for the development of future generations of kombucha products in which these relationships are optimized.


Assuntos
Fermentação/fisiologia , Chá de Kombucha/análise , Chá de Kombucha/microbiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metaboloma/fisiologia , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 333: 108792, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707524

RESUMO

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in nature and its physiological importance goes beyond its role as an inhibitory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system in mammals. Since microbial fermentation is one of the most promising methods to obtain GABA, the production of this metabolite by several strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from quinoa and amaranth sourdoughs was investigated. Lactobacillus brevis CRL 2013 produced the highest GABA levels, reaching 265 mM when optimal culture conditions were set up. The fermentative profile showed that CRL 2013 was able to catabolize carbohydrates through the phosphoketolase pathway yielding variable amounts of lactic acid, acetate and ethanol, which depended on the type of carbon source available and the presence of external electron acceptors such as fructose. Enhanced growth parameters and low GABA synthesis were associated to pentose fermentation. This impairment on GABA production machinery was partially overpassed by the addition of ethanol to the culture media. These results support the potential use of L. brevis CRL 2013 as a starter culture for the manufacture of GABA-enriched functional foods and provide further insights to the understanding of the GAD system regulation in lactic acid bacteria.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Lactobacillus brevis/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/biossíntese , Acetatos/metabolismo , Amaranthus/microbiologia , Carboidratos , Chenopodium quinoa/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo
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