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1.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125289, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896204

RESUMO

Selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) are essential microelements for humans with crucial biological functions. In this study, we determined Se and Zn concentrations in soils and rice grains on Hainan Island and investigated how their spatial distributions are related to soil mineral elements, topography, and vegetation coverage. Overall, the concentrations of Se and Zn in soils were higher than the background values for Chinese soil; the Se concentrations in rice grains were higher than the threshold value for Se deficiency in grains, but Zn concentrations were lower than the proposed critical concentration. Both Spearman's correlation and stepwise regression analysis showed that the concentrations of soil Fe and Ca significantly affected soil Se and Zn: a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Fe changed soil Se by 2.820 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.785 mg kg-1, respectively, while a difference of 1 g kg-1 in soil Ca changed soil Se by 3.249 µg kg-1 and soil Zn by 0.356 mg kg-1, respectively. For rice grains, Se and Zn concentrations decreased with increasing elevation; every 100 m increase in elevation could decrease Se by 0.022 mg kg-1 and Zn by 0.912 mg kg-1. Moreover, the impact of Fe and Ca on soil Zn was relatively strong in the northeast region, while the influence of elevation on rice grain Se was more significant in the central region. The findings contribute to a better understanding of factors driving the distribution of Se and Zn in soils and crops.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oryza/química , Selênio/análise , Solo/química , Zinco/análise , Altitude , Cálcio/análise , China , Humanos , Ferro/análise , Ilhas , Análise de Regressão , Análise Espacial
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125342, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416002

RESUMO

Cereal crops are the rich source of nutritional components that play an important role in micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification is one of the most successful approaches to enhance the level of micronutrients, mainly targeted in bread wheat. Bread wheat is one of main sources of calories and proteins in the developing countries. In the present study, 50 bread wheat genotypes characterized for the zinc and iron content, the most important micronutrients. On the basis of the results, the nineteen genotypes were selected and evaluated for biochemical as well as quality parameters. The protein content, gluten quantity and quality found to be reduced in high zinc containing genotypes, whereas the total soluble sugars, total carotenoids, proline and grain hardness found to be in positive relation with high micronutrient content. These results could be useful to generate bread wheat varieties rich in micronutrients as well as better nutritional and quality traits.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Pão , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Triticum/química , Triticum/genética , Carotenoides/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Genótipo , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Micronutrientes/genética , Prolina/análise , Prolina/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Açúcares/análise , Zinco/análise , Zinco/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125655, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669947

RESUMO

Mechanisms of degradation and absorption of mineral complexes by the human digestive system are complex and still under investigation. The elaborate matrix of vegetables, and the presence of phytates and other inhibitors make study of these mechanisms difficult. In this qualitative study, extracts from freeze-dried savoy cabbage, broccoli, kale and spinach were subjected to digestion in vitro at pH 2.0 and pH 7.5 and analysed using SEC-ICP-MS. The results suggest that low molecular weight species (peak 6), related to the iron and zinc fractions, which appeared after acidic digestion in all vegetables, except in kale, were considerably reduced after digestion at pH 7.5. Low molecular weight species (peak 9), related to the phosphorus fraction, were present in all vegetables, except in kale, after alkaline digestion. While cabbage, broccoli and spinach showed similar degradation patterns, kale showed a different degradation behaviour.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Ferro/análise , Spinacia oleracea/química , Verduras/química , Zinco/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125652, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669949

RESUMO

Vegetables contain iron, zinc and phosphorus as complexes with phytates limiting their availability from a vegetarian diet, meaning non-haem iron deficiency anaemia and zinc deficiency immune malfunction are a risk. Although these elements have been analysed previously in biological fluids and cereal using LC-ICP-MS, there is no method suitable for analysing iron, zinc and phosphorus simultaneously in vegetables because of their complex matrix. In this study, we analysed iron, zinc and phosphorus in cabbage, broccoli, pepper, spinach, kale and rocket after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion using a newly optimised SEC-ICP-MS method. Ammonium nitrate, as the mobile phase, and a suitable rinsing regime, allowed good reproducibility and maintenance of the equipment. The method showed good reproducibility and can be easily adapted to other vegetables, as required.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Ferro/análise , Fósforo/análise , Verduras/química , Zinco/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518925

RESUMO

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explained more temporal differences (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect). Gills, digestive gland and intestine were the tissues where metal accumulation was the highest in A. purpuratus. Cd in digestive gland was always high, up to ∼250-fold higher than in other tissues, as previously reported in other bioindicator species for metal pollution. Fatty acids were good biomarkers when annual comparisons were performed, while metals when locations were compared. ENSO 2017 played an important role to disentangle A. purpuratus' biological conditions and food sources. A. purpuratus from Paracas locations mostly showed higher metal concentrations in gills and digestive glands, and lower fatty acid concentrations in muscle than those from Sechura and Illescas Reserved Zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Cobre/análise , Cobre/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Brânquias/química , Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Manganês/análise , Manganês/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Peru , Frutos do Mar/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
6.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124660, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505445

RESUMO

The co-precipitation of Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ were investigated by a mechanochemical processing with CaCO3. The results showed that the synergies of the metal ions led to efficient co-precipitation. The precipitation of Fe2+, Cu2+ and Cd2+ are over 99% and that of Zn2+ and Ni2+ about 98.4% and 93.8%. A significant advantage of the process is that the moisture content of filter residue is much lower (less than 50%) than that using the lime neutralization (more than 80%), offering a potential solution to the sludge problem in wastewater treatment. A further advantage is the neutral pH (about 7.5) obtained by using CaCO3 rather than the highly alkaline pH (about 11) obtained using lime (Ca(OH)2) neutralization method.


Assuntos
Precipitação Fracionada/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Esgotos/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Cobre/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ferro/análise , Níquel/análise , Zinco/análise
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 394-400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study examined the potential for 'Smart Food' with respect to contributing to the Sustainable Development Goal 2 of ending malnutrition by 2030, using a small-scale capacity building case study in Oe Be Village, Myingyan district, Mandalay region, Myanmar. Within the study site, refined white rice is the major staple, followed by vegetables and animal source food in inadequate quantities. The protein intake in this particular dry zone community meets only 50% of the daily requirement and even less for those children aged less than 23 months. Therefore, to determine the acceptance and opportunity for legumes and millets which are produced locally, nutritious formulations were introduced for various age groups. In addition, a sensory evaluation of the recipes was conducted to test the acceptance of the nutritious products. RESULTS: Two weeks of the inclusion of millets and pigeonpea in the diets of children aged 6-23 months had a positive impact on wasting, stunting and underweight (P = 0.002, 0.014 and 0.023, respectively). Moreover, the acceptability of these new food products by the children was found to be high. These results indicate an unexplored opportunity for specific millets rich in iron, zinc and calcium, as well as for pigeonpea rich in protein, if prepared in a culturally acceptable way. CONCLUSION: The impact and acceptability of this small scale and short-term intervention indicate the potential for Smart Food products in filling the nutrition gap arising from the traditional food consumption habits in the dry zones of Myanmar. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cajanus/metabolismo , Milhetes/metabolismo , Cajanus/química , Cálcio na Dieta/análise , Cálcio na Dieta/metabolismo , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Milhetes/química , Mianmar , Estado Nutricional , População Rural
8.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124566, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446272

RESUMO

How far-reaching is the influence of the urban area over the mineral composition of the Russula cyanoxantha mushroom? We studied the metal uptake behavior of this fungus relying on the soil properties. We sampled mushroom and soil from six forests according to an urbanization gradient, and two city parks in Cluj-Napoca (Romania). The elements were quantified using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of some elements differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the samples from the city (0.39 ±â€¯0.35 mg kg-1 for cadmium (Cd), 0.40 ±â€¯0.19 mg kg-1 for chromium (Cr), 69.1 ±â€¯29.9 mg kg-1 for iron (Fe), 10.9 ±â€¯1.3 mg kg-1 for manganese (Mn), 0.76 ±â€¯0.45 mg kg-1 for titanium (Ti) compared with the samples from the forests (3.15-14.1 mg kg-1 Cd, < 0.18 mg kg-1 for Cr, 22.6-34.5 mg kg-1 for Fe, 15.9-19.1 mg kg-1 for Mn, 0.19-0.36 mg kg-1 for Ti). We observed a definite negative trend in the mineral accumulation potential of this fungus along the urbanization gradient. The fungus turned from a cadmium-accumulator to a cadmium-excluder. This highlights a positive environmental influence of the urbanization over the toxic metal uptake of R. cyanoxantha. The hypothesis, that the urban soil pollution would increase the metal content of the mushroom was disproved. The possible explanation might be the elevated carbonate content of the urban soil, which is known to immobilize the metals in the soil.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Cidades , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Romênia , Urbanização
9.
Talanta ; 206: 120250, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514846

RESUMO

The development of a simple and economical spectrophotometric system based on the use of a device created by 3D printing and the electronics necessary to control the intensity of the radiation source was described. The measurements are made with a low-cost digital webcam. The entire system is only powered through the USB outputs of a computer, which makes the portable and really practical system for the measurements in the field. This method was applied to determine iron (II) in waters using o-phenanthroline as chromogenic reagent giving a red complex, and also to hypochlorite determination using tetramethylbenzidine as the reagent providing a yellow color. The calibration curves were built using a mathematical algorithm making a RGB deconvolution. The intense of colors obtained from a webcam in each concentration of analyte had a relationship with the absorbance values. In order to confirm the accuracy and precision of this method, a traditional spectrophotometer was used for validation.


Assuntos
Computadores , Fotografação/instrumentação , Impressão Tridimensional , Espectrofotometria/instrumentação , Benzidinas/química , Calibragem , Ácido Hipocloroso/análise , Ferro/análise , Limite de Detecção , Fenantrolinas/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos
10.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117390, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336324

RESUMO

A quinoline functionalized pillar[5]arene, QPA has been prepared and its interaction with biologically relevant ions and molecules in aqueous solution has been demonstrated. The sensor molecule, QPA has shown selectivity towards Fe3+ among eleven metal ions studied. The Fe3+ complex of QPA (FeQPA) selectively interacts with F- among halides by ∼4 fold fluorescence enhancement. Further, FeQPA has shown selectivity towards arginine and lysine among twenty naturally occurring amino acids. The binding of QPA with Fe3+ has been confirmed by MALDI-TOF and 1H NMR titrations.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Básicos/análise , Calixarenos/química , Fluoretos/análise , Ferro/análise , Quinolinas/química , Ferro/química , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água/química
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(11): 691, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667628

RESUMO

This study identified specific emission sources of atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of two secondary iron and steel smelting factories in Osun state, southwestern Nigeria, using transplanted biomonitors. A total of 120 biomonitors consisting of lichen and moss were grown under a controlled environment and later transplanted to the surroundings of each factory for monitoring of air pollutants for 3 months in both wet and dry seasons. The elemental contents (K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb and Sr) of the biomonitors were determined by X-ray florescence (XRF) spectroscopy. The source identification was performed by applying positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor modelling approach using the elemental data set from the two smelters. Among the measured elements, Fe had the highest average concentration in the lichen and moss samples as well as in both seasons. The average concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As and Br were low. The varying average elemental concentrations of lichen and moss reflect the pattern of impact of smelting on atmospheric airborne pollution around the factories. The four factors resolved by PMF and their respective contributions were metal processing (39.0%), Fe source (28.0%), crustal/soil (22.0%) and road dust (11.0%) for moss and Fe source (34.0%), crustal/soil (26.0%), coal combustion (25.0%) and road dust (15.0%) for lichen. The study showcases lichen and moss as cheaper and yet efficient uninterrupted monitoring tools of air pollution sources associated with iron and steel smelting industrial activities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metalurgia , Aço , Poluição do Ar/análise , Briófitas/química , Carvão Mineral/análise , Poeira , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferro/análise , Líquens/química , Nigéria , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 734, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707592

RESUMO

The quality of drinking water source remains as a major concern in areas of developing and underdeveloped countries worldwide. The treatment and supply of drinking water in Rwanda are carried out by Water and Sanitation Corporation, a state-owned public company. However, it is not able to supply water to all households. Consequently, the non-serviced households depend on natural water sources, like springs, to meet their water requirements. Nevertheless, the water quality in these springs is scarcely known. Therefore, this study assessed and compared metal elements in drinking water sources in the dry and rainy seasons in 2017 using the contamination degree, metal index, and geographic information systems to reveal the spatial distribution of water quality within the considered water sources of springs in Rwanda. The samples were collected monthly from nine water sources of springs and the measured elements are aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, and zinc. The metal index indicated that during the dry season and rainy season, the sites of Kibungo (1.10 and 1.26) and Kinigi (1.01 and 1.54) have assessed a metal index which is higher than 1. Thus, the water quality of those sites was getting the threshold of warning. The analysis indicated that pollutants are easily transported into water bodies during the rainy season in urban and rural areas to a greater extent than during the dry season .


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/análise , Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Metais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Chuva , Ruanda , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/normas , Qualidade da Água , Zinco/análise
13.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 37(10): 722-727, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726500

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Al (mal) (3)-induced ferroptosis in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12), to explore the effect of deferoxamine (DFO) . Methods: Taken PC12 cells growing at logarithmic phase and divided into 6 groups: control group, 200 µmol/L Al (mal) (3) group, 0.5% DMSO group, 200 µmol/L DFO group, Al (mal) (3)+DMSO group, Al (mal) (3)+DFO group. DMSO and DFO were added to the DMSO group and the Al (mal) (3)+DMSO group, the DFO group and the Al (mal) (3)+DFO group for 2 h, respectively, Al (mal) (3) was then added to the Al (mal) (3) group, Al (mal) (3)+DMSO group, and the Al (mal) (3)+DFO group to a final concentration of 200 µmol/L. The cell viability was detected by CCK8, the morphology and ROS levels of PC12 cells was observed by inverted microscope, the cell proliferation toxicity and intracellular iron ion content were detected by colorimetry, the GSH content and GSH-PX activity were detected by biochemical method. Results: Al (mal) (3) exposure significantly inhibited the growth of PC12 cells and destroyed the cell morphological structure, resulting in increased LDH activity and intracellular iron ion content in PC12 cells, decreased GSH content and GSH-PX activity, increased ROS levels; the combined treatment of Al (mal) (3)+DFO can significantly improve the cell viability of PC12 cells, improved cell morphology, decreased cell LDH activity and intracellular iron ion content (P>0.05), increased GSH content and GSH-PX activity, decreased ROS levels. Conclusion: Al (mal) (3) can induce ferroptosis in PC12 cells, DFO may inhibit ferroptosis by reducing intracellular iron levels and reducing oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Desferroxamina/farmacologia , Ferro/análise , Alumínio , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Ratos
14.
Analyst ; 144(22): 6609-6616, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616873

RESUMO

Maintaining the redox balance of biological systems is a key point to maintain a healthy physiological environment. Excessive iron ions (Fe3+) can cause apoptosis, tissue damage and death. Fortunately, ascorbic acid (AA) as a reducing agent has been evaluated for the reduction of Fe3+. Moreover, AA plays an important role in relieving hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. Therefore, the real-time imaging of the Fe3+ and AA fluctuations is important for understanding their biofunctions in cells and in vivo. In this work, we developed a fluorescent nanoprobe carbon dot-desferrioxamine B (CD-DB) by the conjugate connection of CDs and desferrioxamine B (a complexing agent for Fe3+) for the associated detection of Fe3+ and AA. CD-DB exhibited excellent sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of Fe3+ and AA. The nanoprobe CDs-DB@Fe obtained by the reaction of CD-DB and Fe3+ was suitable for tracing the dynamic changes of AA in cells and in vivo. Therefore, CDs-DB@Fe was used for monitoring the fluctuation of AA in hypoxic cell models, hypoxic zebrafish models and liver ischemia mice models. These results exhibited the decrease in AA under hypoxic conditions because AA was consumed to neutralize free radicals and relieve hypoxia-induced oxidative stress damage. The ideal biocompatibility and low toxicity make our nanoprobe a potential candidate for the research of the physiological effects of AA in vivo.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Carbono/química , Hipóxia Celular , Desferroxamina/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Isquemia/metabolismo , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Estresse Oxidativo , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(5): 689-697, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646322

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ferroptosis in acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model induced by oleic acid (OA). ALI was induced in the mice via the lateral tail vein injection of pure OA. The histopathological score of lung, lung wet-dry weight ratio and the protein content of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were used as the evaluation indexes of ALI. Iron concentration, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the lung tissues were measured using corresponding assay kits. The ultrastructure of pulmonary cells was observed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), and the expression level of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) mRNA was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Protein expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) in lung tissues were determined by Western blot. The results showed that histopathological scores of lung tissues, lung wet-dry weight ratio and protein in BALF in the OA group were higher than those of the control group. In the OA group, the mitochondria of pulmonary cells were shrunken, and the mitochondrial membrane was ruptured. The expression level of PTGS2 mRNA in the OA group was seven folds over that in the control group. Iron overload, GSH depletion and accumulation of MDA were observed in the OA group. Compared with the control group, the protein expression levels of GPX4 and ferritin in lung tissue were down-regulated in the OA group. These results suggest that ferroptosis plays a potential role in the pathogenesis of ALI in our mouse model, which may provide new insights for development of new drugs for ALI.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/patologia , Apoptose , Ácido Oleico , Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ferro/análise , Sobrecarga de Ferro/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/patologia , Malondialdeído/análise , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura
16.
BMC Neurol ; 19(1): 233, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is characterized by pathological iron accumulation in the subcortical nuclei and the cortex. As age-related iron accumulation studies in these structures are lacking in healthy aging, we aimed to characterize the dynamics of age-dependent iron accumulation in subcortical nuclei in healthy aging and selected NBIA cases. This is fundamental to understand the natural age-related iron deposition in the healthy brain prior to using this marker as a potential prognostic or diagnostic tool in neurodegenerative disorders. METHODS: Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) scans from 81 healthy volunteers (0-79 years) and four genetically confirmed patients suffering from NBIA (2-14 years) were obtained. We scored the presence or absence of pencil lining of the motor cortex and putamen and analyzed the normalized SWI signal intensity ratio (NSIR) in five subcortical nuclei. RESULTS: In healthy subjects, an age-dependent increase of pencil lining occurred starting from the second decade of life and was present in all cases at the age of 50. In their first decade, NBIA patients showed no cortical pencil lining, but we did observe putaminal pencil lining at this stage. In healthy subjects, age and NSIR of all nuclei correlated positively and was particularly dynamic in early childhood until young adulthood in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus and red nucleus, but not in the caudate nucleus and putamen. NBIA patients showed an increased NSIR in the globus pallidus only and not in the other subcortical nuclei compared to age-matched healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Cortical pencil lining is part of healthy aging. This should be considered when assessing this as a potential marker in NBIA diagnosis and prognosis. Putaminal pencil lining has the potential to become a specific marker for some subtypes of NBIA in the first decade of life, as it was only observed in NBIA and not in age-matched healthy subjects. NSIR in the subcortical nuclei during healthy aging was shown to be dynamic, accentuating the importance of having an age-dependent baseline.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Envelhecimento Saudável/patologia , Ferro/análise , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113134, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520910

RESUMO

Sediment porewater can be an important source of contaminants in the overlying water, but the mechanisms of metal(loid) and phosphorus (P) remobilization remain to be investigated. In this study, high-resolution dialysis (HR-Peeper) and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) samplers were used to determine the porewater dissolved iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V), selenium (Se), arsenic (As), P and DGT-Labile S in coastal sediments in the Jiulong River Estuary (JRE), China. The results showed that high concentrations of dissolved Mn, Se and P were present in the overlying water, indicating potential water pollution with excessive amounts of Mn, Se and P. The dissolved Mn concentrations in the porewater were higher than the dissolved Fe concentrations, especially at submerged sites, demonstrating that Mn(III/IV) reduction is the dominant diagenetic pathway for organic carbon (OC) degradation, which directly affects Fe cycling by the competitive inhibition of Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) reoxidation. Dissolved Co, Cr, V, Se, As and P show significant positive correlations with Mn but nearly no correlations with Fe, suggesting that the mobility of these metal(loid)s and P is associated with Mn but not Fe cycling in this region. In addition, the coelevated concentrations of the metal(loid)s, P and Mn at the submerged sites are attributed to the strengthened Mn reduction coupled with OC degradation fueled by hypoxia. The higher positive diffusion fluxes of Mn, Se and P were consistent with the excess Mn, Se and P concentrations in the overlying water, together with the approximately positive fluxes of the other metal(loid)s, indicating that sediment Mn(III/IV) reduction and concomitant metal(loid) and P remobilization might be vital pathways for metal(loid) and P migration to the overlying water.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Fósforo/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , China , Cromo/análise , Cobalto/análise , Estuários , Compostos Férricos/análise , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Selênio/análise , Vanádio/análise , Água/química
18.
Nature ; 574(7776): 95-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554969

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies account for an estimated one million premature deaths annually, and for some nations can reduce gross domestic product1,2 by up to 11%, highlighting the need for food policies that focus on improving nutrition rather than simply increasing the volume of food produced3. People gain nutrients from a varied diet, although fish-which are a rich source of bioavailable micronutrients that are essential to human health4-are often overlooked. A lack of understanding of the nutrient composition of most fish5 and how nutrient yields vary among fisheries has hindered the policy shifts that are needed to effectively harness the potential of fisheries for food and nutrition security6. Here, using the concentration of 7 nutrients in more than 350 species of marine fish, we estimate how environmental and ecological traits predict nutrient content of marine finfish species. We use this predictive model to quantify the global spatial patterns of the concentrations of nutrients in marine fisheries and compare nutrient yields to the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations. We find that species from tropical thermal regimes contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc; smaller species contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and omega-3 fatty acids; and species from cold thermal regimes or those with a pelagic feeding pathway contain higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. There is no relationship between nutrient concentrations and total fishery yield, highlighting that the nutrient quality of a fishery is determined by the species composition. For a number of countries in which nutrient intakes are inadequate, nutrients available in marine finfish catches exceed the dietary requirements for populations that live within 100 km of the coast, and a fraction of current landings could be particularly impactful for children under 5 years of age. Our analyses suggest that fish-based food strategies have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cálcio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Selênio/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zinco/análise
19.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113249, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542664

RESUMO

Efficient removal of labile arsenic (As) from paddy soil is a fundamental pathway mitigating As accumulation in rice from a long-term perspective. In this study, a porous and pencil-shaped column prepacked with quartz-supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) was designed to extract elevated porewater As from paddy soil under flooded condition. With fine quartz as supporting medium in the core layer, only 0.07% out-migration of the loaded NZVI occurred in arsenite As(III) solution. At pH 5-9, removal of aqueous As(III) with NZVI-column was 73-78%, while silicic acid and phosphate at their environmentally realistic concentrations exhibited 27-30% and 14-17% inhibition on As(III) extraction, respectively. For two paddy soils with slight (S-As) and moderate (M-As) As contamination, four cycles of intermittent extraction with NZVI-column induced steady and marked decrease in porewater As. By the end of four successive extractions, profiles of DGT-labile As in S-As and M-As soils decreased by 22% and 29% on average with simultaneous decline of the most available fraction of soil As (including soluble and exchangeable fraction) by 26% and 17%, respectively. For the post-extracted two soils, As accumulation of rice seedlings declined by 29-57% than those in control. These results identify the effectiveness of NZVI-column in extracting elevated labile As from paddy soils with the aid of flooding. Targeting fast removal of high porewater As, column-extraction could serve as the first step in "remediation train" of paddy soils with relatively high As to shorten cleanup time by rendering much lowered soil As burden for the following phytoextraction and other measures.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Arsenitos , Inundações , Ferro/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Quartzo , Solo/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2840-2846, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517998

RESUMO

Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Selenium (Se), and Zn bioavailability from selenate- and selenite-enriched lettuce plants was studied by in vitro gastrointestinal digestion followed by an assay with Caco-2 cells. The plants were cultivated in the absence and presence of two concentrations (25 and 40 µmol/L of Se). After 28 days of cultivation, the plants were harvested, dried, and evaluated regarding the total concentration, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability of the analytes. The results showed that biofortification with selenate leads to higher Se absorption by the plant than biofortification with selenite. For the other nutrients, Mo showed high accumulation in the plants of selenate assays, and the presence of any Se species led to a reduction of the plant uptake of Cu and Fe. The accumulation of Zn and Mn was not strongly influenced by the presence of any Se species. The bioaccessibility values were approximately 71%, 10%, 52%, 84%, 71%, and 86% for Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn, respectively, and the contribution of the biofortified lettuce to the ingestion of these minerals is very small (except for Se and Mo). Due to the low concentrations of elements from digested plants, it was not possible to estimate the bioavailability for some elements, and for Mo and Zn, the values are below 6.9% and 3.4% of the total concentration, respectively. For Se, the bioavailability was greater for selenite-enriched than selenate-enriched plants (22% and 6.0%, respectively), because selenite is biotransformed by the plant to organic forms that are better assimilated by the cells.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Ferro/análise , Alface/química , Manganês/análise , Molibdênio/análise , Selênio/análise , Zinco/análise , Biofortificação , Disponibilidade Biológica , Células CACO-2 , Cobre/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Molibdênio/metabolismo , Ácido Selênico/análise , Ácido Selênico/metabolismo , Ácido Selenioso/análise , Ácido Selenioso/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
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