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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated iron-rich plant-based foods, such as amaranth grain, to reduce anemia and iron deficiency anemia. Amaranth is rich in nutrients, but with high level of phytate. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of home processed amaranth grain containing bread in the treatment of anemia, hemoglobin concentration and iron deficiency anemia among two-to-five year-old children in Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: Children with anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110.0g/L) (N = 100) were identified by random sampling and enrolled in a 1:1 cluster randomized controlled trial for six months in 2017. The amaranth group (N = 50), received 150g bread containing 70% amaranth and 30% chickpea, the amaranth grain was processed at home (soaking, germinating, and fermenting) to decrease the phytate level. The maize group (N = 50), received 150g bread, containing processed maize (roasted and fermented) to give a similar color and structure with amaranth bread. Hemoglobin, ferritin, and CRP were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Hemoglobin and ferritin values were adjusted for altitude and infection, respectively. Generalized estimating equation and generalized linear model were used to analyze the data. RESULT: In the last follow-up measure anemia prevalence was significantly lower in the amaranth group (32%) as compared with the maize group (56%) [adjusted risk ratios, aRR: 0.39 (95%CI: 0.16-0.77)]. Hemoglobin concentration estimate of beta coefficient was significantly higher in the amaranth group compared with the maize group [aß 8.9g/L (95%CI: 3.5-14.3)], p-value <0.01. The risk of iron deficiency anemia is significantly lower in the amaranth group [aRR: 0.44 (95%CI: 0.23-0.83)] in the intention to treat analysis but not significant in the complete case analysis. There was no significant difference between groups in iron deficiency [aRR: 0.81 (95%CI: 0.55-1.19)]. CONCLUSION: Processed amaranth bread had favorable effects on hemoglobin concentration and has the potential to minimize anemia prevalence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registry number: PACTR201705002283263 https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=2283.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Anemia Ferropriva/dietoterapia , Pão , Ferro/metabolismo , Zea mays , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etiópia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Alimento Funcional , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237998, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817691

RESUMO

Among the mineral nutrients that are required for plant metabolism, iron (Fe) and sulphur (S) play a central role as both elements are needed for the activity of several proteins involved in essential cellular processes. A combination of physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches was employed to investigate how S availability influences plant response to Fe deficiency, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We first observed that chlorosis symptom induced by Fe deficiency was less pronounced when S availability was scarce. We thus found that S deficiency inhibited the Fe deficiency induced expression of several genes associated with the maintenance of Fe homeostasis. This includes structural genes involved in Fe uptake (i.e. IRT1, FRO2, PDR9, NRAMP1) and transport (i.e. FRD3, NAS4) as well as a subset of their upstream regulators, namely BTS, PYE and the four clade Ib bHLH. Last, we found that the over accumulation of manganese (Mn) in response to Fe shortage was reduced under combined Fe and S deficiencies. These data suggest that S deficiency inhibits the Fe deficiency dependent induction of the Fe uptake machinery. This in turn limits the transport into the root and the plant body of potentially toxic divalent cations such as Mn and Zn, thus limiting the deleterious effect of Fe deprivation.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Enxofre/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Homeostase , Ferro/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética
3.
Can J Surg ; 63(4): E365-E369, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813484

RESUMO

Background: As the prevalence of obesity has increased, so too has the demand for bariatric surgery. This study aimed to determine the incidence of postoperative iron deficiency and anemia and the impact of an increased preoperative ferritin target on postoperative outcomes. Methods: Patients undergoing bariatric surgery in Winnipeg from 2010 to 2014 were included in the analysis. Data capture included age, sex and date of surgery and iron, ferritin and hemoglobin levels before surgery and 12 months postoperatively. Before 2014, there was no protocol for preoperative iron supplementation at our centre; in 2014, a more aggressive preoperative iron supplementation program was introduced to target a minimum preoperative ferritin level of 50 mg/L. Data were analyzed using unpaired t tests, paired t tests and χ2 tests. Results: A total of 399 patients were considered; 288 were included in the analysis. The incidence of iron and ferritin deficiency and anemia at 12 months postoperatively was 14.6%, 9.3% and 15.0%, respectively. In patients who underwent surgery before 2014, the 12-month postoperative levels of iron and ferritin were 12.9 mmol/L and 64.0 mg/L, respectively; patients who underwent surgery in 2014 had levels of 18.3 mmol/L and 124.0 mg/L, respectively (all p = 0.001). The 12-month postoperative hemoglobin levels did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Bariatric surgery performed with more aggressive preoperative iron supplementation is associated with increased iron and ferritin levels at 1 year postoperatively. As this improves overall clinical outcomes by avoiding iron deficiency and anemia, a minimum preoperative ferritin target should be implemented in metabolic and bariatric surgery programs.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Ferro/deficiência , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(7): e1008682, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730327

RESUMO

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) mainly infects the intestinal epithelial cells of newborn piglets causing acute, severe atrophic enteritis. The underlying mechanisms of PEDV infection and the reasons why newborn piglets are more susceptible than older pigs remain incompletely understood. Iron deficiency is common in newborn piglets. Here we found that high levels of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) distributed in the apical tissue of the intestinal villi of newborns, and intracellular iron levels influence the susceptibility of newborn piglets to PEDV. We show that iron deficiency induced by deferoxamine (DFO, an iron chelating agent) promotes PEDV infection while iron accumulation induced by ferric ammonium citrate (FAC, an iron supplement) impairs PEDV infection in vitro and in vivo. Besides, PEDV infection was inhibited by occluding TfR1 with antibodies or decreasing TfR1 expression. Additionally, PEDV infection was increased in PEDV-resistant Caco-2 and HEK 293T cells over-expressed porcine TfR1. Mechanistically, the PEDV S1 protein interacts with the extracellular region of TfR1 during PEDV entry, promotes TfR1 re-localization and clustering, then activates TfR1 tyrosine phosphorylation mediated by Src kinase, and heightens the internalization of TfR1, thereby promoting PEDV entry. Taken together, these data suggest that the higher expression of TfR1 in the apical tissue of the intestinal villi caused by iron deficiency, accounts for newborn piglets being acutely susceptible to PEDV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Doenças dos Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/virologia , Ferro/deficiência , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011302, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a condition where the number of red blood cells (and consequently their oxygen-carrying capacity) is insufficient to meet the body's physiologic needs. Fortification of wheat flour is deemed a useful strategy to reduce anaemia in populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of wheat flour fortification with iron alone or with other vitamins and minerals on anaemia, iron status and health-related outcomes in populations over two years of age. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and other databases up to 4 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster- or individually randomised controlled trials (RCT) carried out among the general population from any country aged two years and above. The interventions were fortification of wheat flour with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients. Trials comparing any type of food item prepared from flour fortified with iron of any variety of wheat were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results and assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. We followed Cochrane methods in this review. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified 3048 records, after removing duplicates. We included nine trials, involving 3166 participants, carried out in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Kuwait, Phillipines, Sri Lanka and South Africa. The duration of interventions varied from 3 to 24 months. One study was carried out among adult women and one trial among both children and nonpregnant women. Most of the included trials were assessed as low or unclear risk of bias for key elements of selection, performance or reporting bias. Three trials used 41 mg to 60 mg iron/kg flour, two trials used less than 40 mg iron/kg and three trials used more than 60 mg iron/kg flour. One trial employed various iron levels based on type of iron used: 80 mg/kg for electrolytic and reduced iron and 40 mg/kg for ferrous fumarate. All included studies contributed data for the meta-analyses. Seven studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron alone versus unfortified wheat flour, three studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified wheat flour and two studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with the same micronutrients (but not iron). No studies included a 'no intervention' comparison arm. None of the included trials reported any other adverse side effects (including constipation, nausea, vomiting, heartburn or diarrhoea). Wheat flour fortified with iron alone versus unfortified wheat flour (no micronutrients added) Wheat flour fortification with iron alone may have little or no effect on anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.07; 5 studies; 2200 participants; low-certainty evidence). It probably makes little or no difference on iron deficiency (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.07; 3 studies; 633 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and we are uncertain about whether wheat flour fortified with iron increases haemoglobin concentrations by an average 3.30 (g/L) (95% CI 0.86 to 5.74; 7 studies; 2355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children, except for risk of infection or inflammation at the individual level. The intervention probably makes little or no difference to risk of Infection or inflammation at individual level as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) (moderate-certainty evidence). Wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified wheat flour (no micronutrients added) Wheat flour fortified with iron, in combination with other micronutrients, may or may not decrease anaemia (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.31; 2 studies; 322 participants; low-certainty evidence). It makes little or no difference to average risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.00; 3 studies; 387 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and may or may not increase average haemoglobin concentrations (mean difference (MD) 3.29, 95% CI -0.78 to 7.36; 3 studies; 384 participants; low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children. Wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with same micronutrients (but not iron) Given the very low certainty of the evidence, the review authors are uncertain about the effects of wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with same micronutrients (but not iron) in reducing anaemia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.71; 1 study; 127 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and in reducing iron deficiency (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.97; 1 study; 127 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The intervention may make little or no difference to the average haemoglobin concentration (MD 0.81, 95% CI -1.28 to 2.89; 2 studies; 488 participants; low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on the adverse effects in children. Eight out of nine trials reported source of funding with most having multiple sources. Funding source does not appear to have distorted the results in any of the assessed trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Eating food items containing wheat flour fortified with iron alone may have little or no effect on anaemia and probably makes little or no difference in iron deficiency. We are uncertain on whether the intervention with wheat flour fortified with iron increases haemoglobin concentrations improve blood haemoglobin concentrations. Consuming food items prepared from wheat flour fortified with iron, in combination with other micronutrients, has little or no effect on anaemia, makes little or no difference to iron deficiency and may or may not improve haemoglobin concentrations. In comparison to fortified flour with micronutrients but no iron, wheat flour fortified with iron with other micronutrients, the effects on anaemia and iron deficiency are uncertain as certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. The intervention may make little or no difference to the average haemoglobin concentrations in the population. None of the included trials reported any other adverse side effects. The effects of this intervention on other health outcomes are unclear.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Fumaratos , Hemoglobina A/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
6.
Pediatrics ; 146(1)2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Teenagers aged 16 to 18 are at increased risk for iron deficiency, exacerbated by losses with whole blood (WB) or double red blood cell (2RBC) donations. Required 56-day (WB) or 112-day (2RBC) interdonation intervals (IDIs) are too short for many to replace lost iron without supplements. METHODS: Teenagers donating WB or 2RBCs at Vitalant, a national blood provider, had serum ferritin measured at their first and immediately subsequent successful donation from December 2016 to 2018. We modeled postindex log-ferritin as a function of IDI to estimate the shortest intervals that corresponded with 50% to 95% prevalence of adequate donor iron stores (ferritin ≥20 ng/mL female donors, ≥30 ng/mL male donors) at the subsequent donation. RESULTS: Among 30 806 teenagers, 11.4% of female and 9.7% of male donors had inadequate iron stores at index donation. Overall, 92.6% had follow-up ferritin values within 13 months. Approximately 12 months after WB index donations, >60% of female and >80% of male donors had adequate iron stores (>50% and >70% after 2RBC donations). Follow-up-donation iron stores were highly dependent on index ferritin. Less than half of WB donors with low ferritin at index achieved adequate stores within 12 months. Achieving a ≥90% prevalence of adequate ferritin at 12 months required index values >50 ng/mL. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that postdonation low-dose iron supplements should be strongly encouraged in teenagers with borderline or low iron stores to permit donation without increased risk for symptoms of mild iron depletion. Increasing the minimum recommended IDI to allow time for replacing donation-related iron losses may be desirable for teenagers.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferro/metabolismo , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Compostos de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/etiologia , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234907, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is a preventable public health problem. It is an important determinant of child survival and development, as well as long-term consequences like the onset of non-communicable disease in the life course. A large number of mortality and morbidity can be prevented by addressing the factors associated with low birth weight. The main objective of this study was to identify associated risk factors of low birth weight. METHODOLOGY: A health facility-based unmatched case-control study was carried out from July 2018 to March 2019 among the mothers who delivered in health facilities of Dang district of Nepal from 17th August to 16th November 2018. The total sample size for the study was 369; 123 cases and 246 controls. Cases and controls were randomly selected independent of the exposure status in the ratio of 1:2. Information regarding exposure status was assessed through interviews and medical records. Mothers who delivered outside Dang districts were excluded from the study. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Committee (IRC) of the Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University and written consent was taken from each participant after explaining the objectives of the study. RESULTS: Multivariate logistic regression found that having the kitchen in the same living house (AOR 2.7, CI: 1.5-4.8), iron intake less than 180 tablets (AOR 3.2, CI: 1.7-5.7), maternal weight gain during second and third trimester less than 6.53 kg (AOR 2.6, CI: 1.5-4.7), co-morbidity during pregnancy (AOR 2.4, CI: 1.3-4.5), preterm birth (AOR 2.9, CI: 1.4-6.1) were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. CONCLUSION: Having the kitchen in the same living house, iron intake less than 180 tablets during pregnancy, maternal weight gain less than 6.53 kg during the second and third trimester, co-morbidity during pregnancy and preterm birth were the risk factors associated with low birth weight.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Ferro/deficiência , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Mães , Nepal , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Gene ; 751: 144767, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intheclinical setting, iron deficiencyanaemia(IDA) represents a majorglobalhealthconcern. This health condition is reported in 30% of non-pregnant women, 42% of pregnant women (aged 15-50 years), 12.7% of men (15 years or older) and in 47% of preschool children (aged 0 to 5 years). Several genetic polymorphisms associated with iron status havebeen identified by using genome-wide association studies. AIM: This study aimed to identify the functional polymorphismsrs855791 and rs2111833 in the transmembrane serine protease 6 (TMPRSS6) gene in female university students with IDA inthe Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: About 108 female students, aged from 18 to 25 years, were randomly selected and included to this study. Fifty-eightparticipants were iron deficient, and fifty participants were healthy. Blood samples were collected from all participants andassessed based on theirhaematologicaland biochemical iron status indices. Genotyping was carried out byusing PCR. RESULTS: The genotype distribution oftheTMPRSS6rs855791 region in female studentsfromTabuk University,northern Saudi Arabia,was0% (CC), 77.6% (CT) and 22.4% (TT) in the iron-deficient students compared to 2% (CC), 96% (CT) and 2% (TT) in the healthy students,indicating significant differences in the allelic distribution betweentheiron-deficient group andthehealthy group. The genotype distribution of theTMPRSS6rs2111833 polymorphism was 8.6% (GG), 89.7% (GA) and 1.7% (AA) inthe iron-deficient students compared to 6% (GG), 92% (GA) and 2% (AA) in the healthy students,respectively,showing no differences between the iron-deficient group andthehealthy group in allelic distribution. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated that theTMPRSS6 polymorphism rs855791 is significantly associated with decreased iron status, whereasTMPRSS6 polymorphismrs2111833 is not linked with iron deficiency status in female university students innorthern Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Arábia Saudita , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232765, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365099

RESUMO

The water-soluble fullerenols are novel carbon-based nanomaterials with unique properties, which afford them with wide agricultural applications. Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common and widespread nutrition disorder affecting plants. Foliar Fe treatments of plants have been carried out with solutions devoid of fullerenol. In this study, the role of fullerenol [C60(OH)22-24] in alleviation of Fe deficiency in Cucumis sativus (a Strategy I plant) via foliar fertilization was investigated. Cucumber plants were grown hydroponically, either with (Fe) or in Fe-free (-Fe) nutrient solution. The following foliar spray treatments were applied: fullerenol at final concentrations of 1 (F1) and 10 (F10) mg L-1; Fe(II)SO4·7H2O; Fe(II)-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid); and Fe(II)-F1 and Fe(II)-F10. The best used compound was a combination of Fe(II)-sulfate with fullerenol, especially Fe-F1. The addition of fullerenol to Fe(II)-sulfate solutions significantly increased leaf-active Fe (extracted by an Fe(II) chelator) and re-greening at the site of application. The fullerenol-induced mutual influences did not appear when fullerenol was sprayed alone, suggesting a beneficial role of Fe(II)-fullerenol interactions in the penetration of Fe(II) in the leaves and re-greening under Fe-limited conditions. The results are of importance to enhancing the potential of foliar Fe fertilization as the commonly used strategy for ameliorating Fe deficiency and improving crop yield and quality.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Fulerenos/farmacologia , Ferro/deficiência , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética Nuclear de Carbono-13 , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Tamanho da Partícula , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Eletricidade Estática
11.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(143): 44-46, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444083

RESUMO

Iron deficiency, absolute or functional, is a common pathology in elderly patients and the way of iron replacement therapy is a recurrent issue. It seems to be necessary to treat by intravenous iron instead of oral therapy because of defective iron absorption or side effects. Depending on the molecule chosen, the modes of administration, whether dilution, dose or rhythm, vary. The major risk of intravenous iron replacement is anaphylaxis, which is very rare, this is why it has to be an hospital administration.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302942

RESUMO

Involvement of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-like enzyme in 24-epibrassinolide (EB)-triggered nitric oxide (NO) synthesis to improve iron deficiency (ID) tolerance in strawberry plants was studied. EB was sprayed to strawberry plants every two days for two weeks. Then, the EB-treated plants were pre-treated with inhibitors of NR, tungstate, or NOS, L-NAME for 3 h. During the first three weeks, Fe was supplied as 100 µM EDTA-Fe or FeSO4 to Fe-sufficient or Fe-deficient plants, respectively. Thereafter, plants were subjected for further three weeks to control (100 µM EDTA-Fe) and Fe deficiency (ID; without Fe). ID reduced biomass, chlorophyll, and chlorophyll fluorescence, while increased oxidative stress parameters, ascorbate (AsA), glutathione (GSH), endogenous NO, and the activities of NR, NOS, and antioxidant enzymes. Pre-treatments with EB and EB + SNP improved ID tolerance of strawberry by improving leaf Fe2+, plant growth, and antioxidant enzyme activities, and causing a further elevation in AsA, GSH, NO, NR and NOS. L-NAME application reversed NOS activity, but it did not eliminate NO, however, tungstate application reversed both NR activity and NO synthesis in plants exposed to ID + EB, suggesting that NR is the main contributor of EB-induced NO synthesis to improve ID tolerance in strawberry plants.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Ferro , Nitrato Redutase , Óxido Nítrico , Regulação para Cima , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragaria/enzimologia , Fragaria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Glutationa/metabolismo , Ferro/deficiência , Nitrato Redutase/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 457, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reduce the prevalence of anemia, the Indian government recommends daily iron and folic acid supplements (iron supplements) for pregnant women and weekly iron supplements for adolescents and all women of reproductive age. The government has distributed free iron supplements to adolescents and pregnant women for over four decades. However, initial uptake and adherence remain inadequate and non-pregnant women of reproductive age are largely ignored. The aim of this study is to examine the multilevel barriers to iron supplement use and to subsequently identify promising areas to intervene. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study in the state of Odisha, India. Data collection included key informant interviews, focus group discussions with women, husbands, and mothers-in-law, and direct observations in health centers, pharmacies and village health and nutrition days. RESULTS: We found that at the individual level, participants knew that iron supplements prevent anemia but underestimated anemia prevalence and risk in their community. Participants also believed that taking too many iron supplements during pregnancy would "make your baby big" causing a painful birth and a costly cesarean section. At the interpersonal level, mothers-in-law were not supportive of their daughters-in-law taking regular iron supplements during pregnancy but husbands were more supportive. At the community level, participants reported that only pregnant women and adolescents are taking iron supplements, ignoring non-pregnant women altogether. Unequal gender norms are also an upstream barrier for non-pregnant women to prioritize their health to obtain iron supplements. At the policy level, frontline health workers distribute iron supplements to pregnant women only and do not follow up on adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions should address multiple barriers to iron supplement use along the socio-ecological model. They should also be tailored to a woman's reproductive life course stage: adolescents, pregnancy, and non-pregnant women of reproductive age because social norms and available services differ between the subpopulations.


Assuntos
Anemia/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Análise Multinível , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/psicologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal/psicologia , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344650

RESUMO

Deficiencies in iron and vitamin D are frequently observed in athletes. Therefore, we examined whether different baseline vitamin D3 levels have any impact on post-exercise serum hepcidin, IL-6 and iron responses in ultra-marathon runners. In this randomized control trial, the subjects (20 male, amateur runners, mean age 40.75 ± 7.15 years) were divided into two groups: experimental (VD) and control (CON). The VD group received vitamin D3 (10,000 UI/day) and the CON group received a placebo for two weeks before the run. Venous blood samples were collected on three occasions-before the run, after the 100 km ultra-marathon and 12 h after the run-to measure iron metabolism indicators, hepcidin, and IL-6 concentration. After two weeks of supplementation, the intervention group demonstrated a higher level of serum 25(OH)D than the CON group (27.82 ± 5.8 ng/mL vs. 20.41 ± 4.67 ng/mL; p < 0.05). There were no differences between the groups before and after the run in the circulating hepcidin and IL-6 levels. The decrease in iron concentration immediately after the 100-km ultra-marathon was smaller in the VD group than CON (p < 0.05). These data show that various vitamin D3 status can affect the post-exercise metabolism of serum iron.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol , Ferro , Corrida , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Atletas , Colecalciferol/sangue , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepcidinas/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/sangue
15.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(11): 1087-1095, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of iron deficiency is based on ferritin and transferrin saturation (TfS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, yet guideline thresholds are not evidence-based. Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) is one of the best noninvasive tests in patients with inflammation. AIMS: To evaluate the accuracy of ferritin and/or TfS for diagnosing iron deficiency in IBD and identify the optimal thresholds of these parameters using sTfR as reference. METHODS: Two hundred and two patients (2072 samples) receiving at least one infusion of biologic (vedolizumab or infliximab) were included. RESULTS: In ulcerative colitis patients with C-reactive protein (CRP) <10 mg/L, optimal iron deficiency diagnostic performances were observed with ferritin and TfS thresholds of 65 µg/L (sensitivity of 0.78 and specificity of 0.76) and 16% (sensitivity of 0.79 and specificity of 0.90), respectively. For ulcerative colitis patients with CRP > 10 mg/L, the thresholds with the best diagnostic performance were 80 µg/L (sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.82) for ferritin and 11% for TfS (sensitivity of 0.75 and a specificity of 0.82). There was no added value for combined ferritin and TfS. No ferritin or TfS threshold had good diagnostic performance in Crohn's disease patients (AUC for ferritin was 0.65 (95% CI 0.55-0.75) and the AUC for TfS was 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.78). CONCLUSION: Ferritin and TfS are reliable parameters for iron deficiency diagnosis only in ulcerative colitis patients, at thresholds different from current guidelines. In Crohn's disease patients, sTfR should be used given the poor diagnostic performance of ferritin and TfS.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Ferritinas/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Transferrinas/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ferritinas/análise , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transferrinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Open Heart ; 7(1): e001153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201585

RESUMO

Objectives: Iron deficiency (ID), with or without anaemia (IDA), is an important comorbidity in people with chronic heart failure (HF), but the prevalence and significance in those admitted with HF is uncertain. We assessed the prevalence of ID or IDA in adults (age ≥21 years) hospitalised with a primary diagnosis of HF, and examined key metrics associated with these secondary diagnoses. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of Hospital Episode Statistics describing all adults admitted to National Health Service (NHS) hospitals across England from April 2015 through March 2016 with primary diagnostic discharge coding as HF, with or without subsidiary coding for ID/IDA. Results: 78 805 adults were admitted to 177 NHS hospitals with primary coding as HF: 26 530 (33.7%) with secondary coding for ID/IDA, and 52 275 (66.3%) without. Proportionately more patients coded ID/IDA were admitted as emergencies (94.8% vs 87.6%; p<0.0001). Tending to be older and female, they required a longer length of stay (15.8 vs 12.2 days; p<0.0001), with higher per capita costs (£3623 vs £2918; p<0.0001), the cumulative excess expenditure being £21.5 million. HF-related (8.2% vs 5.2%; p<0.0001) and all-cause readmission rates (25.8% vs 17.7%; p<0.05) at ≤30 days were greater in those with ID/IDA against those without, and they manifested a small but statistically significant increased inpatient mortality (13.5% v 12.9%; p=0.009). Conclusions: For adults admitted to hospitals in England, principally with acute HF, ID/IDA are significant comorbidities and associated with adverse outcomes, both for affected individuals, and the health economy.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Admissão do Paciente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Anemia Ferropriva/economia , Anemia Ferropriva/terapia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Comorbidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/economia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/economia , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(10)2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144105

RESUMO

The response to iron limitation of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum was analyzed with respect to secreted metabolites, the transcriptome, and the proteome. During growth in glucose minimal medium, iron limitation caused a shift from lactate to pyruvate as the major secreted organic acid complemented by l-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate. Transcriptome and proteome analyses revealed that a pronounced iron starvation response governed by the transcriptional regulators DtxR and RipA was detectable in the late, but not in the early, exponential-growth phase. A link between iron starvation and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) biosynthesis was uncovered by the strong upregulation of thiC As phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase (ThiC) contains an iron-sulfur cluster, limiting activities of the TPP-dependent pyruvate-2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase supercomplex probably cause the excretion of pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate. In line with this explanation, thiamine supplementation could strongly diminish the secretion of these acids. The upregulation of thiC and other genes involved in thiamine biosynthesis and transport is presumably due to TPP riboswitches present at the 5' end of the corresponding operons. The results obtained in this study provide new insights into iron homeostasis in C. glutamicum and demonstrate that the metabolic consequences of iron limitation can be due to the iron dependency of coenzyme biosynthesis.IMPORTANCE Iron is an essential element for most organisms but causes problems due to poor solubility under oxic conditions and due to toxicity by catalyzing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks for iron homeostasis aiming at a sufficient iron supply while minimizing ROS formation. In our study, the responses of the actinobacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum to iron limitation were analyzed, resulting in a detailed view on the processes involved in iron homeostasis in this model organism. In particular, we provide evidence that iron limitation causes TPP deficiency, presumably due to insufficient activity of the iron-dependent phosphomethylpyrimidine synthase (ThiC). TPP deficiency was deduced from the upregulation of genes controlled by a TPP riboswitch and secretion of metabolites caused by insufficient activity of the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase and 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase. To our knowledge, the link between iron starvation and thiamine synthesis has not been elaborated previously.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Corynebacterium glutamicum/fisiologia , Ferro/deficiência , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tiamina/biossíntese , Corynebacterium glutamicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma , Transcriptoma
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech ; 1863(7): 194522, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147528

RESUMO

Eukaryotic ribonucleotide reductases are iron-dependent enzymes that catalyze the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides. Multiple mechanisms regulate the activity of ribonucleotide reductases in response to genotoxic stresses and iron deficiency. Upon iron starvation, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Aft1 transcription factor specifically binds to iron-responsive cis elements within the promoter of a group of genes, known as the iron regulon, activating their transcription. Members of the iron regulon participate in iron acquisition, mobilization and recycling, and trigger a genome-wide metabolic remodeling of iron-dependent pathways. Here, we describe a mechanism that optimizes the activity of yeast ribonucleotide reductase when iron is scarce. We demonstrate that Aft1 and the DNA-binding protein Ixr1 enhance the expression of the gene encoding for its catalytic subunit, RNR1, in response to iron limitation, leading to an increase in both mRNA and protein levels. By mutagenesis of the Aft1-binding sites within RNR1 promoter, we conclude that RNR1 activation by iron depletion is important for Rnr1 protein and deoxyribonucleotide synthesis. Remarkably, Aft1 also activates the expression of IXR1 upon iron scarcity through an iron-responsive element located within its promoter. These results provide a novel mechanism for the direct activation of ribonucleotide reductase function by the iron-regulated Aft1 transcription factor.


Assuntos
Ferro/deficiência , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Elementos de Resposta , Ribonucleotídeo Redutases/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ativação Transcricional
19.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 233, 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron (Fe) deficiency is a common problem in citrus production. As the second largest superfamily of transcription factors (TFs), the basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins have been shown to participate in the regulation of Fe homeostasis and a series of other biological and developmental processes in plants. However, this family of members in citrus and their functions in citrus Fe deficiency are still largely unknown. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a total of 128 CgbHLHs from pummelo (Citrus grandis) genome that were classified into 18 subfamilies by phylogenetic comparison with Arabidopsis thaliana bHLH proteins. All of these CgbHLHs were randomly distributed on nine known (125 genes) and one unknown (3 genes) chromosomes, and 12 and 47 of them were identified to be tandem and segmental duplicated genes, respectively. Sequence analysis showed detailed characteristics of their intron-exon structures, bHLH domain and conserved motifs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that most of CgbHLHs were annotated to the nucleus, DNA-binding transcription factor activity, response to abiotic stimulus, reproduction, post-embryonic development, flower development and photosynthesis. In addition, 27 CgbHLH proteins were predicted to have direct or indirect protein-protein interactions. Based on GO annotation, RNA sequencing data in public database and qRT-PCR results, several of CgbHLHs were identified as the key candidates that respond to iron deficiency. CONCLUSIONS: In total, 128 CgbHLH proteins were identified from pummelo, and their detailed sequence and structure characteristics and putative functions were analyzed. This study provides comprehensive information for further functional elucidation of CgbHLH genes in citrus.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ferro/deficiência , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrus/genética , Citrus/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171164

RESUMO

Iron (Fe)-deficiency causes chlorosis and growth inhibition in sunflower, an important commercial crop. This study examines whether and how arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) ameliorate Fe-deficiency symptoms in Fe-deficiency sensitive sunflower plants. AMF supplementation showed a significant improvement in plant biomass, chlorophyll score, Fv/Fm (quantum efficiency of photosystem II), and Pi_ABS (photosynthesis performance index), suggesting its beneficial effect under Fe deficiency. This AM-driven amelioration of Fe deficiency was further supported by the improvement of biochemical stress indicators, such as cell death, electrolyte leakage, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, the AMF supplementations resulted in significant improvement in Fe as well as Zn concentrations in root and shoot of sunflower under Fe deficiency. One of the primary Strategy-I responses, ferric reductase activity along with the expression of its respective gene (HaFRO1), significantly increased in roots due to AMF ensuring Fe availability in the rhizosphere under Fe deficiency. Our qPCR analysis also showed a significant upregulation of HaIRT1, HaNramp1, and HaZIP1 in roots of sunflower in the presence of AMF, suggesting that Fe and Zn transporters are concurrently involved with AMF-mediated alleviation of Fe deficiency. Further, AMF accelerates the activities of CAT and SOD, predominantly in roots to protect sunflower plants from Fe-deficiency reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study unveils the mechanistic basis of AMF to limit Fe deficiency retardation in sunflower.


Assuntos
Helianthus , Micorrizas , Eletrólitos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Helianthus/metabolismo , Helianthus/microbiologia , Ferro/deficiência , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Oxirredutases/metabolismo
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