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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 9916328, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34541001

RESUMO

Ferroptosis and inflammation induced by cerebral hemorrhage result in an excessive inflammatory response and irreversible neuronal injury. Alleviating ferroptosis might be an effective way to prevent neuroinflammatory injury and promote neural functional recovery. Pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazine (PIH), a lipophilic iron-chelating agent, has been reported to reduce excess iron-induced cytotoxicity. However, whether PIH could ameliorate the effects of hemorrhagic stroke is not completely understood. In the present study, the preventive effects of PIH in an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) mouse model were investigated. Neurological score, rotarod test, and immunofluorescence around the hematoma were assessed to evaluate the effects of PIH on hemorrhagic injury. The involvement of ferroptosis and inflammation was also examined in vitro to explore the underlying mechanism. Results showed that administration of PIH prevented neuronal cell death and reduced lipid peroxidation in Erastin-treated PC-12 cells. In vivo, mice treated with PIH after ICH attenuated neurological deficit scores. Additionally, we found PIH reduced ROS production, iron accumulation, and lipid peroxidation around the hematoma peripheral tissue. Meanwhile, ICH mice treated with PIH showed an upregulation of the key ferroptosis enzyme, glutathione peroxidase 4, and downregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. Moreover, PIH administration inhibited proinflammatory polarization and reduced interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in ICH mice. Collectively, these results demonstrated that PIH protects mice against hemorrhage stroke, which was associated with mitigation of inflammation and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoniazida/análogos & derivados , Piridoxal/análogos & derivados , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemorragia Cerebral/metabolismo , Compostos Férricos/farmacologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Ferro/metabolismo , Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia , Isoniazida/metabolismo , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/metabolismo , Piridoxal/metabolismo , Piridoxal/farmacologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5103, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429409

RESUMO

Hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia are associated with an increased risk for many cancer types and with poor outcomes in patients with established disease. Whereas the mechanisms by which this occurs are multifactorial we determine that chronic exposure of cells to 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC), an abundant circulating cholesterol metabolite, selects for cells that exhibit increased cellular uptake and/or lipid biosynthesis. These cells exhibit substantially increased tumorigenic and metastatic capacity. Notably, the metabolic stress imposed upon cells by the accumulated lipids requires sustained expression of GPX4, a negative regulator of ferroptotic cell death. We show that resistance to ferroptosis is a feature of metastatic cells and further demonstrate that GPX4 knockdown attenuates the enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic activity of 27HC resistant cells. These findings highlight the general importance of ferroptosis in tumor growth and metastasis and suggest that dyslipidemia/hypercholesterolemia impacts cancer pathogenesis by selecting for cells that are resistant to ferroptotic cell death.


Assuntos
Colesterol/metabolismo , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Homeostase , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxicolesteróis , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Células MCF-7 , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Metástase Neoplásica , Neoplasias/genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
3.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1107-1117, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385713

RESUMO

The linkage between neutrophil death and the development of autoimmunity has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we show that neutrophils from either lupus-prone mice or patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) undergo ferroptosis. Mechanistically, autoantibodies and interferon-α present in the serum induce neutrophil ferroptosis through enhanced binding of the transcriptional repressor CREMα to the glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4, the key ferroptosis regulator) promoter, which leads to suppressed expression of Gpx4 and subsequent elevation of lipid-reactive oxygen species. Moreover, the findings that mice with neutrophil-specific Gpx4 haploinsufficiency recapitulate key clinical features of human SLE, including autoantibodies, neutropenia, skin lesions and proteinuria, and that the treatment with a specific ferroptosis inhibitor significantly ameliorates disease severity in lupus-prone mice reveal the role of neutrophil ferroptosis in lupus pathogenesis. Together, our data demonstrate that neutrophil ferroptosis is an important driver of neutropenia in SLE and heavily contributes to disease manifestations.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/imunologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/patologia , Neutropenia/patologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Modulador de Elemento de Resposta do AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Camundongos , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
Nat Immunol ; 22(9): 1127-1139, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413521

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that essentially support germinal center responses where high-affinity and long-lived humoral immunity is generated. The regulation of TFH cell survival remains unclear. Here we report that TFH cells show intensified lipid peroxidation and altered mitochondrial morphology, resembling the features of ferroptosis, a form of programmed cell death that is driven by iron-dependent accumulation of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) is the major lipid peroxidation scavenger and is necessary for TFH cell survival. The deletion of GPX4 in T cells selectively abrogated TFH cells and germinal center responses in immunized mice. Selenium supplementation enhanced GPX4 expression in T cells, increased TFH cell numbers and promoted antibody responses in immunized mice and young adults after influenza vaccination. Our findings reveal the central role of the selenium-GPX4-ferroptosis axis in regulating TFH homeostasis, which can be targeted to enhance TFH cell function in infection and following vaccination.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/imunologia , Criança , Feminino , Centro Germinativo/citologia , Centro Germinativo/imunologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase/genética , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Ovalbumina , Células T Auxiliares Foliculares/imunologia , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4402, 2021 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285231

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is morphologically characterized by a synchronized plasma membrane rupture of cells in a specific section of a nephron, referred to as acute tubular necrosis (ATN). Whereas the involvement of necroptosis is well characterized, genetic evidence supporting the contribution of ferroptosis is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of ferroptosis suppressor protein 1 (Fsp1) or the targeted manipulation of the active center of the selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4cys/-) sensitize kidneys to tubular ferroptosis, resulting in a unique morphological pattern of tubular necrosis. Given the unmet medical need to clinically inhibit AKI, we generated a combined small molecule inhibitor (Nec-1f) that simultaneously targets receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and ferroptosis in cell lines, in freshly isolated primary kidney tubules and in mouse models of cardiac transplantation and of AKI and improved survival in models of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Based on genetic and pharmacological evidence, we conclude that GPX4 dysfunction hypersensitizes mice to ATN during AKI. Additionally, we introduce Nec-1f, a solid inhibitor of RIPK1 and weak inhibitor of ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/etiologia , Animais , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Epiteliais , Feminino , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HT29 , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Imidazóis/farmacologia , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Indóis/química , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Microssomos Hepáticos , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células NIH 3T3 , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/etiologia , Necrose/patologia , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Serina-Treonina Quinases de Interação com Receptores/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3644, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131139

RESUMO

Here, we identify iPLA2ß as a critical regulator for p53-driven ferroptosis upon reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced stress. The calcium-independent phospholipase iPLA2ß is known to cleave acyl tails from the glycerol backbone of lipids and release oxidized fatty acids from phospholipids. We found that iPLA2ß-mediated detoxification of peroxidized lipids is sufficient to suppress p53-driven ferroptosis upon ROS-induced stress, even in GPX4-null cells. Moreover, iPLA2ß is overexpressed in human cancers; inhibition of endogenous iPLA2ß sensitizes tumor cells to p53-driven ferroptosis and promotes p53-dependent tumor suppression in xenograft mouse models. These results demonstrate that iPLA2ß acts as a major ferroptosis repressor in a GPX4-independent manner. Notably, unlike GPX4, loss of iPLA2ß has no obvious effect on normal development or cell viability in normal tissues but iPLA2ß plays an essential role in regulating ferroptosis upon ROS-induced stress. Thus, our study suggests that iPLA2ß is a promising therapeutic target for activating ferroptosis-mediated tumor suppression without serious toxicity concerns.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/metabolismo , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Ferroptose/genética , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Fosfolipídeos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067535

RESUMO

We recently discovered an anti-ferroptotic mechanism inherent to M1 macrophages whereby high levels of NO● suppressed ferroptosis via inhibition of hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (HpETE-PE) production by 15-lipoxygenase (15LOX) complexed with PE-binding protein 1 (PEBP1). However, the mechanism of NO● interference with 15LOX/PEBP1 activity remained unclear. Here, we use a biochemical model of recombinant 15LOX-2 complexed with PEBP1, LC-MS redox lipidomics, and structure-based modeling and simulations to uncover the mechanism through which NO● suppresses ETE-PE oxidation. Our study reveals that O2 and NO● use the same entry pores and channels connecting to 15LOX-2 catalytic site, resulting in a competition for the catalytic site. We identified residues that direct O2 and NO● to the catalytic site, as well as those stabilizing the esterified ETE-PE phospholipid tail. The functional significance of these residues is supported by in silico saturation mutagenesis. We detected nitrosylated PE species in a biochemical system consisting of 15LOX-2/PEBP1 and NO● donor and in RAW264.7 M2 macrophages treated with ferroptosis-inducer RSL3 in the presence of NO●, in further support of the ability of NO● to diffuse to, and react at, the 15LOX-2 catalytic site. The results provide first insights into the molecular mechanism of repression of the ferroptotic Hp-ETE-PE production by NO●.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a Fosfatidiletanolamina/metabolismo , Araquidonato 15-Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Lipidômica , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oxirredução , Fosfatidiletanolaminas , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo
8.
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res ; 787: 108366, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083056

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous cancer with multiple subtypes affecting women worldwide. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a prominent subtype of BC with poor prognosis and an aggressive phenotype. Recent understanding of metabolic reprogramming supports its role in the growth of cancer cells and their adaptation to their microenvironment. The Warburg effect is characterized by the shift from oxidative to reductive metabolism and external secretion of lactate. The Warburg effect prevents the use of the required pyruvate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle progressing through pyruvate dehydrogenase inactivation. Therefore, it is a major regulatory mechanism to promote glycolysis and disrupt the TCA cycle. Glutamine (Gln) can supply the complementary energy for cancer cells. Additionally, it is the main substrate to support bioenergetics and biosynthetic activities in cancer cells and plays a vital role in a wide array of other processes such as ferroptosis. Thus, the switching of glucose to Gln in the TCA cycle toward reductive Gln metabolism is carried out by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) conducted through the Warburg effect. The literature suggests that the addiction of TNBC to Gln could facilitate the proliferation and invasiveness of these cancers. Thus, Gln metabolism inhibitors, such as CB-839, could be applied to manage the carcinogenic properties of TNBC. Such inhibitors, along with conventional chemotherapy agents, can potentially improve the efficiency and efficacy of TNBC treatment. In this review, we discuss the associations between glucose and Gln metabolism and control of cancer cell growth from the perspective that Gln metabolism inhibitors could improve the current chemotherapy drug effects.


Assuntos
Glutamina/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Humanos , Efeito Warburg em Oncologia
9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 796, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172811

RESUMO

Mammalian hibernators endure severe and prolonged hypothermia that is lethal to non-hibernators, including humans and mice. The mechanisms responsible for the cold resistance remain poorly understood. Here, we found that hepatocytes from a mammalian hibernator, the Syrian hamster, exhibited remarkable resistance to prolonged cold culture, whereas murine hepatocytes underwent cold-induced cell death that fulfills the hallmarks of ferroptosis such as necrotic morphology, lipid peroxidation and prevention by an iron chelator. Unexpectedly, hepatocytes from Syrian hamsters exerted resistance to cold- and drug-induced ferroptosis in a diet-dependent manner, with the aid of their superior ability to retain dietary α-tocopherol (αT), a vitamin E analog, in the liver and blood compared with those of mice. The liver phospholipid composition is less susceptible to peroxidation in Syrian hamsters than in mice. Altogether, the cold resistance of the hibernator's liver is established by the ability to utilize αT effectively to prevent lipid peroxidation and ferroptosis.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Hibernação/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Animais , Temperatura Baixa , Cricetinae , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 33-39, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ferroptosis is a new form of programmed cell death characterized by an iron-dependent increase in lipid ROS. It has recently been reported that elevated iron levels in macrophages in plaques are associated with atherosclerosis(AS). However, it is not clear whether iron induces ferroptosis and the mechanism of ferroptosis induced by iron in macrophages in plaque. METHODS: THP-1 macrophages were treated with ox-LDL and ferric ammonium citrate(FAC). Activate SIRT1 using SRT1720. Use of RAPA and CQ to promote and suppress autophagy. The expression of SIRT1, GPX4 was detected by Western Blot, and the cell activity and lipid ROS level were also performed. IL-1ß and IL-18 levels were measured using qRT-PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: In this study, we determined that FAC can induce a decrease in foam cell activity rather than macrophage activity, increase lipid ROS levels, decrease GPX4 expression and inhibit SIRT1 expression, and increase IL-1ß and IL-18 levels. SRT1720 activated SIRT1 and reversed the above changes induced by FAC. CQ partially prevents the above changes caused by activating SIRT1. CONCLUSION: Activation of SIRT1 can inhibit the ferroptosis and IL-1ß and IL-18 levels of foam cells in excess iron by autophagy, providing a novel therapeutic target for AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Espumosas/patologia , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Sobrecarga de Ferro/patologia , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Autofagia/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Sobrecarga de Ferro/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 1/genética
11.
J Exp Med ; 218(6)2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978684

RESUMO

Ferroptosis is a type of regulated necrosis that is triggered by a combination of iron toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and plasma membrane damage. The upstream inducers of ferroptosis can be divided into two categories (biological versus chemical) and activate two major pathways (the extrinsic/transporter versus the intrinsic/enzymatic pathways). Excessive or deficient ferroptotic cell death is implicated in a growing list of physiological and pathophysiological processes, coupled to a dysregulated immune response. This review focuses on new discoveries related to how ferroptotic cells and their spilled contents shape innate and adaptive immunity in health and disease. Understanding the immunological characteristics and activity of ferroptotic death not only illuminates an intersection between cell death and immunity but may also lead to the development of novel treatment approaches for immunopathological diseases.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Imunidade/fisiologia , Infecções/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia
12.
Exp Neurol ; 342: 113762, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991524

RESUMO

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Various forms of cells death are involved in the pathological process of TBI, without exception to ferroptosis, which is mainly triggered by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Although there have been studies on ferroptosis and TBI, the effect of ruxolitinib (Ruxo), one type of FDA approved drugs for treating myelofibrosis, on the process of ferroptosis post-TBI is remained non-elucidated. Therefore, using a controlled cortical impact device to establish the mouse TBI model, we examined the effect of Ruxo on TBI-induced ferroptosis, in which the inhibitor of ferroptosis, Ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1) was used as a positive control. Moreover, we also respectively explored the effects of these two interventions on neurological deficits caused by TBI. We firstly examined the expression patterns of ferroptosis-related markers at protein level at different time points after TBI. And based on the expression changes of these markers, we chose 12 h post-TBI to prove the effect of Ruxo on ferroptosis. Importantly, we found the intensely inhibitory effect of Ruxo on ferroptosis, which is in parallel with the results obtained after Fer-1-treatment. In addition, these two treatments both alleviated the content of brain water and degree of neurodegeneration in the acute phase of TBI. Finally, we further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Ruxo or Fer-1 via the wire-grip test, Morris water maze and open field test, respectively. Thereafter, the lesion volume and iron deposition were also measured to certificate their effects on the long-term outcomes of TBI. Our results ultimately demonstrate that inhibiting ferroptosis exerts neuroprotection, and this is another neuroprotective mechanism of Ruxo on TBI.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ferroptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/metabolismo , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Pirazóis/farmacologia
13.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 511, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011924

RESUMO

MYCN amplification is tightly associated with the poor prognosis of pediatric neuroblastoma (NB). The regulation of NB cell death by MYCN represents an important aspect, as it directly contributes to tumor progression and therapeutic resistance. However, the relationship between MYCN and cell death remains elusive. Ferroptosis is a newly identified cell death mode featured by lipid peroxide accumulation that can be attenuated by GPX4, yet whether and how MYCN regulates ferroptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report that MYCN-amplified NB cells are sensitive to GPX4-targeting ferroptosis inducers. Mechanically, MYCN expression reprograms the cellular iron metabolism by upregulating the expression of TFRC, which encodes transferrin receptor 1 as a key iron transporter on the cell membrane. Further, the increased iron uptake promotes the accumulation of labile iron pool, leading to enhanced lipid peroxide production. Consistently, TFRC overexpression in NB cells also induces selective sensitivity to GPX4 inhibition and ferroptosis. Moreover, we found that MYCN fails to alter the general lipid metabolism and the amount of cystine imported by System Xc(-) for glutathione synthesis, both of which contribute to ferroptosis in alternative contexts. In conclusion, NB cells harboring MYCN amplification are prone to undergo ferroptosis conferred by TFRC upregulation, suggesting that GPX4-targeting ferroptosis inducers or TFRC agonists can be potential strategies in treating MYCN-amplified NB.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/metabolismo , Antígenos CD/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Proteína Proto-Oncogênica N-Myc/genética , Neuroblastoma/genética , Neuroblastoma/patologia , Fosfolipídeo Hidroperóxido Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Receptores da Transferrina/genética
14.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(7): 1020-1034, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031600

RESUMO

Single-cell transcriptomics provide a systematic map of gene expression in different human cell types. The next challenge is to systematically understand cell-type-specific gene function. The integration of CRISPR-based functional genomics and stem cell technology enables the scalable interrogation of gene function in differentiated human cells. Here we present the first genome-wide CRISPR interference and CRISPR activation screens in human neurons. We uncover pathways controlling neuronal response to chronic oxidative stress, which is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Unexpectedly, knockdown of the lysosomal protein prosaposin strongly sensitizes neurons, but not other cell types, to oxidative stress by triggering the formation of lipofuscin, a hallmark of aging, which traps iron, generating reactive oxygen species and triggering ferroptosis. We also determine transcriptomic changes in neurons after perturbation of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases. To enable the systematic comparison of gene function across different human cell types, we establish a data commons named CRISPRbrain.


Assuntos
Ferroptose/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Saposinas/metabolismo , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Humanos , Lisossomos/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112286, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34023458

RESUMO

Higher selenium status has been shown to improve the clinical outcome of infections caused by a range of evolutionally diverse viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. However, the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host-cell selenoproteins remains elusive. The present study investigated the influence of SARS-CoV-2 on expression of selenoprotein mRNAs in Vero cells. SARS-CoV-2 triggered an inflammatory response as evidenced by increased IL-6 expression. Of the 25 selenoproteins, SARS-CoV-2 significantly suppressed mRNA expression of ferroptosis-associated GPX4, DNA synthesis-related TXNRD3 and endoplasmic reticulum-resident SELENOF, SELENOK, SELENOM and SELENOS. Computational analysis has predicted an antisense interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and TXNRD3 mRNA, which is translated with high efficiency in the lung. Here, we confirmed the predicted SARS-CoV-2/TXNRD3 antisense interaction in vitro using DNA oligonucleotides, providing a plausible mechanism for the observed mRNA knockdown. Inhibition of TXNRD decreases DNA synthesis which is thereby likely to increase the ribonucleotide pool for RNA synthesis and, accordingly, RNA virus production. The present findings provide evidence for a direct inhibitory effect of SARS-CoV-2 replication on the expression of a specific set of selenoprotein mRNAs, which merits further investigation in the light of established evidence for correlations between dietary selenium status and the outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
DNA/biossíntese , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Selenoproteínas/metabolismo , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Selenoproteínas/genética , Células Vero
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923052

RESUMO

Proper functioning of all organs, including the brain, requires iron. It is present in different forms in biological fluids, and alterations in its distribution can induce oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. However, the clinical parameters normally used for monitoring iron concentration in biological fluids (i.e., serum and cerebrospinal fluid) can hardly detect the quantity of circulating iron, while indirect measurements, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, require further validation. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in brain iron metabolism, homeostasis, and iron imbalance caused by alterations detectable by standard and non-standard indicators of iron status. These indicators for iron transport, storage, and metabolism can help to understand which biomarkers can better detect iron imbalances responsible for neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encéfalo/patologia , Ceruloplasmina/deficiência , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferritinas/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Distúrbios do Metabolismo do Ferro/metabolismo , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Transferrina/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Transferrina/metabolismo
17.
Metallomics ; 13(5)2021 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881539

RESUMO

Iron is an essential element required by cells and has been described as a key player in ferroptosis. Ferritin operates as a fundamental iron storage protein in cells forming multimeric assemblies with crystalline iron cores. We discuss the latest findings on ferritin structure and activity and its link to cell metabolism and ferroptosis. The chemistry of iron, including its oxidation states, is important for its biological functions, its reactivity, and the biology of ferritin. Ferritin can be localized in different cellular compartments and secreted by cells with a variety of functions depending on its spatial context. Here, we discuss how cellular ferritin localization is tightly linked to its function in a tissue-specific manner, and how impairment of iron homeostasis is implicated in diseases, including cancer and coronavirus disease 2019. Ferritin is a potential biomarker and we discuss latest research where it has been employed for imaging purposes and drug delivery.


Assuntos
COVID-19/metabolismo , Ferritinas/química , Ferritinas/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarcadores/química , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotecnologia , Ceruloplasmina/metabolismo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ferritinas/genética , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Glicosilação , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ferro/metabolismo , Nanotecnologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Life Sci ; 277: 119457, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831425

RESUMO

AIMS: Many antibiotics derived from mold metabolites have been found to possess anticarcinogenic properties. We aimed to investigate whether they may elicit anticancer activity, especially against nasopharyngeal carcinoma. MAIN METHODS: The response of nasopharyngeal and other carcinoma cell lines to cephalosporin antibiotics was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. MTT and clonogenic colony formation assays assessed the viability and proliferation of cultured cells. Flow cytometry was used to assess cell cycle parameters and apoptotic markers. Tumor growth was determined using a xenograft model in vivo. Microarray and RT-qPCR expression analyses investigate differential gene expression. Mechanistic assessment of HMOX1 in cefotaxime-mediated ferroptosis was tested with Protoporphyrin IX zinc. KEY FINDINGS: Cephalosporin antibiotics showed highly specific and selective anticancer activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE2 cells both in vitro and vivo with minimal toxicity. Cefotaxime sodium significantly regulated 11 anticancer relevant genes in CNE2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Pathway analyses indicate apoptotic and the ErbB-MAPK-p53 signaling pathways are significantly enriched. HMOX1 represents the top one ranked upregulated gene by COS and overlaps with 16 of 42 enriched apoptotic signaling pathways. Inhibition of HMOX1 significantly reduced the anticancer efficacy of cefotaxime in CNE2 cells. SIGNIFICANCE: Our discovery is the first to highlight the off-label potential of cephalosporin antibiotics as a specific and selective anticancer drug for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We mechanistically show that induction of ferroptosis through HMOX1 induction mediates cefotaxime anticancer activity. Our findings provide an alternative treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma by showing that existing cephalosporin antibiotics are specific and selective anticancer drugs.


Assuntos
Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefalosporinas/metabolismo , China , Ferroptose/genética , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/fisiologia , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
19.
Theranostics ; 11(12): 5650-5674, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33897873

RESUMO

Rationale: Ferroptosis, a newly identified form of regulated cell death, can be induced following the inhibition of cystine-glutamate antiporter system XC - because of the impaired uptake of cystine. However, the outcome following the accumulation of endogenous glutamate in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has not yet been determined. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is sustained by the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP)-dependent O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation), and glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GFPT1), the rate-limiting enzyme of the HBP, can be phosphorylated and inhibited by adenylyl cyclase (ADCY)-mediated activation of protein kinase A (PKA). However, whether accumulated endogenous glutamate determines ferroptosis sensitivity by influencing the ADCY/PKA/HBP/YAP axis in LUAD cells is not understood. Methods: Cell viability, cell death and the generation of lipid reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured to evaluate the responses to the induction of ferroptosis following the inhibition of system XC -. Tandem mass tags (TMTs) were employed to explore potential factors critical for the ferroptosis sensitivity of LUAD cells. Immunoblotting (IB) and quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze protein and mRNA expression. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were performed to identify protein-protein interactions and posttranslational modifications. Metabolite levels were measured using the appropriate kits. Transcriptional regulation was evaluated using a luciferase reporter assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Drug administration and limiting dilution cell transplantation were performed with cell-derived xenograft (CDX) and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models. The associations among clinical outcome, drug efficacy and ADCY10 expression were determined based on data from patients who underwent curative surgery and evaluated with patient-derived primary LUAD cells and tissues. Results: The accumulation of endogenous glutamate following system XC - inhibition has been shown to determine ferroptosis sensitivity by suppressing YAP in LUAD cells. YAP O-GlcNAcylation and expression cannot be sustained in LUAD cells upon impairment of GFPT1. Thus, Hippo pathway-like phosphorylation and ubiquitination of YAP are enhanced. ADCY10 acts as a key downstream target and diversifies the effects of glutamate on the PKA-dependent suppression of GFPT1. We also discovered that the protumorigenic and proferroptotic effects of ADCY10 are mediated separately. Advanced-stage LUADs with high ADCY10 expression are sensitive to ferroptosis. Moreover, LUAD cells with acquired therapy resistance are also prone to higher ADCY10 expression and are more likely to respond to ferroptosis. Finally, a varying degree of secondary labile iron increase is caused by the failure to sustain YAP-stimulated transcriptional compensation for ferritin at later stages further explains why ferroptosis sensitivity varies among LUAD cells. Conclusions: Endogenous glutamate is critical for ferroptosis sensitivity following the inhibition of system XC - in LUAD cells, and ferroptosis-based treatment is a good choice for LUAD patients with later-stage and/or therapy-resistant tumors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Glutamina-Frutose-6-Fosfato Transaminase (Isomerizante)/metabolismo , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
20.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 80(3): 907-925, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646161

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia, accounting for approximately 60%-80%of all cases. Although much effort has been made over the years, the precise mechanism of AD has not been completely elucidated. Recently, great attention has shifted to the roles of iron metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. We also note that these pathological events are the vital regulators of a novel regulatory cell death, termed ferroptosis-an iron-dependent, oxidative, non-apoptotic cell death. Ferroptosis differs from apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy with respect to morphology, biochemistry, and genetics. Mounting evidence suggests that ferroptosis may be involved in neurological disorders, including AD. Here, we review the underlying mechanisms of ferroptosis; discuss the potential interaction between AD and ferroptosis in terms of iron metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and the glutathione/glutathione peroxidase 4 axis; and describe some associated studies that have explored the implication of ferroptosis in AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Ferroptose/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos
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