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2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956393

RESUMO

To study the performance and mutual influence of a syncretic railway network (SRN) that comprises high-speed railway, regional railway, and urban rail transit under the condition of traffic overload during peak hours, we discuss the interdependent characteristics on cascading overload failure of SRNs under the cooperative organization from the perspective of an interdependent network. However, most existing research on cascading failure in interdependent network ignores the inconsistency between the physical structure and transportation organization of the subnetwork in an actual network, in addition to the restrictions on the load redistribution strategy of stations and sections in the load-capacity model of the interdependent network; especially, the influence of transfer behavior on the load redistribution inter subnetwork. In this study, we investigate the robustness of an interdependent SRN under overload and risk propagation. We propose a partially interdependent network model of a multimode rail transit, develop a novel cascading overload failure model with tunable parameters of load redistribution inter subnetwork, and analyze interdependent characteristics, cascade failure process, and robustness of an SRN under multiscene conditions, i.e., different attack and load distribution strategies, via simulations. A case study of an SRN in the metropolitan area of Chengdu, China is presented; the results indicate that, when the reserve coefficient of the metro subnetwork is 0.4 and the overload coefficient of the regional railway subnetwork is greater than 1.2, the station reserve capacity and overload capacity of the SRN is appropriately improved. When passenger load increases to a certain range, the reserve and overload capacities of stations in the regional railway subnetwork do not considerably contribute to robustness. Thus, a surplus load distribution strategy is recommended to improve robustness. The results of this paper have considerable significance for the planning, structural optimization, and operation safety of SRNs.


Assuntos
Ferrovias , Algoritmos , China , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Ferrovias/métodos , Urbanização
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237272, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813719

RESUMO

Interaction between hands and the environment permits the interchange of microorganisms. The Mexico City subway is used daily by millions of passengers that get in contact with its surfaces. In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize the microbiomes of frequently touched surfaces and compare regular and women-only wagons. We also explored the effect of surface cleaning on microbial resettling. Finally, we studied passenger behavior and characterized microbial changes after traveling. Most passengers (99%), showed some type of surface interaction during a wagon trip, mostly with the hands (92%). We found microbiome differences associated with surfaces, probably reflecting diverse surface materials and usage frequency. The platform floor was the most bacterial diverse surface, while the stair handrail and pole were the least diverse ones. After pole cleaning, the resettling of microbial diversity was fast (5-30 minutes); however, it did not resemble the initial composition. After traveling, passengers significantly increased their hand microbial diversity and converged to a similar microbial composition among passengers. Additionally, passenger hand microbiomes resembled subway surfaces in diversity. However, microbial fingerprints were preserved within passengers after traveling.


Assuntos
Mãos/microbiologia , Microbiota , Ferrovias , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cidades , Aglomeração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedades de Superfície , Tato
5.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 741-747, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856818

RESUMO

The article presents the results of the author's research that determines the degree of influence of monotonous (monotonous) labor processes on the drivers (and their assistants) of traction rolling stock of railway transport. Information is collected in order to develop a set of measures to overcome the monotony of work, improve the quality of working life and psychophysiological health of employees, and as a result, ensure traffic safety, improving the safety system for drivers and improving the quality of passenger transport.


Assuntos
Estresse Ocupacional , Ferrovias , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111155, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846298

RESUMO

Twenty dust samples collected from Wuchang and Wuhan Railway Stations, the biggest transport stations in the mega traffic hub city in Central China, were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate the concentration, sources apportionment, and relationship with black carbon (BC) and assess the health risk. The results suggested that the concentrations of PAHs, BC and TOC in Wuhan Railway Station (WHRS) (PAHs = 5940 ± 1920 ng g-1, BC = 53.2 ± 23.1 mg g-1 and TOC = 80.7 ± 44.4) were twice higher than those in Wuchang Railway Station (WCRS) (PAHs = 2580 ± 1630 ng g-1, BC = 20.4 ± 14.3 mg g-1 and TOC = 33.9 ± 20.1 mg g-1). Moreover, the 3 - and 4 - rings PAHs were major PAHs in railway station dust. The composition pattern of PAHs in these railway station dusts had a common characteristic with HMW-PAHs contribution. The results of source identification revealed that different local development features and energy consumption of trains would influence the sources of PAHs and BC. PAHs and BC were most likely related to industrial activities in WHRS. Coal and biomass combustion may influence the PAHs components and BC distribution in WCRS. Moreover, BC had played an important role in retaining PAHs in urban railway stations. Especially in WHRS, BC would more likely to absorb the high molecular weight PAHs, such as 4 -ring (p<0.05), 5 -ring (p<0.05) and 6 -ring (p<0.05) PAHs; while BC just played limited roles in the binding of volatile and semi-volatile organic pollutants, such as 2 -ring and 3 -ring PAHs. With the coexistence of BC and PAHs, passengers would face significant potential health risks by exposure to toxic dust in railway stations, especially for children. The cancer risk in WHRS was almost twice higher than that in WCRS, and it would tend to be stable by a semi-confined structure in the platform area.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Ferrovias , Fuligem/análise , Urbanização , Criança , China , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Humanos , Indústrias , Medição de Risco
7.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101761, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702607

RESUMO

On the battlefields of Syria, many innocent civilians have been killed or injured by sarin poisoning. In Malaysia in February 2017, a North Korean man was assassinated with VX at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. In the face of such threats, a more effective antidote against organophosphonate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is needed, one that can freely penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, which produced more than 6,000 victims, 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide was the most commonly used antidote in hospitals, but it was unable to prevent CNS damage and no other oximes have been approved for use in Japan. Ultimately, 12 people died, and many victims had severe neurological injuries or sequelae. Although more than 25 years have passed since the incident, progress has been slow in the development of a new antidote that can penetrate the BBB, restore AChE activity in the CNS, and definitely prevent brain injury. From the perspectives of countering terrorism and protecting innocent people from nerve agent attacks, the search for nerve agent antidotes should be accelerated with the goals of improving both survival and quality of life. This review gives an overview of a series of our studies on the development of a new antidote since the Tokyo subway sarin attack and emphasizes that there is unfortunately still no promising antidote for saving the CNS in Japan.


Assuntos
Antídotos , Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Inibidores da Colinesterase/envenenamento , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Ferrovias , Sarina/envenenamento , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Terrorismo Químico/prevenção & controle , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Humanos , Compostos de Pralidoxima , Sarina/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605137

RESUMO

The large-scale construction of subway systems, which is viewed as one of the potential measures to mitigate traffic congestion and its resulting air pollution and health impact, is taking place in major cities throughout China. However, the literature on the impact of the new subway line openings on particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) at the city level is scarce. Employing the Propensity Score Matching-Difference-in-differences method, this paper examines the effect of the new subway line openings on air quality in terms of PM10 in China, using the daily PM10 concentration data from January 2014 to Dececember 2017. Our finding shows that the short-term treatment effect on PM10 is more controversial. Furthermore, for different time windows, the result confirms an increase in PM10 pollution during the short term, while the subway line openings improve air quality in the longer term. In addition, we find that the treatment effect results in high PM10 pollution for cities with 1-2 million people, while it improves air quality for cities with over 2 million people. Moreover, for cities with varying levels of GDP, there is evidence of a reduction in PM10 after the subway line openings. Mechanism analysis supports the conclusion that the PM10 reduction originated from substituting the subway for driving.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Transtorno Dissociativo de Identidade , Ferrovias , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Cidades , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 144: 105683, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659490

RESUMO

This paper proposes a machine learning approach, the random survival forest (RSF) for competing risks, to investigate highway-rail grade crossing (HRGC) crash severity during a 29-year analysis period. The benefits of the RSF approach are that it (1) is a special type of survival analysis able to accommodate the competing nature of multiple-event outcomes to the same event of interest (here the competing multiple events are crash severities), (2) is able to conduct an event-specific selection of risk factors, (3) has the capability to determine long-term cumulative effects of contributors with the cumulative incidence function (CIF), (4) provides high prediction performance, and (5) is effective in high-dimensional settings. The RSF approach is able to consider complexities in HRGC safety analysis, e.g., non-linear relationships between HRGCs crash severities and the contributing factors and heterogeneity in data. Variable importance (VIMP) technique is adopted in this research for selecting the most predictive contributors for each crash-severity level. Moreover, marginal effect analysis results real several HRGC countermeasures' effectiveness. Several insightful findings are discovered. For examples, adding stop signs to HRGCs that already have a combination of gate, standard flashing lights, and audible devices will reduce the likelihood of property damage only (PDO) crashes for up to seven years; but after the seventh year, the crossings are more likely to have PDO crashes. Adding audible devices to crossing with gates and standard flashing lights will reduce crash likelihood, PDO, injury, and fatal crashes by 49 %, 52 %, 46 %, and 50 %, respectively.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Planejamento Ambiental , Ferrovias , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234003, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614842

RESUMO

Understanding which transportation modes people use is critical for smart cities and planners to better serve their citizens. We show that using information from pervasive Wi-Fi access points and Bluetooth devices can enhance GPS and geographic information to improve transportation detection on smartphones. Wi-Fi information also improves the identification of transportation mode and helps conserve battery since it is already collected by most mobile phones. Our approach uses a machine learning approach to determine the mode from pre-prepocessed data. This approach yields an overall accuracy of 89% and average F1 score of 83% for inferring the three grouped modes of self-powered, car-based, and public transportation. When broken out by individual modes, Wi-Fi features improve detection accuracy of bus trips, train travel, and driving compared to GPS features alone and can substitute for GIS features without decreasing performance. Our results suggest that Wi-Fi and Bluetooth can be useful in urban transportation research, for example by improving mobile travel surveys and urban sensing applications.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Planejamento de Cidades , Smartphone , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Transportes , Tecnologia sem Fio , Condução de Veículo , Dinamarca , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Veículos Automotores , Ferrovias , Smartphone/instrumentação , População Urbana , Caminhada
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707686

RESUMO

In this study, the indoor air quality (IAQ) was investigated in a subway station with fully enclosed platform screen doors in Beijing, China. Eight indoor air pollutants, including PM2.5, PM10, SO2 (sulfur dioxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), NH3 (ammonia), CO (carbon monoxide), CH2O (formaldehyde) and TVOC (total volatile organic compound), were measured for six consecutive days in October 2019. The results indicated that the IAQ in the subway station was basically stable at good levels for most times during the whole measurement period. All eight indoor air pollutants were far below their corresponding maximum allowable concentrations, except for the PM2.5 concentrations, which occasionally exceeded the concentration limits. The concentrations of indoor air pollutants in the subway station were basically within the corresponding standards. The correlation analyses showed that outdoor air pollutants have important influences on indoor air pollutants. The concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2 and CO in the subway station were positively correlated with their corresponding outdoor concentrations. PM10 was statistically significantly correlated with the passenger flow and train frequency, but the other air pollutants were less impacted by the passenger flow and train frequency.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Ferrovias , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e21152, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several countries adopted lockdown to slowdown the exponential transmission of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic. Disease transmission models and the epidemic forecasts at the national level steer the policy to implement appropriate intervention strategies and budgeting. However, it is critical to design a data-driven reliable model for nowcasting for smaller populations, in particular metro cities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the transition of the epidemic from subexponential to exponential transmission in the Chennai metro zone and to analyze the probability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) secondary infections while availing the public transport systems in the city. METHODS: A single geographical zone "Chennai-Metro-Merge" was constructed by combining Chennai District with three bordering districts. Subexponential and exponential models were developed to analyze and predict the progression of the COVID-19 epidemic. Probabilistic models were applied to assess the probability of secondary infections while availing public transport after the release of the lockdown. RESULTS: The model predicted that transition from subexponential to exponential transmission occurs around the eighth week after the reporting of a cluster of cases. The probability of secondary infections with a single index case in an enclosure of the city bus, the suburban train general coach, and the ladies coach was found to be 0.192, 0.074, and 0.114, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nowcasting at the early stage of the epidemic predicts the probable time point of the exponential transmission and alerts the public health system. After the lockdown release, public transportation will be the major source of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in metro cities, and appropriate strategies based on nowcasting are needed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Epidemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Saúde Pública , Transportes , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Veículos Automotores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ferrovias , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492976

RESUMO

Early decision-making and the prevention of construction safety risks are very important for the safety, quality, and cost of construction projects. In the field of construction safety risk management, in the face of a loose, chaotic, and huge information environments, how to design an efficient construction safety risk management decision support method has long been the focus of academic research. An effective approach to safety management is to structuralize safety risk knowledge, then identify and reuse it, and establish a scientific and systematic construction safety risk management decision system. Based on ontology and improved case-based reasoning (CBR) methods, this paper proposes a decision-making approach for construction safety risk management in which the reasoning process is improved by integrating a similarity algorithm and correlation algorithm. Compared to the traditional CBR approach in which only the similarity of information is considered, this method can avoid missing important correlated information by making inferences from multiple sources of information. Finally, the method is applied to the safety risks of subway construction for verification to show that the method is effective and easy to implement.


Assuntos
Ferrovias , Gestão da Segurança , Algoritmos , Resolução de Problemas , Gestão de Riscos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481717

RESUMO

Pedestrian evacuation risk of subway stations is an important concern in city management, as it not only endangers public safety but also affects the efficiency of urban subway transportation. Determination of how to effectively evaluate the pedestrian evacuation risk of subway stations is of great significance to improve pedestrian safety. Previous studies about the pedestrian evacuation of subway station were primarily focused on pedestrian moving behaviors and the evacuation modeling, and the evacuation scenario is the regular subway operation. There is a dearth of studies to quantify the pedestrian evacuation risk in the evacuation process, especially the pedestrian evacuation risk quantitative characterization of subway station in large-scale sport activity. The current study develops a quantitative pedestrian evacuation risk assessment model that integrates pedestrian stampede probability and pedestrian casualty. Then several different simulation scenarios based on the social force model (SFM) are simulated to evaluate the pedestrian evacuation risk of the "Olympic Park Station" in Beijing, China. The results demonstrate that the pedestrian evacuation method, pedestrian stampede location, and distance from the stampede location to the ticket gate have a large impact on pedestrian evacuation risk. Then, the pedestrian evacuation scenarios with the lowest and highest risk for the "Olympic Park Station" in large-scale sport activity are determined. The findings have potential applications in pedestrian safety protection of subway station during large-scale sports activity.


Assuntos
Pedestres , Ferrovias , Pequim , China , Humanos , Medição de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234967, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Tokyo subway sarin attack in 1995 was an unprecedented act of terrorism that killed 13 people and sickened more than 6,000. The long-term somatic and psychological effects on its victims remain unknown. METHODS: We conducted analyses on the self-rating questionnaire collected annually by the Recovery Support Center (RSC) during the period from 2000 to 2009. The RSC is the only organization that has large-scale follow-up data about sarin attack victims. The prevalence of self-reported symptoms was calculated over 10 years. We also evaluated the prevalence of posttraumatic stress response (PTSR), defined as a score ≥ 25 on the Japanese-language version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. The multivariate Poisson regression model was applied to estimate the risk ratios of age, gender, and year factor on the prevalence of PTSR. RESULTS: Subjects were 747 survivors (12% of the total) who responded to the annual questionnaire once or more during the study period. The prevalence of somatic symptoms, especially eye symptoms, was 60-80% and has not decreased. PTSR prevalence was 35.1%, and again there was no change with time. The multivariate Poisson regression model results revealed "old age" and "female" as independent risk factors, but the passage of time did not decrease the risk of PTSR. CONCLUSIONS: Although symptoms in most victims of the Tokyo subway sarin were transient, this large-scale follow-up data analysis revealed that survivors have been suffering from somatic and psychological long-term effects.


Assuntos
Terrorismo Químico , Substâncias para a Guerra Química/envenenamento , Miose/epidemiologia , Sarina/envenenamento , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miose/induzido quimicamente , Prevalência , Ferrovias , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Tóquio/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32511242

RESUMO

A multi-cell tube enhances the energy absorption considerably compared to the absorption of a single tube under the same conditions. A novel tube configuration, namely, a multi-cell hexagonal tube, was proposed in this paper. The multi-cell tubes consist of three basic elements: a 2-panel element and two 3-panel elements (I and II). Simplified super folding element theory was utilized to estimate the energy dissipation of the basic elements. Based on this estimation, a theoretical expression for the mean crushing force was developed for the proposed tubes. The relative errors between a simulation, an experiment and theoretical results were no more than 5%. The effects of the hexagonal tube size and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the multi-cell tubes were investigated. To a certain extent, the energy absorption and peak crushing force increased as the tube size and thickness increased. The response surface method (RSM) and the multi-objective non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) were used to improve the crashworthiness of the tube, and Pareto fronts were achieved. Finally, it was concluded that the optimal solution is C = 45 mm, t1 = 3.0 mm, and t2 = 2.35 mm, and the corresponding SEA and PCF were 16.52 kJ/kg and 411.36 kN, respectively.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Modelos Teóricos , Ferrovias , Metais/química , Termodinâmica
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471100

RESUMO

Medical innovation has a profound impact on public health, and it is always of social concern to encourage innovation and enhance the value in health care delivery. Based on a sample of China's listed firms in the medical industry from 2007 to 2018, this paper highlights the independent and mixed roles of informatization and high-speed rail in public medical innovation. The results show that informatization at network space and high-speed rail at physical space effectively promote the innovation of medical enterprises. In addition, "online" information technology and "offline" high-speed rail technology have a synergistic effect on medical innovation, especially in areas with a low level of innovation. The conclusion supports the positive significance of technology in the application of public health and proposes that the construction of smart society is very important to public health.


Assuntos
Tecnologia Biomédica/tendências , Setor de Assistência à Saúde , Invenções , Ferrovias/classificação , China , Saúde Pública , Tecnologia
18.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127155, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470739

RESUMO

In this study we investigated the bioaccumulation of selected trace elements in lichen samples transplanted for three months in Milan, Italy, with the aim of assessing the main environmental contaminants and the overall pollution load, and of disentangling the main air pollution sources as well as of estimating fluxes of element deposition. The results highlighted Cu and Sb as important contaminants and suggested a common origin for these two elements from railways and non-exhaust sources of vehicular traffic such as brake abrasion. High or very high global air pollution emerged for all study sites. Source apportionment outlined three main factors, that found reliable correlation with distance from major roads and railways, an industrial plant, and soil resuspension. Ranges of estimated mean annual element deposition rates in the study area were similar to those reported for other cities.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Biológico/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Líquens/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Antimônio/análise , Cidades , Cobre/análise , Itália , Ferrovias , Solo
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447897

RESUMO

Objective: To identify the process nodes and types of dust existing during subway construction, evaluate the occupational health risk assessment, analyze the key control points, and provide technical basis for occupational health management. Methods: From August 2017 to December 2018, the field occupational health survey method was used to investigate the whole construction period of subway, and the occupational health risk assessment method was used to assess the degree of dust hazard, and the consistency of the assessment results of ICMM, UQ and MLSP methods were compared. Results: The dust in the operation site exists in multiple nodes of the construction cycle, and the operators were exposed to a variety of dust at the same time. Concrete workers and other jobs were key control posts. The risk level assessed by ICMM method was relatively higher than that by UQ method and MLSP method, the latter two results were relatively close. Conclusion: The three occupational health risk assessment methods are all suitable for the site risk assessment without occupational monitoring data, and UQ method has better applicability to the construction industry.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Poeira/análise , Exposição Ocupacional , Ferrovias , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Medição de Risco
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